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1.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 193-198, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the vascular damage effects and possible mechanism of acute exposure to ozone (O3) in male Wistar rats. METHODS: One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups, 20 in each group. The experimental animals were placed in a gas poisoning cabinet, the control group was exposed to filtered air, and the treatment group was exposed to ozone at concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 2.0 ppm, and 4.0 ppm, respectively, for 4 hours. Arterial blood pressure data were obtained by PC-lab medical physiological signal acquisition system. Blood rheology indicators and blood biochemical indicators were detected by Tianjin Dean Diagnostic Laboratory. Serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), homocysteine (HCY), von Willebrand factor (vWF), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), interleukin (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microplate assay. Oxidative stress indicators superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by xanthine oxidase method, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method, reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) were tested by using microplate colorimetry. Paraffin sections were prepared from thoracic aorta tissue, and vascular structure was observed by HE staining. RESULTS: Acute exposure to 0.12 ppm ozone could cause a significant increase in arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP). Exposure to different concentrations of ozone could cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity, and the K value of the ESR equation was significantly increased in the 1.0 ppm ozone exposure group. Both the relative and reduced viscosities were significantly reduced at ozone concentrations of 0.5 ppm and 4.0 ppm, while the red blood cell deformation index was increased significantly at ozone concentrations of 0.12 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, and 2.0 ppm. Acute ozone exposure resulted in the decrease of total cholesterol content. The content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly reduced in the 0.12 ppm ozone exposure group. When the ozone concentration was higher than 1.0 ppm, the body may also had an inflammatory reaction (increased TNF-α) and oxidative stress (increased MDA, decreased GSH). Acute exposure to ozone could lead to elevated levels of ET-1 in the blood, with significant differences in the 4.0 ppm concentration group, while HCY levels were decreased firstly and then increased, reaching the highest in the 1.0 ppm concentration group. No obvious pathological changes were observed in the thoracic aorta. CONCLUSION: Acute ozone exposure can affect arterial blood pressure, blood rheology and cholesterol metabolism in rats. The possible mechanism is that ozone exposure leads to inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress reaction, causing vascular endothelial function damage, and vascular endothelial cells increase with ozone exposure concentration.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/lesões , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Animais , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Endotelina-1/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/análise
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 84: 42-50, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284915

RESUMO

Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been used as a chemical protectant against ozone (O3). However, its protective effect and physiological mechanisms are still uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate the changes of foliar visible injury, physiological characteristics and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in one-year-old Populus alba "Berolinensis" saplings pretreated with EDU and exposed to elevated O3 (EO, 120 µg/m3). The results showed that foliar visible injury symptoms under EO were significantly alleviated in plants with EDU application (p < 0.05). Under EO, net photosynthetic rate, the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII and the photochemical efficiency of PSII of plants pretreated with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU were similar to unexposed controls and significantly higher compared to EO-stressed plants without EDU pretreatment, respectively. Malondialdehyde content was highest in EO without EDU and decreased significantly by 14.9% and 21.3% with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment, respectively. EDU pretreatment alone increased superoxide dismutase activity by 10-fold in unexposed plants with further increases of 88.4% and 37.5% in EO plants pretreated with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment, respectively (p < 0.05). Abscisic acid content declined under EO relative to unexposed controls with the effect partially reversed by EDU pretreatments. Similarly, VOCs emission rate declined under EO relative to unexposed plants with a recovery of emission rate observed with 300 and 600 mg/L EDU pretreatment. These findings provided significant evidence that EDU exerted a beneficial effect and protection on the tested plants against O3 stress.


