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1.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 593-603, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645157

RESUMO

Wheat quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase was expressed in Escherichia coli for developing a new biological flour improver. The synthesized wqsox gene was constructed into the vector pMAL-c5x and expressed in E. coli, then the expression conditions of recombinant protein was optimized. The MBP fusion label in recombinant protein was removed by protease digestion after affinity purification. Moreover, enzymatic properties of the purified wQSOX and its effect on bread quality were investigated. The synthesized wqsox gene contained 1 359 bp and encoded 453 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 51 kDa. The constructed recombinant vector pMAL-c5x-wqsox could successfully express soluble recombinant protein MBP-wQSOX in E. coli Rosetta gamiB(DE3), and the optimal induced expression conditions for recombinant protein were 25 °C, 0.3 mmol/L IPTG and 6 h. MBP fusion tag was cut out by factor Xa protease and wQSOX was prepared after affinity purification. wQSOX could catalyze the oxidation of DTT, GSH and Cys, accompanying the production of H2O2, and exhibited the highest substrate specificity for DTT. Furthermore, enzymatic properties results demonstrated that the optimal temperature and pH for wQSOX catalyzing oxidation of DTT was 50 °C and 10.0, respectively, and wQSOX presented a good stability under high temperature and alkaline environment. The addition of wQSOX with 1.1 U/g flour significantly (P<0.05) increased 26.4% specific volume of the bread, and reduced 20.5% hardness and 24.8% chewiness of bread crumb compared to the control, indicating a remarkable ability to improve the quality of bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Triticum , Escherichia coli/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredutases
2.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 719-727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605300

RESUMO

Six different bread wheat genotypes; two Egyptian commercial varieties (control); Giza-168 and Gemmeiza-11, and four promising lines; L84 and L148, resulted via hybridization and M10 and M34 via radiation mutation program) were rheologically evaluated using extensograph and for protein, analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The radiation mutant M10 and M34 had the highest maximum resistance which is a very good indicator of strong gluten. The amount of gluten content was higher in M10, L148, and M34 compared to the control samples Gz168 and Gm11. Sulfide amino acids (CYS and MET) are slightly higher in M10. The electrophoretic results and amino acid analyzers show that the best technological quality was exhibited by M10. Radiation mutants wheat genotypes have a protein with good characteristics, mainly gluten which is significantly higher compared to control samples. The rheological properties measured as extensograph and gel electrophoresis were much better in irradiated lines M10 and M34.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Genótipo , Glutens , Triticum/genética
3.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 69-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the content of nutritive ingredients of 11 kinds of different processed wheats planted in Shaanxi Province, and assess their nutritional value. METHODS: The macronutrients, moisture, ash and vitamins in 11 different wheat were determined. The index of nutritional quality(INQ) method was used to evaluate the different nutrients in 11 kinds of wheat and the fuzzy membership function method was used to evaluate the nutritional value comprehensively. RESULTS: The contents of water and carbohydrate in 11 kinds of whole wheat flour were lower than those of special flour and wheat core flour. The contents of ash, fat, protein and total dietary fiber were significantly higher than those of special flour and wheat core flour. The wheat flour contained high levels of vitamin B_1, certain vitamin B_2 and trace amount of ß-carotene. Under the parameters selected in this article, the comprehensive evaluation shows that Jinmai 54 had the highest nutritive value among 11 kinds of wheat, while Zhoumai 26 had the lowest nutritive value. CONCLUSION: 11 kinds of wheat is rich in protein, vitamins and other nutrients, peeling can cause a large loss of vitamin B and vitamin E in wheat flour. The comprehensive nutritional value of whole wheat flour is higher than the special flour and wheat core powder.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Pão , Fibras na Dieta , Valor Nutritivo
4.
Food Chem ; 343: 128406, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406571

