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1.
Environ Res ; 177: 108660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have estimated the association between meteorological factors and mumps outbreaks without assessing the influence of air pollution. In this research, we explored the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on the incidence of mumps. METHODS: Our time-series analysis was conducted using data collected in Wuhan, China from 2015 to 2017. Daily number of mumps cases was obtained from Disease Reporting System in Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Data on air pollution was obtained from 10 national air quality monitoring stations, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter less than or equal to 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Daily meteorological data including temperature and relative humidity were obtained from Hubei Meteorological Bureau. We performed a Poisson regression in generalized additive models (GAM) to explore the association between the incidence of mumps and exposure to air pollution. RESULTS: We observed that the effects of air pollutants were statistically significant mainly in two periods, lag 0 to lag 5 and lag 20 to lag 25, with the strongest effects appearing at lag 2 and lag 23. The cumulative effects were stronger than single-day lag effects. The stratified analysis showed the effect of pollutants during the hot season was stronger than that during the cold season, especially for NO2 and SO2. CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to NO2 and SO2 was significantly associated with higher risk of developing mumps. Our findings could help deepen the understanding of how air pollution exposure affects the incidence of mumps.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
2.
JAMA ; 322(6): 546-556, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408135

RESUMO

Importance: While air pollutants at historical levels have been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, it is not known whether exposure to contemporary air pollutant concentrations is associated with progression of emphysema. Objective: To assess the longitudinal association of ambient ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and black carbon exposure with change in percent emphysema assessed via computed tomographic (CT) imaging and lung function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Air and Lung Studies conducted in 6 metropolitan regions of the United States, which included 6814 adults aged 45 to 84 years recruited between July 2000 and August 2002, and an additional 257 participants recruited from February 2005 to May 2007, with follow-up through November 2018. Exposures: Residence-specific air pollutant concentrations (O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon) were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models incorporating cohort-specific monitoring, determined from 1999 through the end of follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: Percent emphysema, defined as the percent of lung pixels less than -950 Hounsfield units, was assessed up to 5 times per participant via cardiac CT scan (2000-2007) and equivalent regions on lung CT scans (2010-2018). Spirometry was performed up to 3 times per participant (2004-2018). Results: Among 7071 study participants (mean [range] age at recruitment, 60 [45-84] years; 3330 [47.1%] were men), 5780 were assigned outdoor residential air pollution concentrations in the year of their baseline examination and during the follow-up period and had at least 1 follow-up CT scan, and 2772 had at least 1 follow-up spirometric assessment, over a median of 10 years. Median percent emphysema was 3% at baseline and increased a mean of 0.58 percentage points per 10 years. Mean ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and NOx, but not O3, decreased substantially during follow-up. Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NOx, and black carbon at study baseline were significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema per 10 years (O3: 0.13 per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.03-0.24]; PM2.5: 0.11 per 2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.03-0.19]; NOx: 0.06 per 10 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.01-0.12]; black carbon: 0.10 per 0.2 µg/m3 [95% CI, 0.01-0.18]). Ambient O3 and NOx concentrations, but not PM2.5 concentrations, during follow-up were also significantly associated with greater increases in percent emphysema. Ambient O3 concentrations, but not other pollutants, at baseline and during follow-up were significantly associated with a greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second per 10 years (baseline: 13.41 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 0.7-26.1]; follow-up: 18.15 mL per 3 parts per billion [95% CI, 1.59-34.71]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study conducted between 2000 and 2018 in 6 US metropolitan regions, long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants was significantly associated with increasing emphysema assessed quantitatively using CT imaging and lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(3): 387-399, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to analyze the relationship between the selected chemical air pollutants found in the Lublin Province and the semen parameters of men seeking fertility treatment for the first time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved an analysis of semen sample test results obtained from male patients first reporting for fertility treatment in reproductive health centers in the Lublin Province, Poland. The data set comprises semen parameters of 13 148 men, and the number of samples in the reference period was 255-769 annually. Data on air pollution were obtained from the website of the Polish General Environmental Inspectorate and included selected chemical air pollutant levels, i.e., NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10. RESULTS: The mean PM10 levels in the air increased, on average, by 0.65 µg/m3 annually in 2000-2015 (p = 0.029); the mean levels of O3, NO2, SO2 did not change significantly in the analyzed period. There were increasing trends in the mean sperm density and total sperm count of the subjects in 1992-2015 (p < 0.001). The mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology significantly decreased in the subsequent analysis periods: 1992-1998 (p = 0.001); 1999-2009 (p < 0.001); 2010-2015 (p = 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between the ozone levels in the air in the Lublin Province and the percentage of sperm with normal morphology (r = -0.8311, p = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ozone in the air contributes to decreased percentages of sperm with normal sperm morphology. Over the years, there was an increasing trend in sperm density in the men first reporting for fertility treatment, and a decreasing trend in the percentage of sperm with normal morphology. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(3):387-99.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Polônia , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos
4.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(2): 97-100, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To clarify the genotoxicity induced by acute exposure of ozone with different concentrations on pulmonary cells in rats. METHODS: Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (filtered air exposure) and ozone exposure group (0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 2.0 ppm, 4.0 ppm) with 6 in each group. After rats were exposed to different concentrations of ozone for 4 h, lung tissues were taken and single cells were isolated. Then, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was quantitatively detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Comet assay, micronucleus test and DNA- protein cross-linking assay were used to analyze DNA and chromosome damages. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the content of 8-OHdG in lung tissue was increased significantly from the ozone exposure concentration of 0.12 ppm, reaching the highest value at 0.5 ppm. With the increase of ozone exposure concentration, the tail rate of comets was increased gradually, and there was a significant dose-effect relationship. The cross-linking rate of DNA- protein was increased first and then was decreased with a maximum value at 2.0 ppm group. Although the micronucleus rate of lung cells showed an upward trend, there was no significant difference compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure of ozone at low concentrations (0.12 ppm) could lead to DNA damage in the pulmonary cells of rats, while no significant chromosome damage was found even in the group with ozone concentration reached to 4 ppm.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Pulmão/patologia , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ensaio Cometa , Pulmão/citologia , Testes para Micronúcleos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 269, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254073