Assuntos
Ozônio/toxicidade , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 995-1007, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096429

RESUMO

Ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] deposition and elevated ozone (O3) concentrations may negatively affect plants and trophic interactions. This study aimed to evaluate for the first time the interactive effects of high (NH4)2SO4 load and elevated O3 levels on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) under field conditions. Cauliflower seedlings were treated with 0 (AS0) or 50 (AS50) kg ha-1 (NH4)2SO4 and exposed to ambient (AOZ, ≈20 ppb) or elevated (EOZ, ≈55 ppb) O3 for about one month, in a Free Air O3 Concentration Enrichment (FACE) system. The oligophagous diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella Linnaeus, 1758) showed a clear preference towards the seedlings treated with AS50, which intensively grazed. Plant-herbivore interactions were driven by (NH4)2SO4 availability, rather than O3, via increased nitrogen content in the leaves. Further laboratory bioassays were followed to confirm the validity of these observations using polyphagous Eri silkmoth larvae (Samia ricini) as a biological model in a standardized experimental setup. Choice assays, where larvae could select leaves among leaf samples from the different experimental conditions, and no-choice assays, where larvae could graze leaves from just one experimental condition, were conducted. In the choice assay, the larvae preferred AS50-treated leaves, in agreement with the field observations with diamondback moth. In the no-choice assay, larval body mass growth was inhibited when fed with leaves treated with EOZ and/or AS50. Larvae fed with AS50-treated leaves displayed increased mortality. These observations coincide with higher NO3 and Zn content in AS50-treated leaves. This study shows that plant-herbivore interactions can be driven by (NH4)2SO4 availability, independently of O3, and suggests that high N deposition may have severe health implications in animals consuming such plant tissues. Key message: Plant-herbivore interactions are driven by high (NH4)2SO4 availability, independently of O3.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/toxicidade , Brassica/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Animais , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 542-548, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128552

RESUMO

The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations and short and long-term excess mortality attributed to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 observed in ambient air of Ahvaz during March 2014 to March 2017 period using the AirQ + software developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is updated in 2016 by WHO European Centre for Environment and Health. The hourly concentrations of PM2.5, O3, and NO2 measured at different regulatory monitoring network stations in Ahvaz city were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) of the city. Then, for various air quality monitoring stations, the 24-h average concentration of PM2.5, 1-h average of NO2 concentration, and maximum daily 8-h O3 concentrations were calculated using Excel 2010 software. When the maximum daily 8-h ozone means exceeding the value of 35, it was subtracted from 35 to calculate SOMO35 indicator for modeling. Validation of air quality data was performed according to the Aphekom and WHO's methodologies for health impact assessment of air pollution. Year-specific city population and baseline incidence of the health outcomes were obtained. The three-year averages of PM2.5, NO2, and O3 concentrations were 68.95 (±39.86) µg/m3, 135.90 (±47.82) µg/m3, and 38.63 (±12.83) parts-per-billion-volume (ppbv), respectively. SOMO35 values of ozone were 6596.66, 3411.78, and 470.88 ppbv in 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017 years, respectively. The AP and number of natural deaths due to NO2 were higher than PM2.5 except the last year (2016-2017), causing about 39.18%, 40.73%, and 14.39% of deaths within the first, the second, and the third year, respectively. However, for the last year, the natural mortality for PM2.5 was higher than NO2 (34.46% versus 14.39%). The total number of natural mortality caused by PM2.5 and NO2 in all years was 4061 and 4391, respectively. A significant number of deaths was estimated to be attributed to the given air pollutants. It can be concluded that by designing and implementing air pollution control strategies and actions, both health effects and economic losses will be prevented.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 374-383, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102845

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) can cause oxidative stress in plants and humans. Catechin is an antioxidant that enriches tea and can probably increase O3 tolerance in plants. To investigate the mechanism of catechin to alleviate O3 stress in plants, Zamiocalcus zamiifolia (an efficient plant for O3 phytoremediation) was sprayed with 5 mM catechin and was used to expose O3 (150-250) under long-term operation (10 cycles). We investigated whether exogenous catechin could enhance O3 removal and alleviate O3 stress through a balanced redox state in plants. Z. zamiifolia sprayed with catechin exhibited higher O3 removal (80.27±3.12%), than Z. zamiifolia without catechin (50.03±2.68%). O3 in the range of 150-250 ppb led to stress in plants, as shown by an increased malondialdehyde content (MDA) and salicylic acid (SA). Whereas under the presence of O3, exogenous catechin could maintain the MDA content and inhibit SA accumulation. Under Z. zamiifolia+catechin+O3 conditions, catechin reacted with O3, which led to the formation of catechin-quinone. The formation of catechin-quinone was confirmed by the depletion of reduced glutathione content (GSH). This catechin-quinone could induce GST and APX genes that are up-regulated approximately 35- and 5-fold, respectively. Hence, Z. zamiifolia+catechin+O3 conditions had higher performance for coping with oxidative stress than did Z. zamiifolia+O3 conditions. This evidence demonstrates that catechin could enhance O3 removal through a balanced redox state in plant cells. Finally, the application of tea extract for enhanced O3 removal is also shown in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Araceae/enzimologia , Araceae/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
6.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 49(2): 193-203, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028064