RESUMO

This study was the first to examine the effects of γ-[Glu](1≤n≤5)-Gln (GGP, a taste enhancer; added at 0.5% or 5.0%) on the breadmaking using frozen dough. γ-[Glu](1≤n≤5)-Gln was produced using the method established in our research center. The addition of GGP at either level increased yeast viability, freezable water content and storage and loss moduli, decreased the free sulfhydryl content of dough during the frozen storage and freeze-thaw cycles, and improved the microstructure of frozen dough and texture of the baked bread. The addition of GGP at 0.5% led to a dough having the highest extensibility, and most complete and uniform starch-gluten network, and a baked bread crumb with the lowest hardness, best texture, and most uniform organization. These results indicated that GGP has great potential as a food-derived cryoprotectant/antifreeze agent for the baking industry.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Farinha/análise , Congelamento , Dureza , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Reologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Água/análise , Leveduras/fisiologia
5.
Food Chem ; 346: 128902, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482530

RESUMO

This paper presents a study on the effect of storage conditions on wheat flour quality for 30 months. Such study may be of interest for research projects conducted over long periods. Wheat flours were stored in two types of packaging (permeable paper bags and watertight containers) and at two temperatures (ambient temperature and a cold storage room). Selected qualities parameters were evaluated regularly such as chemical stability, consistency, extensibility, resistance, water absorption, Solvent Retention Capacity and Gluten Index Performance. In addition, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy was used to monitor the flour's evolution and models were employed to predict certain parameters. The results showed that storage at ambient temperature led to significant modifications of flour parameters and baking performances, whereas storage at low temperature preserved the initial quality of the flour. A practical recommendation is to favour storage at low temperature in a sealed container to prevent interaction with oxygen and moisture uptake.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Triticum/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Temperatura , Água/química
6.
Food Chem ; 339: 128078, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152871

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic texture perception and study the mechanisms occurring in bolus from chewing to swallowing during white bread oral processing. Results indicated that the microstructural and chemical composition properties determined the oral processing behaviors. At the initial stage of oral processing, the roughness, hardness, and dryness perception were the dominant attributes. At the end of oral processing the adhesiveness and softness perception were dominant, which correlated to the higher bolus water content and adhesive properties. The softness and adhesiveness perception were the key factors that trigger swallowing. In vitro artificial mastication experiments confirmed that mucin rapidly increased the adhesive force of bolus at the initial stage of oral processing, whereas α-amylase gradually increased the adhesive force. These results can help to better understand the dynamic texture perception and its change mechanisms during oral processing.


Assuntos
Pão , Deglutição , Mastigação , Sensação , Adesividade , Dureza , Humanos , Triticum
7.
Food Chem ; 340: 127903, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889205

RESUMO

Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) catalyses the formation of protein crosslinks, deamidating glutamine in a side-reaction. Gluten deamidation by human tissue transglutaminase is critical to activate celiac disease pathogenesis making the addition of mTG to wheat-based products controversial. The ability of mTG (0-2000 U.kg-1) to alter gluten's structure, digestibility and the deamidation state of six immunogenic gluten peptides within bread was investigated. Gluten's structure was altered when mTG exceeded 100 U.kg-1, determined by confocal microscopy, extractability and free sulfhydryl assays. The effect of mTG on six immunogenic peptides was investigated by in vitro digestion (INFOGEST) and mass spectrometry. The addition of mTG to bread (0-2000 U.kg-1) did not alter the deamidation state or digestibility of the immunogenic peptides investigated. Overall, this investigation indicated that the addition of mTG to bread does not create activated gluten peptides. This analysis provides evidence for risk assessments of mTG as a food processing aid.


