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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801299

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to observe the morphological and postural changes to the foot that take place during pregnancy and the puerperium. Method: In this descriptive, observational, longitudinal study, we analysed 23 pregnant women, with particular attention to morphological and postural aspects of the foot, at three time points during and after pregnancy: in weeks 9-13 of gestation, weeks 32-35 of gestation and weeks 4-6 after delivery. The parameters considered were changes in foot length, the Foot Posture Index (FPI) and the Hernández Corvo Index, which were analysed using a pedigraph and taking into account the Body Mass Index (BMI). The same procedure was conducted in each review. Results: The statistical analyses obtained for each foot did not differ significantly between the three measurement times. A pronator-type footprint was most frequently observed during the third trimester of pregnancy; it was predominantly neutral during the postpartum period. Statistically significant differences between the measurement times were obtained in the right foot for cavus vs. neutral foot type (between the first and third trimesters and also between the first trimester and the puerperium) (in both cases, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Foot length increases in the third trimester and returns to normal in the puerperium. According to FPI findings, the third trimester of pregnancy is characterised by pronation, while the posture returns to neutrality during the postpartum period. During pregnancy, the plantar arch flattens, and this persists during the puerperium. The incidence of cavus foot increases significantly in the third trimester and in the puerperium.


Assuntos
, Período Pós-Parto , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Postura , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0228682, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439858

RESUMO

Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot's trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such measures are related to metabolic energy expenditure. We therefore quantified the effect of five different outdoor terrains on foot motion (from IMUs) and net metabolic rate (from oxygen consumption) in healthy adults (N = 10; walking at 1.25 m/s). Energy expenditure increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the order Sidewalk, Dirt, Gravel, Grass, and Woodchips, with Woodchips about 27% costlier than Sidewalk. Terrain type also affected measures, particularly stride variability and virtual foot clearance (swing foot's lowest height above consecutive footfalls). In combination, such measures can also roughly predict metabolic cost (adjusted R2 = 0.52, partial least squares regression), and even discriminate between terrain types (10% reclassification error). Body-worn sensors can characterize how uneven terrain affects gait, gait variability, and metabolic cost in the real world.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 71-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813597

RESUMO

CONTENT: Distance running is one of the most popular physical activities, and running-related injuries (RRIs) are also common. Foot strike patterns have been suggested to affect biomechanical variables related to RRI risks. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of foot strike techniques on running biomechanics. DATA SOURCES: The databases of Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and EBSCO were searched from database inception through November 2018. STUDY SELECTION: The initial electronic search found 723 studies. Of these, 26 studies with a total of 472 participants were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. DATA EXTRACTION: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the eligible studies, and the standard mean differences (SMDs) were obtained for biomechanical variables between forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) groups using a random-effects model. RESULTS: FFS showed significantly smaller magnitude (SMD, -1.84; 95% CI, -2.29 to -1.38; P < 0.001) and loading rate (mean: SMD, -2.1; 95% CI, -3.18 to -1.01; P < 0.001; peak: SMD, -1.77; 95% CI, -2.21 to -1.33; P < 0.001) of impact force, ankle stiffness (SMD, -1.69; 95% CI, -2.46 to -0.92; P < 0.001), knee extension moment (SMD, -0.64; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.3; P < 0.001), knee eccentric power (SMD, -2.03; 95% CI, -2.51 to -1.54; P < 0.001), knee negative work (SMD, -1.56; 95% CI, -2.11 to -1.00; P < 0.001), and patellofemoral joint stress (peak: SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.28 to -0.14; P = 0.01; integral: SMD, -0.63; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.15; P = 0.01) compared with RFS. However, FFS significantly increased ankle plantarflexion moment (SMD, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.96; P < 0.001), eccentric power (SMD, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.08;P < 0.001), negative work (SMD, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.18; P = 0.001), and axial contact force (SMD, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.6; P < 0.001) compared with RFS. CONCLUSION: Running with RFS imposed higher biomechanical loads on overall ground impact and knee and patellofemoral joints, whereas FFS imposed higher biomechanical loads on the ankle joint and Achilles tendon. The modification of strike techniques may affect the specific biomechanical loads experienced on relevant structures or tissues during running.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiologia , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Corrida/lesões , Estresse Mecânico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332421