RESUMO

Our aims were to evaluate N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in an experimental rat model of chronic exposure to cadmium and its response to ozone therapy. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control, cadmium only, cadmium and oxygen, cadmium and ozone, and ozone only. Cadmium concentration (ASA method) and NAG activity (by the Maruhn method) were determined in the supernatants of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. The histopathological alterations were evaluated in tissue sections.The highest concentration of cadmium and NAG activity was observed in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Ozone therapy led to a decrease in cadmium accumulation in the kidneys and liver. An examination of renal, hepatic and pancreatic tissues revealed severe histopathological lesions in Cadmium group (Cd) treated animals. The histopathological changes in animals treated with ozone were similar, but with slightly decreased intensity. Positive correlations between histochemical lesions, NAG activity and cadmium concentration in the study groups were observed. It has been shown that chronic cadmium intoxication has cytotoxic activity in the kidneys, liver, and pancreas, causing an increase in NAG activity. Ozone therapy significantly reduces NAG activity and the severity of histopathological lesions in the kidneys and liver, confirming its beneficial effects.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Animais , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 629-637, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933760

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested a change of birth weight linked with elevated ambient air pollutant concentrations during the pregnancy. However, investigations of the influence of higher pollutant levels on birth weight change are limited. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether the air pollution of Ningbo is associated with birth weight, and which trimester could be a window period for maternal exposure to air pollution. A total of 170,008 live births were selected in the Ningbo city of Zhejiang, China, from 2015 to 2017. We estimated the association between the decreased birth weight and the increased air pollutant concentrations in the three trimesters and full gestation. The effects of interaction among pollutants were identified using a co-pollutant adjustment model. An interquartile range increases in PM2.5 (10.55 µg/m3), SO2(4.6 µg/m3), CO (125.59 µg/m3), and O3 (14.54 µg/m3) concentrations during the entire gestation were associated with 3.65 g (95% confidence interval: -6.02 g, -1.29 g), 5.02 g (-6.89 g, -3.14 g), 2.64 g (-4.65 g, -0.63 g) and 2.9 g (-4.8 g, 1 g) decreases, respectively, in birth weight. With each interquartile range increment in NO2 concentration was associated with an 8.05 g (6.24 g, 9.85 g) increase in birth weight. In the first trimester, only the PM2.5 exposure seemed to be associated with the greatest decline in birth weight. After adjustment for co-pollutant, both PM2.5 and SO2 were still associated with birth weight, except for CO for O3 adjustment, O3 for SO2 adjustment, and O3 for NO2 adjustment. Maternal exposure to air pollution may be associated with a decrease of birth weight, but the contribution of various pollutants is necessary to verify by future research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16261-16273, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977004

RESUMO

We performed a time series analysis to investigate the potential association between exposure to ambient air pollution and type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Chinese population. Monthly time series data between 2008 and 2015 on ambient air pollutants and incident T2D (N = 25,130) were obtained from the Environment Monitoring Center of Ningbo and the Chronic Disease Surveillance System of Ningbo. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of incident T2D per 10 µg/m3 increases in ambient air pollutants were estimated from Poisson generalized additive models. Exposure to particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) was associated with increased T2D incidence. The relative risks (RRs) of each increment in 10 µg/m3 of PM10 and SO2 were 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16-2.28) and 1.63 (95% CI, 1.12-2.38) for overall participants, whereas for ozone (O3) exposure, the RRs were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68-0.90) for overall participants, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90) for males, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.91) for females, respectively. Exposure to PM10 and SO2 is positively associated with T2D incidence, whereas O3 is negatively associated with T2D incidence.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Intervalos de Confiança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 174: 35-42, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818258