Assuntos
Pão , Glutens/química , Glutens/farmacocinética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Doença Celíaca , Digestão , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/análise , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Proteólise , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Transglutaminases/química , Triticum/química
8.
Food Chem ; 339: 127887, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877815

RESUMO

The effect of yoghurt and curd cheese additions on pasting properties, starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of wheat bread were studied. Yoghurt and curd cheese incorporations (6% up to 25% w/w) promoted considerable changes on starch performance based on gelatinization and final dough consistency properties. These changes led to a significant impact on starch digestibility, reducing significantly the rapidly digestible starch while increasing the resistant starch. The estimated glycemic index reflected the changes promoted on starch performance from both dairy products addition, at higher level tested (25%): a significant reduction of around 30% for yoghurt bread and 38% for curd cheese bread, was obtained, resulting in medium to low (55-69) glycemic index breads. Correlations were found between pasting properties, starch digestibility and glycemic index, revealing that the effects observed are proportional to the levels of dairy products added. Microstructure images of the starch granules supported these findings.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Queijo/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Iogurte/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Reologia
9.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(1): 14-24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965815

RESUMO

The population of Americans suffering from celiac, gluten intolerance, and wheat allergy is 1 in every 14 people. Also, many are choosing gluten-free (GF) diets nowadays because of the perception that it is a healthier option for them. Therefore, in the last decade, the GF market in the US and all over the world has seen significant growth. Globally, GF product sales reached 4.63 billion USD in 2017, and are expected to reach 6.47 billion USD by 2023, a projected compound annual growth rate of 7.6%. Several grains like millet, corn, sorghum, and pseudocereals like amaranth, quinoa, and teff are the main ingredients for a gluten diet. Though most of them have a comparable nutrient profile as common grains, the main challenge to their acceptability is the quality departure from gluten-containing counterparts and imbalance nutrients that ensue when food processing aids like starch, gums, and enzymes are used. In this review, we profiled some of the common grains, their characteristics, functionality and the various food types they are used for. We also reviewed the impact of some of the current food processing aids like starch, hydrocolloids used for improving functionality, and processing techniques like extrusion suitable for making remarkable GF foods.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Chenopodium quinoa , Pão/análise , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Grão Comestível , Glutens , Humanos
10.
Food Chem ; 338: 127715, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798824

RESUMO

The influence of dough composition on acrylamide, 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters, and glycidyl esters (GE) formation during bread toasting was investigated. The doughs differed in added amounts of soy lecithin, salt, and reducing agents (l-cysteine and glutathione). The toasting of bread for 2.5 min considerably enhanced the formation of acrylamide and 3-MCPD esters. The addition of lecithin (1%, w/w) resulted in four times higher content of 3-MCPD esters in toasted bread slices. No distinct relationship between dough composition and GE formation in untoasted and toasted bread was found. The addition of reducing agents (0.05%, w/w) mitigated during toasting not only the formation of 3-MCPD esters (more than six times) but also the extent of Maillard reaction that resulted in three times lower amounts of acrylamide and predominant formation of alcohol-like compounds. Toasted bread without reducing agents contained typical Maillard reaction compounds such as aldehydes, alkyl pyrazines, and derivatives of furan.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Acrilamida/análise , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa/química , Lecitinas/química , Reação de Maillard , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Triticum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Cloridrina/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 338: 128120, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091998

RESUMO

The kneading step of wholewheat flour (WWF) dough was monitored using low-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The tested variables were kneading time and total water content. Two 1H Free induction decay (FID) (A and B) and four 1H T2 Car-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) (C, D, E and F) proton populations were observed and the attribution to the different proton domains was made based on the literature and data acquisition. Kneading time significantly increased the mobility and the relative abundance of popA, the relative abundance and strength of protons of popC, D and E, while significantly reducing the relative amount of popF and increasing its mobility. This evolution of the proton populations during kneading was interpreted as chemical/physical transformations of the flour constituents. The use of WWF may reveal the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the higher water requirements of unrefined doughs, often associated with improved bread quality.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Culinária , Farinha/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Triticum/química , Água/análise , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Food Chem ; 334: 127497, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712486

