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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200376

RESUMO

The dissolution rate is the rate-limiting step for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs to enhance their in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors. There are some factors affecting the dissolution rate, such as polymorphism, particle size, and crystal habit. In this study, to improve the dissolution rate and enhance the in vivo pharmacokinetics of sorafenib tosylate (Sor-Tos), a BCS class II drug, two crystal habits of Sor-Tos were prepared. A plate-shaped crystal habit (ST-A) and a needle-shaped crystal habit (ST-B) were harvested by recrystallization from acetone (ACN) and n-butanol (BuOH), respectively. The surface chemistry of the two crystal habits was determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data, molecular modeling, and face indexation analysis, and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. The results showed that ST-B had a larger hydrophilic surface than ST-A, and subsequently a higher dissolution rate and a substantial enhancement of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of ST-B.


Assuntos
Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorafenibe/química , Acetona/química , Biofarmácia/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202643

RESUMO

Bopu powder® and Sangrovit® were developed from Macleayacordata and are widely used in agriculture and animal husbandry, but their impurities have been rarely reported in the literature. Impurity analysis is of great importance to the quality and safety of veterinary drugs. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with a screening method was used to screen and characterize the impurities in Bopu powder® and Sangrovit®. A total of 58 impurities were screened from Bopu powder® and Sangrovit® using the screening strategies, of which 39 were identified by their accurate m/z value, characteristic MS/MS data, and fragmentation pathways of references. This established method was used for impurity analysis for the first time and proved to be a useful and rapid tool to screen and identify the impurities of Bopu powder® and Sangrovit®, especially for those at trace levels in a complex sample. In addition, this study marks the first comprehensive research into impurities in these two products and has great significance for the systematic detection of impurities in other plant-derived drugs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Pós , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
3.
Nanoscale ; 13(26): 11349-11359, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160529

RESUMO

Two major obstacles that limit the widespread usage of polymeric nanocarriers include the complexity of formulation methods and their stability during storage. To address both of these issues, here we present morphologically complex nanocarriers in a hydratable powder form, which bypasses the need for expensive, harsh, and/or time-consuming nanocarrier fabrication techniques. The powders are composed of carbohydrates and self-assembling polymer amphiphiles having a low glass transition temperature. Hydration requires less than one minute and only involves the addition of aqueous media (water or saline) to rapidly obtain self-assembled micelles, worm-like micelles (i.e. filomicelles), or polymersomes from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-b-PPS) polymers. The formulated powders are highly stable, achieving hydration into monodisperse nanocarriers following >6 months of storage. Diverse drug cargoes were efficiently encapsulated during hydration, including hydrophobic small molecules for micellar morphologies, as well as individual and concurrent loading of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules for vesicular morphologies. Hydrated polymersomes are shown to load hydrophilic biological macromolecules, and encapsulated enzymes retain bioactivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inclusion of lipid-anchored ligands in powder form permits the surface-display of targeting ligands and enhances target cell uptake, thereby extending this technology to targeted drug delivery applications. Our powder-based formulation strategy was extendable to commercially available polymer amphiphiles, including PEG-b-polystyrene and PEG-b-polycaprolactone. The formulated nanotechnologies described herein are highly modular, require minimal preparation, and remain stable in ambient long-term storage (bypassing cold chain requirements), which will enable their use in medicine (human and veterinary), research, and commercial applications from cosmetics to agriculture.


Assuntos
Polietilenoglicóis , Água , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Micelas , Polímeros , Pós
4.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063645

RESUMO

Drug combinations have been the hotspot of the pharmaceutical industry, but the promising applications are limited by the unmet solubility and low bioavailability. In this work, novel cocrystals, consisting of two antithrombotic drugs with poor solubility and low bioavailability in vivo, namely, apixaban (Apx) and quercetin (Que), were developed to discover a potential method to improve the poor solubility and internal absorption of the drug combination. Compared with Apx, the dissolution behavior of Apx-Que (1:1) and Apx-Que-2ACN (1:1:2) was enhanced significantly, while the physical mixture of the chemicals failed to exhibit the advantages. The dissolution improvements of Apx-Que-2ACN could be explained by the fact that the solid dispersion-like structure and column-shaped cage of Que accelerated the access of the solvent to the inner layer of Apx. The fracture of the hydrogen bonds of Apx, which was the joint of the adjacent Que chains, facilitated the break-up of the structures. Besides, the bioavailability of Apx-Que was increased compared with the physical mixture and Apx, and Apx-Que remained stable in high temperature and illumination conditions. Therefore, a drug-drug cocrystal of two antithrombotic agents with poor solubility was developed, which exhibited greatly improved solubility, bioavailability and superior stability, indicating a novel method to overcome the shortages of drug combination.


