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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(8): 3797-3803, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124356

RESUMO

The increase in the surface ozone (O3) concentration causes air pollution, which has become a significant environmental issue that is of increasing concern. Ozone pollution not only directly harms human health, but also influences the agricultural ecosystem by impacting crop growth, which may then indirectly affect human health through food quality and the safety of agricultural products. The effects of O3 pollution on rice growth, yields, and mineral metal contents in grains were investigated through field experiments with increased O3 concentration treatment (remaining at 100 nL·L-1) in open top chambers (OTC). The crop growth and metal contents of two rice varieties were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the higher O3 concentration inhibited the photosynthesis of Nanjing 5055 and Yangdao 6 rice leaves, reduced the chlorophyll content and leaf area index, and subsequently led to a decline in the rice yield of 45.5% and 28.6%, respectively. However, compared with the natural control, the contents of most mineral metallic elements in the brown rice and glume of the harvested grains increased by 3.6%-19.8% and 3.9%-36.0%, respectively, thus resulting in a lack of essential trace elements or pollution of heavy metals; hence, the impact of O3 on rice food quality and safety requires a comprehensive evaluation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Oryza , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Minerais , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
Electromagn Biol Med ; 39(4): 433-436, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016156

RESUMO

To help investigate the relationship between inflammatory and other symptoms of coronavirus and the protein-protein interactions (PPI) that occur between viral proteins and protein molecules of the host cell, I propose that the electrostatic discharge (ESD) exists including corona discharge to lead to ozone gas. I cite evidence in support of this hypothesis. I hope that the proposed will inspire new studies in finding effective treatments and vaccines for individuals with coronavirus disease in 2019. I suggest possible future studies that may lend more credibility to the proposed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Eletricidade Estática , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Ozônio/metabolismo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Perda de Ozônio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia
3.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
4.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2183): 20200188, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981442

RESUMO

We suggest that the unprecedented and unintended decrease of emissions of air pollutants during the COVID-19 lock-down in 2020 could lead to declining seasonal ozone concentrations and positive impacts on crop yields. An initial assessment of the potential effects of COVID-19 emission reductions was made using a set of six scenarios that variously assumed annual European and global emission reductions of 30% and 50% for the energy, industry, road transport and international shipping sectors, and 80% for the aviation sector. The greatest ozone reductions during the growing season reached up to 12 ppb over crop growing regions in Asia and up to 6 ppb in North America and Europe for the 50% global reduction scenario. In Europe, ozone responses are more sensitive to emission declines in other continents, international shipping and aviation than to emissions changes within Europe. We demonstrate that for wheat the overall magnitude of ozone precursor emission changes could lead to yield improvements between 2% and 8%. The expected magnitude of ozone precursor emission reductions during the Northern Hemisphere growing season in 2020 presents an opportunity to test and improve crop models and experimentally based exposure response relationships of ozone impacts on crops, under real-world conditions. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Air quality, past present and future'.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ozônio/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
5.
Environ Res ; 188: 109854, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798957

RESUMO

Short-term exposure to air pollutants has been extensively related to daily mortality, however most of the evidence comes from studies conducted in major cities, and little is known on the extent of the spatial heterogeneity in the effects within areas including both urban and non-urban settings. We aimed to investigate the short-term association of air pollutants with daily cause-specific mortality in the Stockholm county, and to test whether an association exists also outside the metropolitan area. We used a spatiotemporal random forest model to predict daily concentrations of fine and inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) at 1-km spatial resolution over Sweden for 2005-2016. We collected data on daily mortality for each small area for market statistics (SAMS) of the Stockholm county, to which we matched daily exposures to air pollutants and air temperature. We applied a case-crossover design to investigate the short-term association between the four pollutants and mortality from non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory causes. We compared the associations in and out the Stockholm urban area, by SAMS population density and across the 26 municipalities of the county. We found weak effects of most air pollutants on cause-specific mortality in the full year analysis, with estimates much larger and significant only during the warmer months (April to September): non-accidental mortality increased by 4.58% (95% confidence interval - 95% CI: 0.89%, 8.41%) and by 2.21% (95% CI: 0.71%, 3.73%) per 10 µg/m3 increase in lag 0-1 PM2.5 and O3, respectively. Associations were in general higher in the Stockholm city and in SAMS with high population density. When comparing the 26 municipalities, we didn't detect a significant heterogeneity in the short-term associations with air pollutants. In conclusion, we found a suggestion of a harmful role of air pollution also in non-urban areas, but the study was underpowered to draw firm conclusions. We consider this study as a pilot to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the association between daily air pollution and mortality at the national level in Sweden.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Environ Res ; 188: 109713, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535355