RESUMO

Step-by-step foot placement control, relative to the center of mass (CoM) kinematic state, is generally considered a dominant mechanism for maintenance of gait stability. By adequate (mediolateral) positioning of the center of pressure with respect to the CoM, the ground reaction force generates a moment that prevents falling. In healthy individuals, foot placement is complemented mainly by ankle moment control ensuring stability. To evaluate possible compensatory relationships between step-by-step foot placement and complementary ankle moments, we investigated the degree of (active) foot placement control during steady-state walking, and under either foot placement-, or ankle moment constraints. Thirty healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while full-body kinematics, ground reaction forces and EMG activities were recorded. As a replication of earlier findings, we first showed step-by-step foot placement is associated with preceding CoM state and hip ab-/adductor activity during steady-state walking. Tight control of foot placement appears to be important at normal walking speed because there was a limited change in the degree of foot placement control despite the presence of a foot placement constraint. At slow speed, the degree of foot placement control decreased substantially, suggesting that tight control of foot placement is less essential when walking slowly. Step-by-step foot placement control was not tightened to compensate for constrained ankle moments. Instead compensation was achieved through increases in step width and stride frequency.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1072-1080, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims at describing and comparing each other male and female soccer players kicking instep a stationary ball. The different measures we collected by the 3D motion capture system Movit G1 and the High-Speed Camera (240 fps) were considered as dependent variables, whereas the gender was considered as the independent one. METHODS: Twenty soccer well trained non-professional players: 10 men (age: 25.3±6.5 yrs; height 1.80±0.07 m; body mass 76.9±13.2 kg) and 10 women (age: 19±3.34 yrs; height 1.64±0.07 m; body mass 58.2±7.2 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. RESULTS: Gender differences were found, with a statistical significance (P<0.05) or interesting magnitude (Cohen d>0.5). The most relevant ones were the differences in hip extension of the kicking leg when the foot of the supporting one touches the ground, just before the impact on the ball (independent sample t-Test; P=0.03; Cohen d=1.64) and the speed of the ball, reached immediately after kicking (P<0.001;d=1.23). CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with the greater pelvic acceleration shown by men compared to women, highlight the need to develop a gender-differentiated training model, in order to customize the kicking technique in women and to reduce the likelihood, currently higher than for men, of kicking related injuries.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pelve/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(79): 567-583, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197055

RESUMO

Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la influencia de la morfología del pie en el rendimiento en Gimnasia Rítmica y analizar la influencia de los años de práctica. La muestra estaba compuesta por 48 gimnastas que habían practicado gimnasia federada y competido durante el último año. Los resultados indican que las gimnastas tienen predominantemente un pie neutro y con huella normal, presentando bastante asimetría entre pies, no significativa, lo que puede ser consecuencia de un trabajo unilateral y debería ser corregido en el entrenamiento. Sólo el rango de amplitud de la articulación talocrural parece ser una característica de la morfología del pie que incida sobre el rendimiento técnico y parece más una característica innata. La práctica de la Gimnasia Rítmica podría no ser un factor tan decisivo como podía suponerse en las modificaciones morfológicas de la huella plantar


The objectives of the study were to determine the influence of foot morphology on performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics and to analyze the influence of years of practice. The sample consisted of 48 gymnasts who had practiced federated gymnastics and competed during the last year. The results indicate that the gymnasts have predominantly a neutral foot and with a normal footprint, presenting enough asymmetry between feet, not significant, which may be a consequence of asymmetric work and should be corrected in training. Only the range of amplitude of the talocrural joint seems to be a characteristic of foot morphology that affects technical performance and seems more an innate characteristic. The practice of rhythmic gymnastics might not be as decisive a factor as could be supposed in the morphological modifications of the footprint


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Ginástica/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764796