RESUMO

Plant industrial by-products have generally low value but can be a good source of nutritional compounds. Wheat bran is the main by-product of wheat milling and contains >15% high-quality proteins. Extraction of wheat bran proteins (WBPC) and inclusion in spaghetti and bread formulations was studied to determine if the nutritional properties of these foods could be enhanced without deleterious effects on quality. Semolina was substituted with WBPC at 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w) and made into spaghetti and a commercial bread flour was substituted with WBPC at 0, 1, 5 and 10% w/w and made into bread. Both spaghetti protein content (12.3 to 23.4%) and total essential amino acids (3.76 to 7.59%) increased with added WBPC. Overall spaghetti quality was acceptable up to 10%WBPC and superior to wholemeal, especially in appearance. However, the bread formulation used was very sensitive to WBPC especially above 1% addition.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo
13.
Food Chem ; 334: 127523, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721833

RESUMO

Non-wheat cereals have become popular in the diet due to their nutritional benefits, but their application is limited by properties of their proteins. Some of these flours can be conventionally processed, but the final products are not of acceptable quality. Modification of physico-chemical properties of non-wheat flours by dry heat and extrusion represent the alternative process which can transform the flours into an adequate raw material for the bakery and confectionery industry. The aim of this study was to determine the type and extent of physico-chemical changes in modified flours whose mixtures were used successfully for bread production. Extrusion had stronger influence on chemical composition of flours than dry heating, especially on the content of fats and phenolic compounds. Extrusion also increased starch digestibility due to complete gelatinization process, making it almost equal for all flours. On the other hand, protein digestibility depends mostly on botanical origin of flour.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Pão/análise , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Hordeum/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Secale/química , Secale/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 335: 127663, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738540

RESUMO

Dissecting the functions of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) is helpful for improving wheat quality via breeding. In this study, we used a wheat mutant AS273 in which HMW-GS 1Dy12 was silenced to investigate the silencing mechanism of 1Dy12 and its effects on gluten accumulation and flour-processing quality. Results suggested that the expression of 1Dy12 in AS273 was decreased by one fifth during grain development; a stop codon produced by a base mutation (C/T) led to truncated translation; the absence of 1Dy12 stimulated the accumulation of low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs), gliadins, and glutenin macropolymers, and was resulted in larger protein bodies; AS273 had an inferior flour-processing performance. Based on the outputs achieved in this study it is concluded that 1Dy12 makes important contributions to bread, sponge cake and biscuit-processing quality.


Assuntos
Pão , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Códon de Terminação , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Farinha , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Gliadina/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Mutação , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/genética , Proteínas de Armazenamento de Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Food Chem ; 337: 127977, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919271

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of powder made from tubers of the legume Apios americana (Apios) as a rice flour substitute in the making of gluten-free steamed bread. The carbohydrates of Apios powder were mainly starch and sucrose, and included legume-specific raffinose and stachyose. Apios powder contained almost no α-amylase but had a high level of ß-amylase activity. Substitution of rice flour with Apios powder delayed the hardening of bread on storage and helped to maintain cohesiveness. Apios powder-substituted bread had higher maltose content than unsubstituted control bread due to ß-amylase activity in the Apios powder. Bread substituted with 10% Apios powder had a significantly higher degree of gelatinization than the control even after storage, most likely due to lower amounts of recrystallized amylose as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These results demonstrate Apios powder as promising a new food ingredient for improving the quality of gluten-free rice bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Fabaceae/química , Farinha , Oryza/química , Amilose/química , Pão/análise , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Maltose/análise , Tubérculos/química , Pós/análise , Pós/química , Amido/química , Vapor , Sacarose/análise , alfa-Amilases/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 128026, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932088

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Saskatoon powder addition on phytochemical parameters, biological activity, and nutritional value of wheat bread. Supplementation increased phenolics content up to 72% in the bread with 6% powder content. This increase was reflected in the improved antioxidative properties of breads, especially after their supplementation with the microencapsulated additives (an increase by 93% in the bread enriched with 6% of powder covered with maltodextrin). The in vitro digestion released the antioxidative compounds, leading to higher bioaccessibility of the breads enriched with the microencapsulated powders. The highest inhibition of activities of cyclooxygenase 1 and -2, as well as amylase and glucosidase was recorded for the breads enriched with the additive microencapsulated with maltodextrin and inulin. Thus, Saskatoon berry powders, especially the microencapsulated ones, may be used as functional components in designing innovative bakery products.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Cápsulas/química , Pós/análise , Rosaceae/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucosidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucosidases/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Triticum/química
17.
Food Chem ; 345: 128851, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333355