RESUMO

The pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in aquatic environment have aroused more interest recently. Many of them are hard to degrade by the typical biological treatments. Diclofenac (DCF), as a significant anti-inflammatory drug, is a typical PPCP and widely existed in water environment. It is reported that DCF has adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This work aims to investigate the mechanism, kinetics and ecotoxicity assessment of DCF transformation initiated by O3 in aqueous solution, and provide a solution to the degradation of DCF. The O3-initiated oxidative degradations of DCF were performed by quantum chemical calculations, including thirteen primary reaction pathways and subsequent reactions of the Criegee intermediates with H2O, NO and O3. Based on the thermodynamic data, the kinetic parameters were calculated by the transition state theory (TST). The total reaction rate constant of DCF initiated by O3 is 2.57 × 103 M-1 s-1 at 298 K and 1 atm. The results show that the reaction rate constants have a good correlation with temperature. The acute and chronic toxicities of DCF and its degradation products were evaluated at three different trophic levels by the ECOSAR program. Most products are converted into less toxic or harmless products. Oxalaldehyde (P3) and N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxoacetamide (P6) are still harmful to the three aquatic organisms, which should be paid more attention in the future.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Cinética , Oxirredução , Ozônio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110832, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563158

RESUMO

Ozone (O3), an oxidizing toxic air pollutant, is ubiquitous in industrialized and developing countries. To understand the effects of O3 exposure on apple (Malus) and to explore its defense mechanisms, we exposed 'Hongjiu' crabapple to O3 and monitored its responses using physiological, transcriptomics, and metabolomics analyses. Exposure to 300 nL L-1 O3 for 3 h caused obvious damage to the leaves of Malus crabapple, affected chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and activated antioxidant enzymes. The gene encoding phospholipase A was highly responsive to O3 in Malus crabapple. McWRKY75 is a key transcription factor in the response to O3 stress, and its transcript levels were positively correlated with those of flavonoid-related structural genes (McC4H, McDFR, and McANR). The ethylene response factors McERF019 and McERF109-like were also up-regulated by O3. Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) decreased the damaging effects of O3 on crabapple and was most effective at 200 µmol L -1. Treatments with MeJA altered the metabolic pathways of crabapple under O3 stress. In particular, MeJA activated the flavonoid metabolic pathway in Malus, which improved its resistance to O3 stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Malus , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Environ Res ; 187: 109627, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of the omega-3 family of polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 FA) is associated with anti-inflammatory effects. However, unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation, which produces pro-inflammatory mediators. Ozone (O3) is a tropospheric pollutant that reacts rapidly with unsaturated fatty acids to produce electrophilic and oxidative mediators of inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether supplementation with ω-3 FA alters O3-induced oxidative stress in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). METHODS: 16-HBE cells expressing a genetically encoded sensor of the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG, EGSH) were supplemented with saturated, monounsaturated, or ω-3 FA prior to exposure to 0, 0.08, 0.1, or 0.3 ppm O3. Lipid peroxidation was measured in cellular lipid extracts and intact cells following O3 exposure. RESULTS: Relative to cells incubated with the saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, cells supplemented with ω-3 FA containing 5 or 6 double bonds showed a marked increase in EGSH during exposure to O3 concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm. Consistent with this finding, the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides produced following O3 exposure was significantly elevated in ω-3 FA supplemented cells. DISCUSSION: Supplementation with polyunsaturated ω-3 FA potentiates oxidative responses, as indicated by EGSH, in HAEC exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of O3. This effect is mediated by the increased formation of lipid hydroperoxides produced by the reaction of O3 with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Given the inflammatory activity of lipid hydroperoxides, these findings have implications for the potential role of ω-3 FA in increasing human susceptibility to the adverse health effects of O3 exposure.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ozônio , Suplementos Nutricionais , Células Epiteliais , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/toxicidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443813