Assuntos
Cristalização , Combinação de Medicamentos , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Solventes , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Pós , Pirazóis/química , Piridonas/química , Quercetina/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3195-3204, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146398

RESUMO

Effect of capsaicinoids in hot pepper powder (HP) contains various chemical compounds, including capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which are the main ingredients of the spicy taste. To evaluate the effect of HP on the microbial community in kimchi fermentation, kimchi [kimchi-HP, kimchi-HPE and kimchi-HPER made by adding HP, HP alcohol extract (HPE) and HPE residues (HPER)] was fermented at 4°C for 28 days. The pH and titratable acidity of the samples and the number of bacteria changed with fermentation time. Kimchi-HPER had significantly higher total viable and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) than other samples after 28 days of fermentation. The capsaicinoids content did not differ before and after fermentation, whereas the major free sugar content decreased, and the mannitol content increased. The principal component analysis (PCA) biplots showed similar patterns between kimchi-HP and -HPE. It was confirmed that Leuconostoc and Weissella were related to the initial fermentation, and Lactobacillus was involved in late fermentation. Kimchi-HP and kimchi-HPE increased the ratio of Lactobacillus sakei and decreased that of Leuconostoc mesenteroides compared to kimchi-HPER. Overall, these results revealed that capsaicinoids contained in HP affected Lactobacillus proliferation and mannitol increase during kimchi fermentation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica rapa/microbiologia , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Capsicum/química , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Açúcares/análise , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pós/química
6.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(3): 258-262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125717

RESUMO

Melatonin is often prescribed to children with epilepsy. It is supplied as an in-hospital preparation in Japan, but information on the storage conditions of such formulations is lacking. In this study, we used an analytical method to perform periodic measurements in order to establish expiration periods and storage conditions for compounded melatonin powder. A dispenser was used to envelop compounded melatonin powder in wrapping paper, after which the powders were preserved in 1) an opened transparent plastic bag, 2) a closed opaque plastic bag, 3) a closed transparent plastic bag with a desiccant, and 4) a closed opaque plastic bag with a desiccant. The bags were then stored at room temperature (15°C to 25°C), in a refrigerator (4°C), and in a freezer (-20°C). Chromatographic analysis was performed using an ODS-C18 column (40°C, ? = 210 nm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The measurements were made at the following time points: 0 days, 7 days, 14 days, 28 days (1 month), 56 days (2 months), 84 days (3 months), 112 days (4 months), 140 days (5 months), and 168 days (6 months). The residual rates of melatonin for all time points, at all temperatures, under all conditions exceeded 95%. These experimental data suggested that the melatonin powder is stable for at least 6 months at room temperature of 15°C to 25°C.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Hospitais , Humanos , Pós , Refrigeração , Temperatura
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066110

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the beneficial effects of tart cherry (fruit of Prunus cerasus) concentrated powder (TCcp) on glucocorticoid (GLU)-induced catabolic muscular atrophy in the skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, its potential mechanism was also studied. Materials and Methods: Changes in calf thickness, calf muscle weight, calf muscle strength, body weight, gastrocnemius muscle histology, immunohistochemistry, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant defense systems were measured. Malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in the gastrocnemius muscle, and muscle-specific mRNA expressions were evaluated. Results: After 24 days, GLU control mice showed muscular atrophy at all criteria of indexes. The muscular atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of TCcp through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory modulated expression of genes involved in muscle protein degradation (myostatin, atrogin-1, SIRT1, and MuRF1) and synthesis (A1R, Akt1, TRPV4, and PI3K). Conclusions: This study shows that the TCcp (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) could improve muscular atrophies caused by various etiologies.