RESUMO

Pollution with both heavy metal and ground-level ozone (O3) has been steadily increasing, especially in the cities with heavy industry. Little information is known about their combined impacts on urban tree. This study was aimed at characterizing the interactive effects of soil cadmium (Cd) addition and O3 fumigation on visible injury and growth, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, abscisic acid (ABA) content and bioaccumulation of Cd in one-year-old Populus alba 'Berolinensis' saplings by using open top chambers in Shenyang city with developed heavy industry, Northeast China. In this study, poplar saplings were grown in the pots containing soil with different concentrations of Cd (0, 100 and 500 mg kg-1) under ambient air (40 µg L-1) and elevated O3 (120 µg L-1). The results showed that EO and its combination with high Cd (500 mg kg-1) induced significant foliar injury symptoms, decreased root weight (by 41.6%) and total biomass (by 17.4%), inhibited net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, and increased malondialdehyde and ABA contents after 4 weeks of O3 exposure. Elevated O3 exacerbated the accumulation of Cd in leaves and stems of poplar plants grown in the pots with high Cd-polluted soil. Our results also indicated that high Cd pollution in soil increased the susceptibility of plants to O3 and exacerbated the adverse impact of elevated O3 on physiological metabolisms of poplar species, which implied that it was very necessary to take into consideration for O3-tolerance of tree species during phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soil in heavy industrial areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Populus/enzimologia , Populus/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 174: 218-223, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831471

RESUMO

To explore the acute health effects of ozone(O3) and PM2.5 on daily cardiovascular disease mortality in all the cities of Jiangsu province, China. Daily average concentrations of ozone (maximum 8-h average), fine particle matter (PM2.5), meteorological data (including temperature and relative humidity) and daily cardiovascular diseases mortality data were collected from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017, in all the 13 cities of Jiangsu Province in China. The time-series model linked with Poisson distribution was used to estimate the correlation between O3 and daily cardiovascular diseases mortality, after adjusting for PM2.5 and other pollutants. Firstly, we evaluated the acute effects of O3 on cardiovascular mortality in each city in Jiangsu province, and then we combined the effects of O3 on cardiovascular disease mortality by meta-analysis. The single-pollutant model indicated that the acute health effects of O3 in different cities were quite different. After combined the effects of 13 cities, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases increased by 0.983%(95%CI:0.588-1.377%)for every 10 µg/m3 increases of O3. O3 showed the strongest effect on 3-day moving average concentration (Lag 0-3). After adjusting PM2.5,NO2, SO2, and CO, the results were still statistically significant at the multi-city level. The study found that O3 had a greater effect on women; the elderly population was susceptible and high-education groups were more vulnerable to O3, although the differences between different subgroups were insignificant. The dose-response curve showed that the mortality of cardiovascular disease increased with the increase of O3. The increase in O3 concentration of atmospheric can increase the daily mortality of cardiovascular diseases in Jiangsu, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , China , Cidades , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Teóricos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 20, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for asthma was explored in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China for the first time. METHODS: EADs for asthma were collected from the Chengdu First-Aid Command Center. Pollutant concentrations were collected from 24 municipal environmental monitoring centers and including SO2, NO2, CO, daily 8-h mean concentrations of O3 (O3-8 h), and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). The climatic data were collected from the Chengdu Municipal Meteorological Bureau. All data were collected from years spanning 2013-2017. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: After controlling for temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure, IQR increases in SO2 (13 µg/m3), NO2 (17 µg/m3), and CO (498 µg/m3) were associated with 18.8%, 11.5%, and 3.1% increases in EADs for asthma, respectively. The associations were strongest for EADs and SO2, NO2, and CO levels with 3-, 5-, and 1-day lags, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional data to the limited body of literature for potential health risks arising from ambient gaseous pollutants. The results of the study suggest that increased concentrations of SO2, NO2, and CO were positively associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for asthma in Chengdu, China. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of individual air pollutants on asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/epidemiologia , Despacho de Emergência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 1038-1046, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743901