RESUMO

The main aim of this work is the estimation of health risks arising from exposure to ozone or other air pollutants by different statistical models taking into account delayed health effects. This paper presents the risk of hospitalization due to bronchitis and asthma exacerbation in adult inhabitants of Silesian Voivodeship from 1 January 2016 to 31 August 2017. Data were obtained from the daily register of hospitalizations for acute bronchitis (code J20-J21, International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision - ICD-10) and asthma (J45-J46) which is governed by the National Health Fund. Meteorological data and data on tropospheric ozone concentrations were obtained from the regional environmental monitoring database of the Provincial Inspector of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The paper includes descriptive and analytical statistical methods used in the estimation of health risk with a delayed effect: Almon Distributed Lag Model, the Poisson Distributed Lag Model, and Distributed Lag Non-Linear Model (DLNM). A significant relationship has only been confirmed by DLNM for bronchitis and a relatively short period (1-3 days) from exposure above the limit value (120 µg/m3). The relative risk value was RR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.28) for a 2-day lag. However, conclusive findings require the continuation of the study over longer observation periods.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Bronquite , Hospitalização , Ozônio , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
10.
Environ Res ; 185: 109483, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278163

RESUMO

Air pollution is associated with adverse impacts on the brain, including cognitive decline and increased incidence of dementia, depression and anxiety; however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have shown that both ozone and particulate matter activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing plasma glucocorticoids and altering mRNA profiles in multiple tissues including the brain. HPA axis dysregulation has been associated with central nervous system impacts, including key effects in the hippocampus; accordingly, we hypothesized that pollutant-dependent increases in glucocorticoid levels impact biological pathways relevant to brain health. Fischer-344 rats were treated with metyrapone (0 or 50 mg/kg), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, and exposed to ozone (0 or 0.8 ppm) for 4 h (n = 5/group) to investigate the role of glucocorticoids in ozone-dependent effects on tryptophan metabolism and expression of serotonin receptors and neurotrophic factors. Ozone increased plasma levels of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine (~2-fold) and decreased tryptophan levels (~1.2 fold). Hippocampal expression of serotonin receptors exhibited differential regulation following exposure, and expression of key neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A, insulin-like growth factor-1, tyrosine kinase receptor B, b-cell lymphoma 2) was decreased. Some, but not all effects were abrogated by metyrapone treatment, suggesting both glucocorticoid-dependent and -independent regulation. Exposure to exogenous corticosterone (10 mg/kg) followed by clean air reproduced the ozone effects that were blocked with metyrapone, confirming the specificity of effects to glucocorticoids. These results indicate that ozone can modify pathways relevant to brain health and establish a role for the HPA axis in mediating these effects.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Animais , Hipocampo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Cinurenina , Ozônio/toxicidade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Ratos , Receptores de Serotonina , Triptofano , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 447, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are especially vulnerable to pneumonia and the effects of air pollution. However, little is known about the impacts of air pollutants on pediatric admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia. This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of air pollutants on pediatric hospital admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied to explore the association between pediatric hospital admissions and levels of air pollutants (fine particulate matter, particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide). Data on hospital admissions for pneumonia and levels of ambient air pollutants were obtained for the period of 2015 to 2018. Associations between pediatric admissions for Mycoplasma pneumonia and ambient air pollutants were calculated using logistic regression and described by the odds ratio and relevant 95% confidence interval. The hysteresis effects of air pollutants from the day of hospital admission to the previous 7 days were evaluated in single-pollutant models and multi-pollutant models with adjustments for weather variables and seasonality. Lag 0 was defined as the day of hospital admission, lag 1 was defined as the day before hospital admission, and so forth. RESULTS: In the single-pollutant models (without adjustment for other pollutants), pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia were positively associated with elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter. A 0.5% increase in daily admissions per 10-µg/m3 increase in the nitrogen dioxide level occurred at lag 1 and lag 2, and a 0.3% increase in daily admissions per 10-µg/m3 increase in fine particulate matter occurred at lag 1. In the multi-pollutant models, nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter remained significant after inclusion of particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that higher levels of nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter increase the risk of pediatric hospitalization for Mycoplasma pneumonia in Shanghai, China. These findings imply that the high incidence of Mycoplasma pneumonia in children in Asia might be attributed to the high concentration of specific air pollutants in Asia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Razão de Chances , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/etiologia , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 682-688, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239255