Assuntos
Frutas , Prunus avium , Animais , Glucocorticoides , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Pós , Canais de Cátion TRPV
8.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064428

RESUMO

Berry pomace, rich in polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, accumulates during the production of red juices. Pomace from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa Michx.), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) represent good sources of coloring foodstuffs. Pomace powders (PP) were prepared by milling the seedless fractions of the three dried berry pomaces (50 °C, 8 h). Techno-functional properties of the powders such as particle size distribution, bulk density, sedimentation velocity, and swelling capacity were determined to evaluate the powders for possible food applications. Total anthocyanin content was quantified by UHPLC-DAD before and during a storage experiment to monitor the degradation of anthocyanins in the PP and in a yogurt model application. The high content of phenolic compounds and the still intact cell structure ensured high stability of anthocyanins over 28 days of storage. In the model application, color saturation was stable over the whole storage time of 14 days. Regarding the techno-functional properties, only a few differences between the three PP were observed. The particle size of elderberry PP was larger, resulting in lowest bulk density (0.45 g/mL), high cold-water solubility (16.42%), and a swelling capacity of 10.16 mL/g dw. Sedimentation velocity of the three PP was fast (0.02 mL/min) due to cluster formation of the particles caused by electrostatic and hydrophobic properties. Compared to other high-intensity coloring foodstuffs, the use of PP, showing acceptable color stability with potential health-promoting effects, represents a wide applicability in different food applications and especially in products with a longer shelf-life.


Assuntos
Corantes de Alimentos/química , Photinia/química , Sambucus/química , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cor , Umidade , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Pós , Água/química , Iogurte/análise
9.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067891

RESUMO

Paprika powder is a good source of different carotenoids and polyphenols, which play a key role in preventing certain diseases (some kinds of cancer and cardiovascular diseases). They can also be used as natural food colorants. Organic production is characterized by strict rules, but products obtained in this way contain more bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of this study was to measure and identify carotenoids and polyphenols in different paprika samples (sweet, hot, smoked, and chili) obtained by organic and conventional production. Quantitative and qualitative carotenoid and polyphenols analysis showed that the experimental samples contained different concentrations of these compounds.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Carotenoides/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Capsicum/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Humanos , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Pós
10.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110401, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112404

RESUMO

As a kind of promising resource, animal bone has been widely processed into functional foods. However, there is little research about the effect of particle size on the physicochemical properties and digestibility of yak bone powder (YBP), as well as its anti-osteoporosis activity. In this study, the YBP with median particle sizes (MPS) ranging from 19.68 to 128.37 µm were prepared, and their digestibility and anti-osteoporosis activity were investigated. The results showed that smaller MPS significantly increased water holding capacity and protein solubility without changing composition. The MPS reduction greatly promoted protein digestion, producing more peptides<3 kDa and free amino acids while decreased Ca2+ and P5+ release during gastrointestinal digestion. The in vivo results revealed the positive effect of YBP on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. The bone mineral density of ovariectomized (OVX) rats was obviously improved by regulating bone turnover markers (B-ALP, OCN, S-CTX, ES and TRAP), thus potentially shedding light on osteoporosis remission. However, different MPS exhibited a weak effect on osteoporosis in OVX rats. Therefore, YBP could be produced in relatively large particle size without sacrificing food sensory quality, the processing time of which could also be shortened for higher productivity and lower cost.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Animais , Osso e Ossos , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Ovariectomia , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Ratos
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 358, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114112

RESUMO

The current experiment was designed to study the response of two strains of laying Japanese quail to diet containing different levels (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) of pomegranate peel (PP) powder for a period of 6 weeks, on egg production, blood chemistry, carcass traits, expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes, and economic efficiency. A total of 576 6-week-old Japanese quails were made up of two strains: white quails (n=288) and brown quails (n=288). Four treatment groups were randomly distributed for each strain. Each group was subdivided into 6 replicates of 10 birds each. Results revealed that the white strain showed significant (P<0.05) higher values in final body weight (BW), egg quality parameters, weights of dressed carcass, and total return (TR) compared with the brown strain. Brown strain had higher hen day egg production % (HDEP%). A significant (P<0.05) interaction effects between genetic type and the dietary PP powder levels was recorded in growth traits, some egg production traits, and mRNA expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes. Results concluded that all the dietary levels of PP powder up to 9% improved growth traits, egg production traits, fertility% (P=0.001), and hatchability% (P=0.007). Moreover, they have a safely biochemical effect on the level of urea (P=0.002) and the concentration of aspartate amino transferase (AST) (P<0.001). It also enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR and LH-ß genes, but showed non-significant (P>0.05) influence on carcass traits. Economically, the net return (NR) was increased in quails fed on 6% and 9% PP powder diets.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Romã (Fruta) , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coturnix/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hormônio Luteinizante Subunidade beta , Pós , Codorniz
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064840