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common pediatric disease in the USA. It has been consistently demonstrated that asthma symptoms are exacerbated by exposure to ozone. Ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant produced when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx). At ground level, elevated ozone is typically formed as a result of human activities. However, wildfires represent an additional source of ozone precursors. Recent evidence suggests that smoke can increase ozone concentrations. We estimated the number of excess asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits in children with asthma that may be attributed to elevated ozone associated with smoke (EOAS) in the USA. We conducted a quantitative burden assessment (BA) using a Monte Carlo approach to estimate the median number of excess pediatric asthma ED visits that may be attributed to EOAS among children with asthma in the continental USA between 2005 and 2014, as well as 95% confidence bounds (95% CB). We estimated that a median of 2403 (95% CB 235-5382) pediatric asthma ED visits could be attributed to EOAS exposure between 2005 and 2014 in the continental USA. Furthermore, the impact of EOAS on estimated asthma ED visits was greatest in the eastern half of the continental USA. We found a significant increase in pediatric asthma ED visits that may be attributed to exposure to EOAS. EOAS may have a measurable negative impact on children with asthma in the USA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio/análise , Fumaça/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Atmosfera , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oxirredução , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Pediatria , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Incêndios Florestais
6.
JAMA ; 321(19): 1906-1915, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112259