RESUMO

The increasing concentration of surface ozone (O3) was observed during recent decades in the world, which affects tree roots and forest soils. Meanwhile, the impact of ozone on tree roots is greatly affected by soil condition. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the possible effects of ozone on tree roots and soil processes. In this study, The influences of surface ozone (O3) stress on the root biomass, morphology, nutrients, soil properties, and soil enzyme activity of Elaeocarpus sylvestris and Michelia chapensis seedlings were examined at four O3 concentrations (charcoal-filtered air, 1 × O3 air, 2 × O3 air, and 4 × O3 air). Elevated O3 concentrations were found to significantly increase the root C content, N content, C/P ratio, and N/P ratio, and significantly decrease the root biomass, number of root tips, and root C/N ratio of both species. The soil organic matter content, pH, total N content, and urease and catalase activities of both species tended to increase. The limitation in root growth and responses in the root structure of E. sylvestris induced by elevated O3 concentrations led to increased bulk density and decreased soil porosity and void ratio. These profound effects of O3 concentrations on the roots and soil characteristics of these two species underscore the importance of research in O3 science.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Elaeocarpaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomassa , China , Elaeocarpaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Florestas , Magnoliaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ozônio/análise , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(8): 831-839, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167222

RESUMO

Glyburide is a classic antidiabetic drug that is dominant in inflammation regulation, but its specific role in ozone-induced lung inflammation and injury remains unclear. In order to investigate whether glyburide prevents ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and its mechanism, C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally pre-instilled with glyburide or the vehicle 1 hour before ozone (1 ppm, 3 hours) or filtered air exposure. After 24 hours, the total inflammatory cells and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The pathological alternations in lung tissues were evaluated by HE staining. The expression of NLRP3, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-18 protein in lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was used to examine the levels of caspase-1 p10 and active IL-1ß protein. Levels of IL-1ß and IL-18 in BALF were measured using ELISA kits. Glyburide treatment decreased the total cells in BALF, the inflammatory score, and the mean linear intercept induced by ozone in lung tissues. In addition, glyburide inhibited the expression of NLRP3, IL-18, and IL-1ß protein in lung tissues, and also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including caspase-1 p10, active IL-1ß protein in lung tissues, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in BALF. These results demonstrate that glyburide effectively attenuates ozone-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury via blocking the NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Glibureto/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Ozônio/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Glibureto/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/farmacologia , Interleucina-1beta , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126283, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120148

RESUMO

On 3rd to May 24, 2018, volatile organic compound (VOC) samples were collected four times a day by using stainless steel canisters at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The concentrations, compositions, sources, ozone (O3) formation potential (OFP), and health risk assessment of VOCs were discussed based on the measurements of 103 VOC species. Results show that the average mixing ratio of VOCs was 29.11 ± 15.33 ppbv, and the dominant components comprised oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and alkanes, followed by halocarbons, alkenes, aromatics, and a sulfide. Various groups of VOCs had typical diurnal variation characteristics. Alkenes, alkanes, and aromatics contributed most to the OFP. Five sources identified by the positive matrix factorization model revealed solvent utilization as the largest contributor, followed by industrial production, long-lived and secondary species, vehicular emission, and biogenic emission. Solvent utilization and vehicular emission were important sources to OFP. During O3 episode days, the mixing ratios of alkanes, alkenes, halocarbons, OVOCs, aromatics, and TVOCs decreased to varying degrees; the source contribution of solvent utilization decreased significantly while industrial production showed the opposite trend. VOC species and sources posed no non-carcinogenic risk while five species and all sources except for biogenic emission had carcinogenic risks to exposed population. Industrial emission was the largest contributor to both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. These results will help to provide some references for O3 pollution research and prevention and control of pollution sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alcanos/análise , China , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/química , Medição de Risco
15.
Environ Res ; 183: 109206, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035409