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze all powdered infant formulas authorized and commercialized in Italy at the time of the study to measure the concentrations of 40 elements, and to estimate the infants' intake of some toxic heavy metals for assessing possible related health risks. For this purpose, an optimized multi-element method was used through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Be, B, Al, Zr, Nb, Sb, Te, W, V, Cr and As concentrations were

Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Pós , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise
13.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120018, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091357

RESUMO

This paper demonstrates the assessment of vibrational spectroscopy methods such as middle infrared, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy (FTIR, FT-NIR, Raman) for the identification of pseudopolymorphic forms of a model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) - sodium naproxen (NpxNa). NpxNa, in the form of three different pseudopolymorphs, was investigated by methods dedicated for solid state characterization: DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), XPRD (powder X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and Karl Fischer titration. Novelty in the results sourced in the usage of the method not applied so far to identify pseudopolymorphic forms of NpxNa, that is, FTIR and FT-NIR. Based on the obtained reproduceable results, various pseudopolymorphic forms were successfully evaluated. Spectroscopic data were correlated with DSC and XPRD results. It was concluded that the combination of band's variations visible on the spectra of pseudopolymorphic forms will allow to interpretate the results unequivocally in case of crucial stability tests of medicinal substance or during on-line pharmaceutical process development by FTIR, FT-NIR and Raman spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Naproxeno , Análise Espectral Raman , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Pós , Sódio , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Ther Deliv ; 12(7): 515-522, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139888

RESUMO

Aim: Orally taken pirfenidone (PFD) often causes digestive symptoms. A respirable powder formulation of PFD (PFD-RP) was previously developed, and this study aimed to verify the risk of digestive symptoms after insufflation of PFD-RP. Materials & methods: Intestinal motility and gastrointestinal exposure levels was evaluated in PFD-RP (0.3-mg PFD/rat: a pharmacologically effective dose) and orally taken PFD (10-100 mg/kg) groups. Results & conclusion: Orally taken PFD at doses above 30 mg/kg significantly inhibited intestinal motility. In contrast, insufflated PFD-RP led to comparable intestinal motility in control group, and gastrointestinal exposure levels in PFD-RP group were markedly lower than those in orally taken PFD groups. Inhalation therapy using PFD-RP may be efficacious to reduce the risk of digestive symptoms frequently induced by orally taken PFD.


Assuntos
Piridonas , Animais , Pós , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Ratos
15.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 185, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143327

RESUMO

Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Innovations in biochemical engineering and understanding of the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases resulted in the development of many therapeutic proteins and peptide drugs with high specificity and potency. Currently, protein and peptide drugs are mostly administered by injections due to their large molecular size, poor oral absorption, and labile physicochemical properties. However, parenteral administration has several limitations such as frequent dosing due to the short half-life of protein and peptide in blood, pain on administration, sterility requirement, and poor patient compliance. Among various noninvasive routes of administrations, the pulmonary route has received a great deal of attention and is a better alternative to deliver protein and peptide drugs for treating respiratory diseases and systemic diseases. Among the various aerosol dosage forms, dry powder inhaler (DPI) systems appear to be promising for inhalation delivery of proteins and peptides due to their improved stability in solid state. This review focuses on the development of DPI formulations of protein and peptide drugs using advanced spray drying. An overview of the challenges in maintaining protein stability during the drying process and stabilizing excipients used in spray drying of proteins and peptide drugs is discussed. Finally, a summary of spray-dried DPI formulations of protein and peptide drugs, their characterization, various DPI devices used to deliver protein and peptide drugs, and current clinical status are discussed.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/síntese química , Secagem por Atomização , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/química , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/administração & dosagem , Dessecação/métodos , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Isoleucina/administração & dosagem , Isoleucina/síntese química , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Manitol/síntese química , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos , Pós/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 190, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159445