RESUMO

Importance: Exposure to air pollutants is a well-established cause of asthma exacerbation in children; whether air pollutants play a role in the development of childhood asthma, however, remains uncertain. Objective: To examine whether decreasing regional air pollutants were associated with reduced incidence of childhood asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multilevel longitudinal cohort drawn from 3 waves of the Southern California Children's Health Study over a period of air pollution decline. Each cohort was followed up from 4th to 12th grade (8 years): 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2006-2014. Final follow-up for these data was June 2014. Population-based recruitment was from public elementary schools. A total of 4140 children with no history of asthma and residing in 1 of 9 Children's Health Study communities at baseline were included. Exposures: Annual mean community-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) and less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in the baseline year for each of 3 cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prospectively identified incident asthma, collected via questionnaires during follow-up. Results: Among the 4140 children included in this study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 9.5 [0.6] years; 52.6% female [n = 2 179]; 58.6% white [n = 2273]; and 42.2% Hispanic [n = 1686]), 525 incident asthma cases were identified. For nitrogen dioxide, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for asthma was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71-0.90) for a median reduction of 4.3 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.83 cases per 100 person-years. For PM2.5, the IRR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98) for a median reduction of 8.1 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 1.53 cases per 100 person-years. For ozone, the IRR for asthma was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.02) for a median reduction of 8.9 parts per billion, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.78 cases per 100 person-years. For PM10, the IRR was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.07) for a median reduction of 4.0 µg/m3, with an absolute incidence rate decrease of 0.46 cases per 100 person-years. Conclusions and Relevance: Among children in Southern California, decreases in ambient nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 between 1993 and 2014 were significantly associated with lower asthma incidence. There were no statistically significant associations for ozone or PM10.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 272-280, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059871

RESUMO

Although many studies have reported the negative effects of elevated O3 on plant physiological characteristics, the influence of elevated O3 on below-ground processes and soil microbial functioning is less studied. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated O3 on soil properties, soil microbial biomass, as well as microbial community composition using high-throughput sequencing. Throughout one growing season, one-year old seedlings of two important endemic trees in subtropical China: Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. var. chinensis, and Machilus ichangensis Rehd. Et Wils, were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF as control), 100 nl l-1 (E100) or 150 nl l-1 (E150) O3-enriched air, in open top chambers (OTCs). We found that only higher O3 exposure (E150) significantly decreased soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in M. ichangensis, and the contents of organic matter were significantly decreased by E150 in both tree species. Although both levels of O3 exposure decreased NO3-N in T. chinensis, only E150 increased NO3-N in M. ichangensis, and there were no effects of O3 on NH4-N. Moreover, elevated O3 elicited changes in soil microbial community structure and decreased fungal diversity in both M. ichangensis and T. chinensis. However, even though O3 exposure reduced bacterial diversity in M. ichangensis, no effect of O3 exposure on bacterial diversity was detected in soil grown with T. chinensis. Our results showed that elevated O3 altered the abundance of bacteria and fungi in general, and in particular reduced nitrifiers and increased the relative abundance of some fungal taxa capable of denitrification, which may stimulate N2O emissions. Overall, our findings indicate that elevated O3 not only impacts the soil microbial community structure, but may also exert an influence on the functioning of microbial communities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Carbono/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/fisiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lauraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Lauraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Taxus/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Chemosphere ; 227: 191-197, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986601

RESUMO

While increasing evidence suggests that ozone (O3) exposure is associated with adverse birth outcomes, only one study has focused on its impact on the premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Therefore, we thus examined the effect of O3 on PROM in Xinxiang, China, using an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model. Several confounding factors, including meteorological factors, temporal trends, the day of the week, and public holidays, were considered in the model. We identified a total of 3255 instances of PROM from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017, and there was a significant association between the daily maximum 8-h mean concentrations (O3-8h) and PROM. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 3-day average concentration (lag02) of O3-8h corresponded to an increment in PROM of 5.42% (95% CI: 1.45-9.39%). Although the results of the stratified analyses were insignificant, a few trending results were observed: stronger associations between O3 and PROM would occur in women with advanced age (≥35) or during the warm season than those in younger women (<35) or during the cool season. Our study indicates that O3 exposure is an important risk factor of PROM and should be considered in its prevention and control in the study area.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/induzido quimicamente , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Ozônio/análise , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917598