RESUMO

Plantar pressure force data derived from gait and posture are commonly used as health indicators for foot diagnosis, injury prevention, and rehabilitation. This study developed a wearable plantar pressure force measurement and analysis (WPPFMA) system based on a flexible sensor matrix film to monitor plantar pressure force in real time. The developed system comprised a flexible sensor matrix film embedded in the insole of the shoe, a wearable data acquisition (DAQ) device with a Bluetooth module, and dedicated software with an intuitive graphical user interface for displaying the plantar pressure force data from receivers by using a terminal unit (laptop or smart-phone). The flexible sensor matrix film integrated 16 piezoresistive cell sensors to detect pressure force at different anatomical zones of the plantar and under different body positions. The signals from the flexible sensor matrix film were collected using the DAQ module embedded in the shoe and transmitted to the receivers through Bluetooth. The real-time display and analysis software can monitor, visualize, and record the detailed plantar pressure force data, such as average pressure force, maximum pressure force, and pressure force distributions and variations over time. The outcomes of the trials in which the system was worn revealed the applicability of the developed WPPFMA system for monitoring plantar pressure force under static and dynamic wearing conditions. The plantar pressure force data derived from this system provide valuable insights for personal foot care, gait analysis, and clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Pé/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Doenças do Pé/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Postura/fisiologia , Pressão , Sapatos , Smartphone , Software
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Globally, the prevalence rate of preterm birth ranges from 47.5 to 137 per 1000 live births. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of preterm birth is 10.1%. Several anthropometric parameters, particularly, head circumference and foot length(FL) have been used as a proxy measure for gestational age(GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of newborn foot length as a screening tool to identify preterm newborns and correlation factors at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOG CSH), Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 205 newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, UOG CSH. Systematic sampling technique was employed. Optimal cutoff newborn foot length and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the power of foot length measurement to diagnosis prematurity. RESULTS: The mean foot length was 7.41±0.67 cm with a range of 5.4-8.6 cm. Gestational age had a significant strong positive correlation with foot length(r = 0.865). The regression equation derived was GA = 4.5*FL + 3.61. Foot length had strong power (AUC = 0.99) to differentiate preterm from term newborns. A threshold newborn foot length of ≤7.35 cm had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 96.3%, respectively to predict prematurity. CONCLUSION: Foot length had a high sensitivity and specificity in identifying preterm newborns, making it a reliable tool to identify preterm birth in a rural setting.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2350-2358, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615855

RESUMO

To assess the impact of lower-leg muscle activity during the stance phase of running on the development of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), in 123 healthy participants (18.2 ± 0.8 years), dynamic and static foot posture, and soleus and tibialis anterior muscle activity during the stance phase of running were measured before a 17-week track- and field-course. After the course, MTSS was identified in 20.5% of the participants. MTSS participants had a higher body mass (ES = 1.13), body mass index (BMI) (ES = 1.31), lower previous vigorous physical activity level (ES = 0.84) and VO2max (ES = 0.61), greater dynamic foot pronation (ES = 0.66), higher soleus peak EMG amplitude during the absorption (ES = 0.60) and propulsion phases (ES = 0.56) of running, and a history of MTSS (OR = 6.38) (p < 0.05). Stepwise logistic regression showed BMI, dynamic foot index, soleus peak EMG amplitude during propulsion, MTSS history and previous vigorous physical activity were predictors of MTSS. The model predicted 96.6% of the healthy participants and 56.5% of the MTSS participants and correctly classified 88.4% of overall cases. Coaches and sports-medicine professionals that screen for injury risk should consider adopting a comprehensive evaluation that includes these parameters.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Tensão Tibial Medial/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome da Tensão Tibial Medial/etiologia , Pronação , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2446-2453, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627694

RESUMO

Impact loading plays a key role in the pathophysiology of running-related injuries. Providing real-time feedback may be an effective strategy to reduce impact loading; however, it is currently unclear what an effective training method to help runners achieve a habitual low loading rate is. We subjected 20 healthy non-runners to a structured sequence of direct and indirect biofeedback designed to facilitate broader exploration of neuro-mechanical workspace for potential movement solutions (indirect feedback on cadence and foot-strike angle) and to refine and converge upon an optimal sub-set of that space to match the task goal (direct feedback on loading rate). While indirect biofeedback on foot-strike angle yielded a lower impact load than providing direct biofeedback on loading rate, compared to indirect biofeedback on foot-strike angle, providing direct feedback on loading rate statistically increased (+58%, p = 0.007) the range of goal-relevant solutions participants used to lower their impact loading. Results showed that structured feedback was effective in increasing the range of input parameters that match the task goal, hence expanding the size of goal-relevant solutions, which may benefit running performance under changing environmental constraints.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Pé/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2437-2445, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608346