RESUMO

Health benefits of whole wheat products are partially attributed to their unique phenolic profiles. This study investigated the effect of bread-making processes on the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of four different varieties of hard red winter wheat. The fermentation process generally increased soluble phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant activities, and soluble ferulic acid of whole wheat products. The baking process increased the soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activities. Some phenolic acids were incorporated into Maillard reaction products during baking. For the insoluble fraction, fermentation and baking slightly increased phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities of certain wheat varieties. Ferulic acid and isomers of di-ferulic acid (DFA) were not significantly affected by the baking process. Overall, the bread-making process demonstrated positive effects on the potential health benefits of whole wheat products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Pão/análise , Culinária , Fenóis/análise , Triticum/química , Fermentação
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109020, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360296

RESUMO

Extra ingredients are often used in traditional sourdough production recipes by artisan bakeries. These ingredients may be the source of microorganisms or stimulate the growth and/or the metabolic activities of the microorganisms added to or naturally present in the flour-water mixture. The present study examined the influence of the addition of lemon juice or apple juice as source of citrate or malate, respectively, on the growth and activity of the citrate- and malate-positive Companilactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699 strain (formerly known as Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699), used to initiate firm (dough yield of 200) wheat sourdough productions, and on the flavour of the baked goods produced. Three fermentation strategies were applied, namely one-step long fermentation sourdough production processes with the addition of juice at the start (Type 2) and backslopped fermentations with the addition of juice either only at the start of the sourdough productions or at the start of the sourdough productions and at the beginning of each subsequent refreshment step during the whole backslopping process (both Type 3). It turned out that the starter culture strain used prevailed during all sourdough productions performed. Yeasts were particularly present in Type 3 sourdough productions, although lemon juice retarded their growth. Due to high yeast activity, high concentrations of ethanol and glycerol were produced toward the end of the sourdough productions. Addition of lemon juice stimulated the production of lactic acid, acetic acid, and the buttery flavour compounds acetoin and diacetyl, because of citrate conversion, during the Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions. In Type 3 sourdough productions, these compounds were found in higher concentrations only when lemon juice was added at each backslopping step. Alternatively, the addition of apple juice led to high concentrations of lactic acid because of malolactic fermentation in both Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions. Moreover, the addition of apple juice increased the initial concentrations of the carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) and sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol), which were exhausted upon backslopping or accumulated in the sourdough matrix, respectively. Baked goods produced using sourdoughs obtained from the Type 2 and Type 3 sourdough productions with the addition of juice at each backslopping step were significantly different in flavour from doughs supplemented with the respective juices and lactic acid and/or Type 3 sourdough productions with the addition of juice only at the start.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Citrus/química , Fermentação , Farinha/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/química , Odorantes/análise
20.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(4): 138-142, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012768

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning is caused by the intoxication of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) produced in foods. Staphylococcal food poisoning is mostly due to staphylococcal enterotoxin type A (SEA) among SEs. There have been many studies on the growth and SEA production of S. aureus in various foods, but few studies in bread. Thus, the SEA production by S. aureus in dough during fermentation and the SEA inactivation in dough during baking were studied in the normal production processes of bread in this study. No growth of S. aureus or SEA production in dough, whose total weight was about 470 g, was observed during the fermentation at 25 and 35℃ for four hr, suggesting that the risk of SEA production in dough during fermentation under these conditions would be negligible. Any SEA injected at 6.0 and 0.56 ng/g in dough could not be detected after 20 and 10 min of baking at 200℃, respectively. These results showed that the baking process, which was completed in 25 min, was enough to inactivate SEA at those doses of SEA in the dough. The results on the production and inactivation of SEA in dough during the production processes in this study would be useful information on microbiological food safety of bread making.


Assuntos
Pão , Enterotoxinas , Viabilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus , Pão/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
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