RESUMO

Background: Environmental factors determine children's health. Quantifying the health impacts related to environmental hazards for children is essential to prioritize interventions to improve health in Europe. Objective: This study aimed to assess the burden of childhood disease due to environmental risks across the European Union. Methods: We conducted an environmental burden of childhood disease assessment in the 28 countries of the EU (EU28) for seven environmental risk factors (particulate matter less than 10 micrometer of diameter (PM10) and less than 2.5 micrometer of diameter (PM2.5), ozone, secondhand smoke, dampness, lead, and formaldehyde). The primary outcome was disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), assessed from exposure data provided by the World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease project, scientific literature, and epidemiological risk estimates. Results: The seven studied environmental risk factors for children in the EU28 were responsible for around 211,000 DALYs annually. Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) was the main environmental risk factor, producing 59% of total DALYs (125,000 DALYs), followed by secondhand smoke with 20% of all DALYs (42,500 DALYs), ozone 11% (24,000 DALYs), dampness 6% (13,000 DALYs), lead 3% (6200 DALYs), and formaldehyde 0.2% (423 DALYs). Conclusions: Environmental exposures included in this study were estimated to produce 211,000 DALYs each year in children in the EU28, representing 2.6% of all DALYs in children. Among the included environmental risk factors, air pollution (particulate matter and ozone) was estimated to produce the highest burden of disease in children in Europe, half of which was due to the effects of PM10 on infant mortality. Effective policies to reduce environmental pollutants across Europe are needed.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença , Europa (Continente) , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Umidade , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897769

RESUMO

There is an increasing body of evidence showing the impact of air pollutants on human health such as on the respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular systems. In China, as people begin to pay more attention to air quality, recent research focused on the quantitative assessment of the effects of air pollutants on human health. To assess the health effects of air pollutants and to construct an indicator placing emphasis on health impact, a generalized additive model was selected to assess the health burden caused by air pollution. We obtained Baidu indices (an evaluation indicator launched by Baidu Corporation to reflect the search popularity of keywords from its search engine) to assess daily query frequencies of 25 keywords considered associated with air pollution-related diseases. Moreover, we also calculated the daily concentrations of major air pollutants (including PM10, PM2.5, SO2, O3, NO2, and CO) and the daily air quality index (AQI) values, and three meteorological factors: daily mean wind level, daily mean air temperature, and daily mean relative humidity. These data cover the area of Beijing from 1 March 2015 to 30 April 2017. Through the analysis, we produced the relative risks (RRs) of the six main air pollutants for respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. The results showed that O3 and NO2 have the highest health impact, followed by PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of any pollutant on cardiovascular diseases was consistently higher than on respiratory diseases. Furthermore, we evaluated the currently used AQI in China and proposed an RR-based index (health AQI, HAQI) that is intended for better indicating the effects of air pollutants on respiratory, and cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than AQI. A higher Pearson correlation coefficient between HAQI and RRTotal than that between AQI and RRTotal endorsed our efforts.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Monóxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Dióxido de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Vento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901873

RESUMO

In this study, the effects on daily mortality in Stockholm associated with short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (measured as number of particles with a diameter larger than 4 nm, PNC4), black carbon (BC) and coarse particles (PM2.5⁻10) have been compared with the effects from more common traffic-pollution indicators (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) and O3 during the period 2000⁻2016. Air pollution exposure was estimated from measurements at a 20 m high building in central Stockholm. The associations between daily mortality lagged up to two days (lag 02) and the different air pollutants were modelled by using Poisson regression. The pollutants with the strongest indications of an independent effect on daily mortality were O3, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10. In the single-pollutant model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1⁻3.0) for lag 01 and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.0⁻2.9) for lag 02. An IQR increase in PM2.5⁻10 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1⁻1.5) for lag 01 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4⁻1.8) for lag 02. PM10 was associated with a significant increase only at lag 02, with 0.8% (95% CI: 0.08⁻1.4) increase in daily mortality associated with an IQR increase in the concentration. NO2 exhibits negative associations with mortality. The significant excess risk associated with O3 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, BC and NO2. The significant excess risk associated with PM2.5⁻10 remained significant in a two-pollutant model after adjustment for NO2. The significantly negative associations for NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5⁻10, O3 and BC. A potential reason for these findings, where statistically significant excess risks were found for O3, PM2.5⁻10 and PM10, but not for NO2, PM2.5, PNC4 and BC, is behavioral factors that lead to misclassification in the exposure. The concentrations of O3 and PM2.5⁻10 are in general highest during sunny and dry days during the spring, when exposure to outdoor air tend to increase, while the opposite applies to NO2, PNC4 and BC, with the highest concentrations during the short winter days with cold weather, when people are less exposed to outdoor air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(3): 775-803, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810564