RESUMO

To investigate whether nitrogen (N) load affects the ozone (O3) stomatal flux-effect relationship for birch biomass, three-year old birch saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24 h mean of 35-66 ppb) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 and 70 kg ha-1 yr-1) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) in 2012 and 2013. Stomatal conductance (gs) under optimal growth conditions was stimulated by enhanced N supply but was not significantly affected by enhanced O3 exposure. Birch root, woody (stem + branches) and total biomass (root + woody) were not affected by the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (POD1SPEC) after two seasons of O3 exposure, and enhanced N supply stimulated biomass production independent of POD1SPEC (i.e. there were no POD1SPEC × N interactions). There was a strong linear relationship between the stem cross-sectional area and tree biomass at the end of the experiment, which was not affected by O3 exposure or N load. Enhanced N supply stimulated the stem cross-sectional area at the end of season 2, but not at the end of season 1, which suggests a time lag before tree biomass responded to enhanced N supply. There was no significant effect of POD1SPEC on stem cross-sectional area after either the first or second growing season of the experiment. Contrasting results reported in the literature on the interactive impacts of O3 and N load on tree physiology and growth are likely due to species-specific responses, different duration of the experiments and/or a limitation of the number of O3 and N levels tested.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Betula/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Betulaceae , Biomassa , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 664: 908-914, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769314

RESUMO

Data from experiments where field-grown wheat was exposed to ozone were collated in order to compare the effects in Europe, Asia and North America using dose-response regression. In addition to grain yield, average grain mass and harvest index were included to reflect the influence of ozone on the crop growth pattern. In order to include as many experiments as possible, daytime average ozone concentration was used as the ozone exposure index, but AOT40, estimated from average ozone concentrations, was also used to compare the performance of the two exposure metrics. The response to ozone differed significantly between the continents only for grain yield when using AOT40 as the exposure index. North American wheat was less sensitive than European and Asian that responded similarly. The variation in responses across all three continents was smallest for harvest index, followed by grain mass and grain yield. The highly consistent effect on harvest index shows that not only effects on biomass accumulation, but also on the partitioning of biomass, are important for the ozone-induced grain yield loss in wheat. The average duration of daily ozone exposure was longer in European experiments compared to North American and Asian. It cannot be excluded that this contributed to the indicated higher ozone sensitivity in European wheat in relation to North American. The main conclusions from this study are that on the average the response of wheat to ozone was lower for the older North American experiments and that the ozone response of the growth pattern reflected by grain mass and harvest index did not differ between continents.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/toxicidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Ásia , Biomassa , Europa (Continente) , América do Norte
14.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 586-594, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708321

RESUMO

Around the globe, worsening air pollution is spawning major public health and environmental concerns, especially in the poorest and most populous cities. As a major secondary air pollutant, ozone is a potential risk factor for exacerbated asthma, although the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of ozone on asthma exacerbation using a classic asthmatic model with allergic airway inflammation by treating Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA). Our study shows ozone exposure significantly exacerbated OVA-induced asthmatic phenotypes, including serum immunoglobulin, Th cytokines, inflammatory cell counts, mucus production, airway remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Interestingly, expression of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member1 (TRPV1) was also significantly elevated in ozone-exacerbated asthmatic mice and that treatment with TRPV1 antagonist effectively suppressed AHR, airway inflammation and remodeling. The underlying mechanisms of these effects may be associated with suppression of neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived cytokine. Base on the role of TRPV1 in allergic asthma, this study further revealed that inhibition of TRPV1 by TRPV1 antagonist has significant anti-inflammatory effects on ozone-induced asthma exacerbation in this study. Induction of TRPV1 expression may be an important mechanism underlying the increased risks for asthma after exposure to environmental pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Ozônio/toxicidade , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Asma/metabolismo , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina , Ozônio/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771494