RESUMO

This study examined whether modulation of the centre of pressure (COP) on the starting block surface would improve sprint start performance. Twenty male national-level sprinters performed 15-m sprints from the starting blocks in three different conditions (normal, anterior loading and posterior loading), during which ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded. The COP location, 10-m time, average horizontal external power (AHEP), spatiotemporal and GRF variables were calculated. The results demonstrate that, although modulation of COP location may not improve sprint start performance for the entire group, it could improve the corresponding performance for specific individuals. A sprinter who favours the posterior front block location and more to the posterior rear block COP location on the block surface at the set position could possibly improve AHEP using the anterior loading condition. An improvement of AHEP in the anterior loading condition (p =.056, effect size [ES] =.305) would be accomplished by greater rear block anteroposterior mean force (p =.043, ES =.574). Moreover, the posterior loading condition may improve the 10-m time and/or AHEP for some individuals, whereas no specific characteristics of the individuals were found. Finally, an improvement of 10-m time in the posterior loading condition (p =.015, ES =.609) would be accomplished by shorter reaction time (p =.035, ES =.780).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Equipamentos Esportivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(6): 848-854, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of use of orthopedic insoles equipped with a metatarsal retro-capital bar (MRCB) on plantar pressure under the feet and lower limb kinematic variables during running. METHODS: Two groups of 10 runners used for 12 weeks while running orthopedic insoles without correction or equipped with a MRCB. All participants performed successively a standing posture (CoP displacement) test and a running test at 11 km.h-1 (lower limb kinematic variables) using with flat insoles and orthopedic neutral or MRCB insoles at the beginning (T0), after 4 (T4) and 12 weeks (T12) of use. RESULTS: For the MRCB group, CoP moved backwards while forefoot plantar pressure was decreased during standing position at T4 and T12 compared to T0. During running, the plantar pressure under the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads was reduced with MRCB at T0, T4 and T12. The one under the 1st metatarsal head was decreased at T4 and T12, when MRCB or flat insoles were used. The maximal extension and the total amplitude of ankle were slightly increased at T4 and T12 with or without wearing MRCB insoles. Similar changes in knee joint kinematics were observed but only at T12. Any significant changes were found in runners that used orthopedic insoles without correction. CONCLUSIONS: Orthopedic insoles equipped with MRCB involve lower plantar pressure under the metatarsal heads, which may be of interest to treat forefoot injuries in runners.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Ossos do Metatarso/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/química , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Órtoses do Pé , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/química , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Ossos do Metatarso/química , Pressão , Sapatos
13.
J Sports Sci ; 38(18): 2054-2062, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475221

RESUMO

Cricket fast bowling is a dynamic activity in which a bowler runs up and repeatedly delivers the ball at high speeds. Experimental studies have previously linked ball release speed and several technique parameters with conflicting results. As a result, computer simulation models are increasingly being used to understand the effects of technique on performance. This study evaluates a planar 16-segment whole-body torque-driven simulation model of the front foot contact phase of fast bowling by comparing simulation output with the actual performance of an elite fast bowler. The model was customised to the bowler by determining subject-specific inertia and torque parameters. Good agreement was found between actual and simulated performances with a 4.0% RMS difference. Varying the activation timings of the torque generators resulted in an optimised simulation with a ball release speed 3.5 m/s faster than the evaluation simulation. The optimised technique used more extended front ankle and knee joint angles, increased trunk flexion and a longer delay in the onset of arm circumduction. These simulations suggest the model provides a realistic representation of the front foot contact phase of fast bowling and is suitable to investigate the limitations of kinematic or kinetic variables on fast bowling performance.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Críquete/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Braço/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Tronco/fisiologia
14.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 347-351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and severity of symptoms related to muscle and joint pain seem to be high in most dancers. HYPOTHESIS: There will be a worse quality of life related to foot health for ballet dancers compared with nondancers. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A sample of 156 women was recruited from a clinic of podiatric medicine and surgery. Self-reported data were measured by the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ), which has 33 questions that assess 8 health domains of the feet and general health, namely, foot pain, foot function, general foot health, footwear, general health, physical activity, social capacity, and vigor. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were shown for foot pain, foot function, foot health, and general health, which together revealed a worse foot health-related quality of life (lower FHSQ scores) but a better general health (higher FHSQ scores) for ballet dancers compared with nondancers. The remaining domains did not show statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). According to multivariate linear regression models (P < 0.05), the practice of ballet dance (group) was the only independent variable that predicted the dependent variables, such as foot pain (R2 = 0.052;ß = +8.349), foot function (R2 = 0.108; ß = +11.699), foot health (R2 = 0.039; ß = +10.769), and general health (R2 = 0.019; ß = -6.795). CONCLUSION: Ballet dancers showed a negative impact on quality of life related to foot health but better overall quality of life (general health) compared with nondancers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Paying attention to a dancer's foot health could provide important benefits for the dancer's foot health and physical practice of dance.