RESUMO

The composition of the air we breathe is determined by emissions, weather, and photochemical transformations induced by solar UV radiation. Photochemical reactions of many emitted chemical compounds can generate important (secondary) pollutants including ground-level ozone (O3) and some particulate matter, known to be detrimental to human health and ecosystems. Poor air quality is the major environmental cause of premature deaths globally, and even a small decrease in air quality can translate into a large increase in the number of deaths. In many regions of the globe, changes in emissions of pollutants have caused significant changes in air quality. Short-term variability in the weather as well as long-term climatic trends can affect ground-level pollution through several mechanisms. These include large-scale changes in the transport of O3 from the stratosphere to the troposphere, winds, clouds, and patterns of precipitation. Long-term trends in UV radiation, particularly related to the depletion and recovery of stratospheric ozone, are also expected to result in changes in air quality as well as the self-cleaning capacity of the global atmosphere. The increased use of substitutes for ozone-depleting substances, in response to the Montreal Protocol, does not currently pose a significant risk to the environment. This includes both the direct emissions of substitutes during use and their atmospheric degradation products (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid, TFA).


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Mudança Climática , Ozônio Estratosférico/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Ecossistema , Saúde , Humanos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Perda de Ozônio , Reprodução , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 587-595, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726767

RESUMO

Larch (Larix sp.) tree is a critical species for the future afforestation in Northeast Asia. The impacts of elevated concentrations of ground-level ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition are raising concerns. However, knowledge of the combined effects of elevated O3 and N loading are still limited. We investigated whether nitrogen loading mitigates the negative impacts of ozone on two larch species: the Japanese larch (L. kaempferi) and its hybrid larch F1 (L. gmelinii var. japonica × L. kaempferi) or not. We used open-top cambers and compared responses of the larch seedlings. Results showed the N loading mitigated the negative effects of O3 on Japanese larch. However, in hybrid larch F1, N loading did not mitigate O3-induced inhibition of growth and photosynthetic capacity. Mitigation effect of N loading on negative O3 impacts may vary between the two Larix spp., Hybrid larch F1 could be more affected by the combined effects of O3 and N loading due to its higher growth response to N loading. Elevated O3 also reduced leaf nitrogen/phosphorus (N/P) ratio by elevated O3, with significant effects in hybrid larch F1, particularly under N loading. In the present study, leaf N/P ratio was utilized to validate the hypothesis that a positive effect of N loading may be observed if O3 does not induce P limitation in Larix spp. We demonstrated a potential leaf N/P ratio function, which could reflect responses to O3 and N loading in hybrid larch F1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Larix/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Larix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717203

RESUMO

Ozone therapy has been widely used in everyday clinical practice over the last few years, leading to significant clinical results in the treatment of herniated discs and pain management. Nevertheless, further studies have demonstrated its potential efficacy and safety under other clinical and experimental conditions. However, some of these studies showed controversial results regarding the safety and efficacy of ozone therapy, thus mining its potential use in an everyday clinical practice. To this regard, it should be considered that extensive literature review reported the use of ozone in a significant different dose range and with different delivery systems. The aim of the present review is to describe the various pharmacological effects of ozone in different organs and clinical conditions and to provide possible biochemical and molecular insights for ozone biological properties, thus providing a possible explanation for various controversial clinical outcomes described in the scientific literature.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Dor/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Dermatopatias/terapia , Doença Aguda , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiotaxia/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Disco Intervertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Disco Intervertebral/imunologia , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/genética , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/imunologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/genética , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/imunologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Dor/genética , Dor/imunologia , Dor/patologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Substâncias Protetoras/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
15.
Hautarzt ; 70(3): 163-168, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747245