RESUMO

The progressive growth of aquaculture implicates a dependence on large water amounts, which are submitted to disinfection processes, namely ozonation. Considering the importance of genomic integrity, it is critical to improve the knowledge on ozone-related genotoxic hazard to organisms reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) applying ozonation. Therefore, genetic damage induced by ozone exposure in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) was assessed, combining the comet and the erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) assays, reflecting different damage levels, i.e. DNA and chromosomal damage, respectively. Fish were subjected to a daily 6-h ozone (0.15 mg L-1) exposure, repeated for 3 consecutive days, simulating a short-term event of overozonation. To assess the temporal impact of the previous event, the progression of damage was evaluated 7 days later, following transference to ozone-free water or to 0.07 mg L-1 ozone, a routinely adopted level in RAS. Both endpoints pointed to the ozone genotoxic potential, displaying DNA oxidation as a possible mechanism of damage. Overall, the present findings pointed out the genotoxic hazard of ozone to fish, highlighting the importance of these types of studies and contributing to improve aquaculture practices, namely in RAS systems. These early genotoxic signals may be a prelude to negative repercussions on fish health, which may affect the aquaculture productivity. The present findings recommend precautions in relation to accidental or intentional overozonation in fish-farming, even when short-term events are considered. The strategies to mitigate the impact of ozonation in S. senegalensis may include a dietary extra supplementation of antioxidants (regularly, or punctually in cases of overozonation).


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linguados/genética , Ozônio/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Dano ao DNA , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 805-812, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660974

RESUMO

Eighteen plant species were screened for ozone (O3) removal in a continuous system. Zamioculcas zamiifolia had the highest O3 removal efficiency. To enhance O3 removal by Z. zamiifolia, adding a compatible endophytic bacteria, Bacillus cereus ERBP into Z. zamiifolia was studied. After operating under an O3 continuous system (150-250 ppb) at a flow rate of 0.3 L min-1 for 80 h, inoculated plants (74%) exhibited higher O3 removal efficiency than non-inoculated ones (53%). In addition, after O3 exposure (80 h), the population of B. cereus ERBP in inoculated plants was significantly increased in both shoots approximately 35 folds and leaves 13 folds compared to inoculated plants without O3 exposure. The results also showed that B. cereus ERBP had the ability to protect Z. zamiifolia against O3 stress conditions. The increase in B. cereus ERBP populations was attributed to the significant increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) activity. In addition, increasing B. cereus ERBP populations led to raise total flavonoid contents which is one of antioxidant compounds. Increasing APX, CAT activities, and total flavonoid contents can enhance O3 detoxification in plant tissues. The mechanism of B. cereus ERBP for enhancing O3 phytoremediation was proposed in this study. The results suggested that B. cereus ERBP was a potential tool for alleviating O3 stress on Z. zamiifolia and enhancing O3 phytoremediation efficiency.


Assuntos
Araceae/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/fisiologia , Ozônio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Araceae/enzimologia , Araceae/microbiologia , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Ozônio/toxicidade
17.
Environ Int ; 124: 139-144, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641257

RESUMO

During the last two decades, it has been well established that a short-term exposure to ozone (O3) elicits an oxidative stress response in human and mouse skin, which leads to aberrant transcriptional expression of genes consistent with increased skin aging. Whether a long-term exposure to ambient O3 is associated with any skin aging traits, has remained unclear. We addressed this question in two elderly German cohorts: the SALIA study (806 women aged 66-79 years), and the BASE-II study (1207 men and women aged 60-84 years). Five-year mean residential exposure to O3 was modeled as the number of days with maximum daily 8-h mean O3 concentrations ≥120 µg/m3 per year in the wider neighborhood (5-digit postcode) of a participant's residence. Extrinsic (environmentally induced) skin aging traits - coarse wrinkles and pigment spots (lentigines) on the face - were assessed by means of SCINEXA™, a validated visual score previously shown to be well suited to measure extrinsic facial skin aging in cohort studies. We observed positive associations of O3 exceedances with coarse wrinkles in the face, but not with pigment spots. These associations were present in each cohort as well as in the combined sample of both cohorts. They were independent of chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure as the most obvious confounder, and also of co-pollutants such as particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Thus, long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of tropospheric O3 appears to contribute to skin aging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Environ Int ; 124: 161-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have explored the effects of air pollution on the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short and long term residential concentrations of ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <10 µm in diameter (PM10) and particulate matter≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO)) in relation to the risk of DR-TB in a typical air pollution city, Jinan city, China. METHODS: A total of 752 new culture-confirmed TB cases reported in TB prevention and control institutions of Jinan from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2015 were included. Average individual-level concentrations of air pollution for 5 different exposure windows, vary from 90 days to 720 days to diagnosis were estimated using measurements from monitor closest to the patient home addresses. Logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders was employed to evaluate correlation between air pollution and DR-TB risk at different five exposure windows individually. RESULTS: There were substantially increased mono-drug resistance and poly-drug resistance risks for ambient PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO exposures. High exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and CO was also significantly associated with increased incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) both in the single- and multi-pollutants regression models. The dominant positive associations for PM2.5was observed at 540 days exposure, for O3 was observed at 180 days exposure, and for PM10 and CO was observed from 90 days to 540 days exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggest that exposure to ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO) are associated with increased risk of DR-TB. We provided epidemiological evidence of association between pollution exposure and mono-, poly- and multi-drug resistance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 701-708, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658306