Assuntos
Artralgia/etiologia , Dança/fisiologia , Pé/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Mialgia/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High heeled shoes have long been worn in society and they are known to cause biomechanical imbalances to not only the foot, but the whole musculoskeletal system. This study aims to show the detailed changes that happen to the shape of the transverse arch of the foot in high heels, using two different inclination degrees. METHODS: 68 women participated in this study. Two custom-made high heels were made with inclinations of 15 degrees and 30 degrees (cm). A weight-bearing ultrasound was used to assess the coronal view of the transverse arch in standing. ANOVA and Tuckey tests were used to compare the results between 0 degrees, 15 degrees and 30 degrees inclinations. RESULTS: The transverse arch height was slightly increased as the heel height increased (0DI-15DI: p = 0.5852 / 15DI-30DI: p = 0.395 / 0DI-30DI: p = 0.0593). The transverse arch length (0DI-15DI: p = 0.0486 / 15DI-30DI: p = 0.0004 / 0DI-30DI: p = 0.1105) and the area under the metatarsal heads (0DI-15DI: p = 0.0422 / 15DI-30DI: p = 0.0180 / 0DI-30DI: p = 0.9463) significantly decreased as the heel height increased. DISCUSSION: The main changes were viewed in the 30 degrees inclinations compared to 0 degrees inclination. When the toes are dorsiflexed in high heels, it stimulates the Windlass mechanism which in turn stiffens the plantar fascia and adducts the metatarsal heads, while the soft tissues shrink in response to loads. CONCLUSION: High heels affected the shape of the transverse arch even in short term standing, and these effects increased as the height of the heel increased.


Assuntos
Pé/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Metatarso/anatomia & histologia , Sapatos/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Ossos do Metatarso/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Ultrassonografia , Suporte de Carga
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 744-750, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492732

RESUMO

Sprinting in curvilinear trajectories is an important soccer ability, corresponding to ~85% of the actions performed at maximum velocity in a soccer league. We compared the neuromuscular behavior and foot contact-time between outside leg and inside leg during curve sprinting to both sides in soccer players. Nine soccer players (age=23±4.12 years) performed: 3×Sprint linear, 3×Sprint right curve, and 3×Sprint left curve. An ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the differences between inside and outside leg, and Cohen's d was used to calculate the effect-size. Considering the average data, the performance classification (from best to worst) was as follows: 1. Curve "good" side (2.45±0.11 s), 2. Linear (2.47±0.13 s), and 3. Curve "weak" side (2.56±0.17 s). Comparing linear with curve sprinting, inside leg recorded significant differences ("good" and "weak"; effect size=1.20 and 2, respectively); in contrast, for outside leg, there were no significant differences ("good" and "weak"; effect size=0.30 and 0.49, respectively). Electromyography activity showed significant differences (p≤0.05) during curve sprinting between outside (higher in biceps femoris and gluteus medius) and inside leg (higher activity in semitendinosus and adductor). In summary, inside and outside leg play different roles during curved sprints, but inside leg is more affected by the change from straight to curve sprint.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Teste de Esforço , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
17.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(78): 211-226, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194778

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar modificaciones agudas que se producen en la morfología del pie y distribución de presiones plantares luego de la aplicación de un protocolo de carrera a pie descalzo. 42 sujetos de ambos sexos participaron de este estudio, quienes fueron divididos en Grupo Calzado (GC) (n = 20) y Grupo Descalzo (GD) (n = 22). Se evaluó antropometría del pie, índice del arco (AI) y presiones plantares antes y después de la intervención, que consistió en correr a 3,05 m·s-1 durante 20 min. El pie no dominante del GD disminuyó la altura de su arco plantar (AI pre = 0,20, AI post = 0,22; p = 0,01; ES = 0,4), asimismo, la carrera descalza produjo en el pie no dominante menores aumentos en los valores de presión plantar y menores disminuciones en la superficie de apoyo plantar que el correr con calzado