RESUMO

Ozone exposure is associated with higher risk of asthma-related emergency department visits. The meteorological conditions that govern ozone concentration are projected to be more favorable to ozone formation over much of the United States due to continued climate change, even as emissions of anthropogenic ozone precursors are expected to decrease by 2050. Our goal is to quantify the health benefits of a climate change mitigation scenario versus a "business-as-usual" scenario, defined by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively, using the health impact analytical program Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program - Community Edition (BenMAP - CE) to project the number of asthma ED visits in 2045-2055. We project an annual average of 3100 averted ozone-related asthma ED visits during the 2045-2055 period under RCP4.5 versus RCP8.5, with all other factors held constant, which translates to USD $1.7 million in averted costs annually. We identify counties with tens to hundreds of avoided ozone-related asthma ED visits under RCP4.5 versus RCP8.5. Overall, we project a heterogeneous distribution of ozone-related asthma ED visits at different spatial resolutions, specifically national, regional, and county levels, and a substantial net health and economic benefit of climate change mitigation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Asma , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Ozônio , Asma/epidemiologia , Mudança Climática , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Res ; 183: 109207, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050130

RESUMO

Although studies have assessed the associations of maternal exposure to ozone (O3) during pregnancy with blood pressure and the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), the results were inconsistent. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in China where the ambient O3 concentration continuedly increased. The present study aimed to estimate the effects of maternal exposure to O3 during pregnancy on the HDP risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP). All participants of pregnant women were selected from the prospective birth cohort study on Prenatal Environments and Offspring Health conducted in Guangzhou, China. A spatiotemporal land-use-regression model was used to estimate individual monthly air pollution exposure from three months before pregnancy to childbirth date. Information on HDP, SBP, DBP and PP was obtained from maternal medical records. A Logistic regression model and a mixed linear model were used to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to O3 with the risk of HDP and blood pressure (SBP, DBP and PP), respectively. We found significant associations of maternal exposure to O3 during the third (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.60) and the second month (OR = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.51) before pregnancy with the risk of HDP. Observed significantly positive associations of O3 exposures with SBP, DBP and PP during the two months before pregnancy and during the early pregnancy. The peak effects of O3 exposure on SBP, DBP and PP were respectively observed during the second month of pregnancy (ß = 1.07  mmHg, 95%CI: 0.84, 1.31  mmHg), the first month before pregnancy (ß = 0.40  mmHg, 95%CI: 0.21, 0.50  mmHg) and the second month of pregnancy (ß = 0.78  mmHg, 95%CI: 0.59, 0.97  mmHg). Our results suggest that maternal exposure to O3 were positively associated with blood pressure and the risk of HDP, and the period from three months before pregnancy to the first trimester might be the critical exposure window.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Exposição Materna , Ozônio , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ozônio/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Environ Int ; 137: 105579, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086080