RESUMO

Tropospheric (ground level) ozone (O3) is a secondary pollutant, emerging from other pollutants in the sunshine. Exposure to O3 correlates with higher pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality and affects reproductive health and the central nervous system acutely and chronically. Skin might be a potentially overlooked target organ of ambient O3. The experimental evidence suggests a positive correlation of O3 exposure with oxidative damage, impaired antioxidant defence and proinflammatory response in the skin. In time series studies it was observed that acute rises in O3 levels correlated with seeking medical help for skin conditions; however, whether these findings are specific to O3, is not yet clear. There is preliminary epidemiological evidence that long-term exposure to O3 is associated with premature skin aging. This finding was independent of co-exposure to other environmental factors affecting skin (e.g. ultraviolet radiation and air pollution). As concentrations of O3 are rising in many regions of the world, adverse cutaneous effects of O3 present a relevant public health concern.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Saúde Pública , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 10941-10950, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783934

RESUMO

In recent years, concerns over the issue of air pollution have increased as one of the significant environmental and health problems. Air pollutants can be toxic or harmful to the life of plants, animals, and humans. Contrast to primary pollutants, ozone is a secondary pollutant that is produced by the reaction between primary precursors in the atmosphere. The average of air pollutant data was compiled for the purpose of analyzing their correlation with the pulmonary function of students and the FENO biomarker from the air pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. According to the average of 3 days, the concentration of ozone in the (S3) region was higher than the other regions, and this level was significantly different from the ANOVA test (p < 0.05). The results of artificial neural network modeling for three particular combinations in the cold season, two hidden layers with 9 and 12 neurons, with R2 = 0.859 and in the warm season, layer with 13 neurons, with R2 = 0.74, showed the best performance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Expiração , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Ozônio/análise , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estações do Ano
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1265-1277, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677989

RESUMO

Lithuania is representative of maritime to continental climate, no water limitation, and moderate ground-level ozone (O3) pollution. We investigated the trends of meteorological variables and O3 and how these environmental conditions associate with tree health from 2001 onward. Ozone metrics for forest protection, based on Accumulated O3 exposure Over a Threshold of X ppb (AOTX) or on Phytotoxic O3 Dose over a Y threshold (PODY), were modeled at nine ICP-Forests plots over the time period 2001-2014. Tree-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation and visible foliar O3 injury, were assessed during annual field surveys carried out at each ICP-Forests plot over the time period 2007-2017. Mann-Kendall and Sen statistical tests were applied to estimate changes over time of meteorological variables, response indicators and O3 metrics. Finally, the O3 metrics were correlated (Spearman test) to the response indicators over the common period 2007-2014. Over this time period, trend analyses revealed an increasingly hotter (+0.27 °C decade-1, on average) and drier climate (rainfall, -48 mm decade-1). A reduction was found for O3 annual mean (-0.28 ppb decade-1, on average) and AOT40 (-2540 ppb·h decade-1, on average) whereas an increase was found for POD0 (+0.40 mmol m-2 decade-1, on average). Visible foliar O3 injury increased (+0.17% decade-1), while an improvement of the crown conditions (-5.0% decade-1) was observed. AOT40 was significantly associated with crown defoliation while PODY and soil water content were correlated with visible foliar O3 injury. As visible foliar O3 injury was negligible in all the studied species, the results suggest that moderate O3 pollution (approximately 30 ppb as annual average) does not induce biologically significant effects on this forest vegetation under the current conditions, however the overall O3 risk (POD0) is expected to increase in the future under a hotter and drier climate.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Árvores/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Lituânia , Ozônio/análise , Árvores/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 260-268, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640094