RESUMO

Tropospheric ozone (O3) has been identified as the most damaging air pollutant to crop plants in terms of growth and yield reductions. Considering the negative effect of O3 in tropical regions, fourteen commonly grown Indian wheat cultivars with known sensitivity to O3 were tested for their sensitivity/tolerance with respect to two major antioxidants (ascorbic acid and thiols) and grain yield responses against elevated O3 (ambient + 30 ppb) exposure. The objectives of the study were to assess the usefulness of the biochemical markers in the screening of wheat cultivars having differential level of sensitivity to O3 and different release time (modern and old cultivars). Ozone exposure led to an upsurge of ascorbic acid, thiols as well as their ratio greatly in the tolerant group followed by the intermediately sensitive group while least in sensitive one. Both ascorbic acid and thiol contents offered more resistance to early released cultivars compared to modern ones. Ascorbic acid served to be the most influential parameter for determining varietal response under elevated O3 stress and directly linked with O3 tolerance. Overall, the sensitive group suffered maximum yield losses while the minimum was observed in the tolerant group due to the differential enhancement of tolerance offered by antioxidants. Higher concentrations of antioxidants at early growth stages were highly correlated with final yield responses suggesting the role of antioxidants as a determinant of final yield. Findings of this study will help in the identification of O3 tolerant and sensitive wheat cultivars for future screening programs using ascorbic acid and thiols as important markers of O3 tolerance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 290-300, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612017

RESUMO

Rapid urbanisation in Malaysian cities poses risks to the health of residents. This study aims to estimate the relative risk (RR) of major air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations in Kuala Lumpur. Daily hospitalisations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases from 2010 to 2014 were obtained from the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM). The trace gases, PM10 and weather variables were obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia in consistent with the hospitalisation data. The RR was estimated using a Generalised Additive Model (GAM) based on Poisson regression. A "lag" concept was used where the analysis was segregated into risks of immediate exposure (lag 0) until exposure after 5 days (lag 5). The results showed that the gases could pose significant risks towards cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations. However, the RR value of PM10 was not significant in this study. Immediate effects on cardiovascular hospitalisations were observed for NO2 and O3 but no immediate effect was found on respiratory hospitalisations. Delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations were found with SO2 and NO2. The highest RR value was observed at lag 4 for respiratory admissions with SO2 (RR = 1.123, 95% CI = 1.045-1.207), followed by NO2 at lag 5 for cardiovascular admissions (RR = 1.025, 95% CI = 1.005-1.046). For the multi-pollutant model, NO2 at lag 5 showed the highest risks towards cardiovascular hospitalisations after controlling for O3 8 h mean lag 1 (RR = 1.026, 95% CI = 1.006-1.047), while SO2 at lag 4 showed highest risks towards respiratory hospitalisations after controlling for NO2 lag 3 (RR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.053-1.216). This study indicated that exposure to trace gases in Kuala Lumpur could lead to both immediate and delayed effects on cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalisations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Urbanização , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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