RESUMO

The evidence that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) causes acute cardiovascular effects appears inconsistent. A repeated-measure study with 61 healthy young volunteers was conducted in Xinxiang, Central China. Real-time concentrations of O3 were monitored. Cardiovascular outcomes including blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), and platelet-monocyte aggregation (PMA) were repeated measured. Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyze the association of ambient O3 with these cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, the modifying effects of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) polymorphisms were estimated to explore the potential mechanisms and role of the association between O3 exposure and the above cardiovascular outcomes. A 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 was associated with increases of 9.2 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5, 15.9), 7.2 mmHg (95% CI: 0.8, 13.6), and 21.2 bpm (95% CI: 5.8, 36.6) in diastolic BP (DBP, lag1), mean arterial BP (MABP, lag1), and HR (lag01), respectively. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of hs-CRP, 8-OHdG, and t-PA were all increased by O3 exposure, but the PMA level was decreased. Stratification analyses showed that the estimated effects of O3 on DBP, MABP, and HR in GSTM1-sufficient subjects were significantly higher than in GSTM1-null subjects. Moreover, GSTM1-null genotype enhanced O3-induced increases, albeit insignificant, in levels of serum hs-CRP, 8-OHdG, and t-PA compared with GSTM1-sufficient genotype. Insignificant increases in hs-CRP and t-PA were also detected in GSTT1-null subjects. Taken together, our findings indicate that acute exposure to ambient O3 induces autonomic alterations, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrinolysis in healthy young subjects. GSTM1 genotype presents the trend of modifying O3-induced cardiovascular effects.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Ozônio , Proteína C-Reativa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação , Ozônio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Environ Res ; 182: 109098, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The linearity of concentration-response (C-R) curve between ambient ozone (O3) concentration and mortality has been controversial. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the C-R curve between O3 concentration and mortality with a causal framework approach. METHODS: We extracted data of hourly meteorology, hourly O3 concentration and daily non-accidental mortality in Seoul from 2001 to 2009. We divided the dataset into two, odd-number (training set) and even-number years (testing set). Using the training set, we constructed a prediction model from hourly O3 concentration with support vector regression estimating the daily variations of mean O3 concentration caused by sun irradiation, wind speed and direction, controlling temperature, barometric pressure and temporal trend. With this model we predicted variance of daily O3 from the testing set, thus creating an instrumental variable. We analyzed the association between the instrumental variable and daily mortality. We also analyzed the association according to the quartiles of daily mean O3 concentration to examine the linearity of the association. RESULTS: The instrumental variable was significantly and negatively associated with daily mortality in the linear model. In the stratified analysis, the negative slope was observed in the lowest quartile and the negative slope of the association diminished as the quartile increased, and the slope became positive over the 3rd quartile (O3 > 23.3 ppb). The interaction between quartiles and instrumental variable was significant (P = 0.0108). CONCLUSION: We observed unequal effect of exposure to ambient O3 concentration on mortality according to the different ranges of daily mean O3 concentration with a causal framework approach.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Mortalidade , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Causalidade , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Ozônio/toxicidade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul
19.
Environ Res ; 182: 109095, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have established significant associations between short-term air pollution and the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases, there is a lack of evidence based on causal distributed lag modeling. METHODS: Inverse probability weighting (ipw) propensity score models along with conditional logistic outcome regression models based on a case-crossover study design were applied to get the causal unconstrained distributed (lag0-lag5) as well as cumulative lag effect of short-term exposure to PM2.5/Ozone on hospital admissions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and ischemic stroke (IS) among New England Medicare participants during 2000-2012. Effect modification by gender, race, secondary diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) and Diabetes (DM) was explored. RESULTS: Each 10 µg/m3 increase in lag0-lag5 cumulative PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increase of 4.3% (95% confidence interval: 2.2%, 6.4%, percentage change) in AMI hospital admission rate, an increase of 3.9% (2.4%, 5.5%) in CHF rate and an increase of 2.6% (0.4%, 4.7%) in IS rate. A weakened lagging effect of PM2.5 from lag0 to lag5 could be observed. No cumulative short-term effect of ozone on CVD was found. People with secondary diagnosis of COPD, diabetes, female gender and black race are sensitive population. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our causal distributed lag modeling, we found that short-term exposure to an increased ambient PM2.5 level had the potential to induce higher risk of CVD hospitalization in a causal way. More attention should be paid to population of COPD, diabetes, female gender and black race.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exposição Ambiental , Hospitalização , Ozônio , Material Particulado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , New England , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estados Unidos
20.
Environ Int ; 136: 105472, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has many adverse health effects, but the combined or synergistic effects of multiple ambient air pollutants on anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA, a serologic marker of systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease, SARDs) have never been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To flexibly model ANA and individual and joint associations of long-term exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and fine particles matter (PM2.5) using a Bayesian Kernel machine regression (BKMR) approach and to compare the results to those from individual logistic regressions. METHODS: Serum ANA positivity was determined for randomly selected CARTaGENE general population subjects in Quebec, Canada. CARTaGENE is a public research platform created for investigating the associations of environmental, genomic, and lifestyle factors on chronic diseases. Ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 estimates, derived from ground-measurement and chemical-transport-model simulated concentrations, were assigned to subjects based on residential postal codes at the time of blood collection. Our models adjusted for age, sex, French Canadian origin, smoking, and family income. RESULTS: Concentrations of NO2, O3, and PM2.5 were closely correlated in space. In the 5485 CARTaGENE subjects studied, we did not see clear associations between NO2, PM2.5 or O3 and ANA positivity, with either the BKMR or logistic models. CONCLUSIONS: BKMR did not uncover associations between ANA positivity and individual levels or combined exposures of NO2, O3, and PM2.5; neither did simpler logistic models. Additional studies (in younger populations, in distinct race/ethnicity groups, and/or in jurisdictions with high air pollution levels) would be helpful to reinforce current findings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Anticorpos Antinucleares , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Teorema de Bayes , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado , Quebeque
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