RESUMO

Reduced belowground carbon (C) allocation by plants exposed to ozone may change properties and activities of the microbial community in soils. To investigate how soil microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activities respond to elevated ozone, we collected soils from a temperate grassland after four years of ozone exposure under fully open-air field conditions. We measured soil microbial biomass, the metabolism of low molecular weight C substrates and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities in both bulk soil and isolated aggregates to assess changes in microbial activity and community function. After four years of elevated ozone treatment, soil total organic C was reduced by an average of 20% compared with ambient condition. Elevated ozone resulted in a small but insignificant reduction (4-10%) in microbial biomass in both bulk soil and isolated aggregates. Activities of extracellular enzymes were generally not affected by elevated ozone, except ß-glucosidase, whose activity in bulk soil was significantly lower under elevated ozone than ambient condition. Activities of ß-glucosidase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase were higher in microaggregates (<0.25 mm) as compared to macroaggregates (>0.25 mm). Elevated ozone had no effects on mineralization rates of low molecular weight C substrates in both bulk soil and isolated aggregates. We therefore conclude that the size and activity rather than function of the soil microbial community in this semi-natural grassland are altered by elevated ozone.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , País de Gales , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 656: 1091-1101, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625641

RESUMO

Passiflora edulis Sims is a liana species of high economic interest and is an interesting model plant for understanding ozone action on disturbed vegetation. In this work we hypothesized that P. edulis has adaptive responses to oxidative stress that enable it to tolerate ozone damage based on its capacity to grow under a diversity of environmental conditions and to dominate disturbed areas. We exposed seedlings to three levels of ozone in a Free-Air Controlled Exposure (FACE) system (22, 41 and 58 ppb h AOT40 and 13.52, 17.24 and 20.62 mmol m-2 POD0, over 97 days) for identifying its tolerance mechanisms. Anatomical (leaf blade structure and fluorescence emission of chloroplast metabolites), physiological (leaf gas exchange, growth rate and biomass production) and biochemical (pigments, total sugars, starch, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolites, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation derivatives) responses were assessed. Ozone caused decreased total number of leaves, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the mesophyll cells, and accelerated leaf senescence. However, O3 did not affect carbohydrates content, net photosynthetic rate, or total biomass production, indicating that the carboxylation efficiency and associated physiological processes were not affected. In addition, P. edulis showed higher leaf contents of ascorbic acid, glutathione (as well high ratio between their reduced and total forms), carotenoids, and flavonoids located in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Our results indicate that P. edulis is an O3-tolerant species due to morphological acclimation responses and an effective antioxidant defense system represented by non-enzymatic antioxidants, which maintained the cellular redox balance under ozone.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Passiflora/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Passiflora/anatomia & histologia , Passiflora/química , Passiflora/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plântula/anatomia & histologia , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/fisiologia
20.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 1, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the association between air pollution and preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestation) but findings have been inconsistent. These associations may be more difficult to detect than associations with other adverse birth outcomes because of the different duration of exposure in preterm vs. term births, and the existence of seasonal cycles in incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: We analyzed data pertaining to 1,001,700 singleton births occurring between 1999 and 2008 in 24 Canadian cities where daily air pollution data were available from government monitoring sites. In the first stage, data were analyzed in each city employing Cox proportional hazards models using gestational age in days as the time scale, obtaining city-specific hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed per interquartile range (IQR) of each air pollutant. Effects were examined using distributed lag functions for lags of 0-6 days prior to delivery, as well as cumulative lags from two to six days. We accounted for the potential nonlinear effect of daily mean ambient temperature using a cubic B-spline with three internal knots. In the second stage, we pooled the estimated city-specific hazard ratios using a random effects model. RESULTS: Pooled estimates across 24 cities indicated that an IQR increase in ozone (O3, 13.3 ppb) 0-3 days prior to delivery was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.036 (95% CI 1.005, 1.067) for preterm birth, adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, marital status and country of birth, neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and visible minority, temperature, year and season of birth, and a natural spline function of day of year. There was some evidence of effect modification by gestational age and season. Associations with carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulphur dioxide were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: We observed associations between daily O3 in the week before delivery and preterm birth in an analysis of approximately 1 million births in 24 Canadian cities between 1999 and 2008. Our analysis is one of a limited number which have examined these short term associations employing Cox proportional hazards models to account for the different exposure durations of preterm vs. term births.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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