The acute changes that occur in foot morphology and the distribution of plantar pressures during barefoot running after applying a barefoot running protocol was analyzed. A total of 42 subjects of both sexes participated in the study, and they were divided into shoe-wearing (SH) (n = 20) and barefoot (BF) (n = 22). The feet’s anthropometry, arch index (AI), and plantar pressures were evaluated before and after the intervention, which consisted in running at 3.05 m‧s-1 during 20 min. The nondominant foot of the BF group decreased the height of its plantar arch (AI pre = 0.20, AI post = 0.22; p = 0.1; SE = 0.4). Furthermore, the barefoot race caused in the nondominant feet smaller decreases of the plantar pressure and smaller decreases of the plantar support surface than running with shoes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pé/fisiologia , Dermatoglifia , Postura/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Antropometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos em Atletas , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Pé
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(16): 1869-1876, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379007

RESUMO

Loading rates have been linked to running injuries, revealing persistent impact features that change direction among three-dimensional axes in different footwear and footstrike patterns. Extracting peak loads from ground reaction forces, however, can neglect the time-varying loading patterns experienced by the runner in each footfall. Following footwear and footstrike manipulations during laboratory-based overground running, we examined three-dimensional loading rate-time features in each direction (X, Y, Z) using principal component analysis. Twenty participants (9 M, 11 F, age: 25.3 ± 3.6 y) were analysed during 14 running trials in each of two footwear (cushioned and minimalist) and three footstrike conditions (forefoot, midfoot, rearfoot). Two principal components (PC) captured the primary loading rate-time features (PC1: 42.5% and PC2: 22.8% explained variance) and revealed interaction among axes, footwear, and footstrike conditions (PC1: F (2.1, 40.1) = 5.6, p = 0.007, η 2 = 0.23; PC2: F (2.0, 38.4) = 62.3, p < 0.001, η 2 = 0.77). Rearfoot running in cushioned footwear attenuated impact loads in the vertical direction, and forefoot running in minimalist footwear attenuated impact loads in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions relative to forefoot running in cushioned shoes. Loading patterns depend on footwear and footstrike interactions, which require shoes that match the runner's footstrike pattern.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Sapatos , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Corrida/lesões , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(6): 657-661, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to determine whether improved muscle strength after 12 weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of plantar and dorsiflexors could result in better limits of stability in older adults. METHODS: Twenty-seven participants were divided into a control group and a neuromuscular home-based training group. The training group performed a 3-month long NMES training of both plantar and dorsiflexors. Ankle flexor strength and limits of stability were measured. A mediation analysis was conducted to determine whether the NMES effect on the limits of stability was mediated by increased strength. RESULTS: The NMES training increased plantar flexor strength (+47%; ß = 0.217, P = .02), and this increase predicted the anterior limits of stability improvement (+27%; ß = 0.527, P = .02). The effect of the NMES on the limits of stability was fully mediated by the plantar flexor strength increase (indirect effect: ß = 0.1146; 95% confidence interval, 0.020-0.240). CONCLUSION: It seems that NMES improves the limits of stability through its positive effect on muscle strength. NMES may be utilized in fall-prevention programs.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(3): 248-257, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive vertical impacts at landing are associated with common running injuries. Two primary gait-retraining interventions aimed at reducing impact forces are transition to forefoot strike and increasing cadence. The objective of this study was to compare the short- and long-term effects of 2 gait-retraining interventions aimed at reducing landing impacts. METHODS: A total of 39 healthy recreational runners using a rearfoot strike and a cadence of ≤170 steps/min were randomized into cadence (CAD) or forefoot strike (FFS) groups. All participants performed 4 weeks of strengthening followed by 8 sessions of gait-retraining using auditory feedback. Vertical average load rates (VALR) and vertical instantaneous load rates (VILR) were calculated from the vertical ground reaction force curve. Both cadence and foot strike angle were measured using 3D motion analysis and an instrumented treadmill at baseline and at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months post retraining. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed that the FFS group had significant reductions in VALR (49.7%) and VILR (41.7%), and changes were maintained long term. Foot strike angle in the FFS group changed from 14.2° dorsiflexion at baseline to 3.4° plantarflexion, with changes maintained long term. The CAD group exhibited significant reduction only in VALR (16%) and only at 6 months. Both groups had significant and similar increases in cadence at all follow-ups (CAD, +7.2% to 173 steps/min; and FFS, +6.1% to 172 steps/min). CONCLUSION: Forefoot strike gait-retraining resulted in significantly greater reductions in VALR and similar increases in cadence compared to cadence gait-retraining in the short and long term. Cadence gait-retraining resulted in small reductions in VALR at only the 6-month follow-up.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Mialgia/etiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Corrida/lesões , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
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