RESUMO

In direct compression of tablets, it is crucial to maintain content uniformity within acceptable margins, especially in formulations with low drug loading. To assure it, complex and multistep mixing processes are utilized in the industry. In this study, we suggest the use of a simple segregation test to evaluate mixing process performance and mixture segregation to produce tablets having satisfying content uniformity while keeping the process as simple and low cost as possible. Eventually, the formulation propensity to segregation can be evaluated using process analytical technology (PAT) to adjust the mixing process parameters to changing source drug properties. In this study, that approach was examined on a model drug with a broad batch-to-batch variability in particle size and shape. Excipients were chosen so that the resulting blend composition mimicked some marketed formulations. For each drug batch, two formulation blends were prepared through different preparation processes (one simple and one complex) and subsequently subjected to segregation tests. From those, segregation coefficients were obtained to compare segregation tendencies and homogeneity robustness between the drug batches and the blend preparation methods. The inter-particulate interactions were substantially influenced by the drug particle morphology and size and resulted in different segregation behavior. Based on these findings, a simple segregation test proved to be a useful tool for determining the suitability of different batches of the model drug to be used in a certain formulation. Moreover, for a particular batch A, the test revealed a potential for mixing process simplification and therefore process intensification and cost reduction.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Excipientes/síntese química , Tamanho da Partícula , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Pós , Pressão , Comprimidos
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2255-2263, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997988

RESUMO

Freeze-drying and spray-drying are two techniques used to produce dehydrated food products. Both techniques are easy to use and offer high sensory, nutritive value, and functional quality to foods. However, both processes become difficult for foods with high sugar and acid content, such as fruits. This is because these products, once dehydrated, moisten quickly, causing a change in their physical properties, mainly in the mechanical aspects related to the start of a caking phenomenon. Therefore, incorporating high molecular weight biopolymers that act as facilitators or processors, prevent the structural collapse of the product. The aim of this study was to select the best process, between freeze-drying or spray-drying, to obtain a powdered grapefruit product with the higher quality. The impact of the biopolymers used to stabilize the powdered product was also tested. The properties analyzed were the solubility, wettability, hygroscopicity, porosity, and color of the powder together with the flow behavior, both in air and water. The results of this study show that using the freeze-drying technique, products have a better flow behavior, greater porosity, and a color more like fresh grapefruit. Biopolymers, especially when in combination, have a positive effect on the quality parameters studied. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study allow freeze-drying to be proposed as a process to obtain a grapefruit product with better properties, both powdered and rehydrated, than that obtained by spray-drying. On the other hand, although the incorporation of biopolymers is necessary to facilitate the process and stabilize the product, no significant differences have been found between the different formulations tested, although it seems that their combination favours some of the properties of the powder, such as solubility, hygroscopicity, wetting time and dispersibility.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Frutas/química , Biopolímeros , Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Liofilização , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pós , Solubilidade , Água/análise , Molhabilidade
18.
Food Chem ; 360: 130032, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022520

RESUMO

Five fettuccini formulations containing 5% (5MSP), 10% (10MSP), 15% (15MSP), 20% (20MSP), and 30% (30MSP) of moringa sprout powder (MSP) were produced aimed at improving the nutritional and bioactive profile of conventional pasta. A gradual increase of protein, lipids, fiber and mineral content was observed in fettuccine as the MSP amount increased, while carbohydrates were reduced. MSP-addition also increased the levels of thiamine, riboflavin, γ- aminobutyric acid, glucosinolates and the antioxidant activity in pasta. All pasta doughs showed similar rheological parameters. Textural properties decreased after MSP inclusion, but the values obtained were close to those of control. Incorporation of MSP up to 10% did not modify substantially the sensory attributes of fettuccine, but higher amounts had a negative impact. Thus, addition of MSP up to 10% is a promising technological approach to improve the nutritional and functional properties of pasta without compromising consumer acceptance.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Moringa/química , Valor Nutritivo , Pós , Antioxidantes , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Reologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
19.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153573, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Qingchang Suppository, a formula used for more than 30 years in Longhua Hospital, has shown satisfactory clinical effects on Ulcerative Colitis (UC). However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been fully elucidated. PURPOSE: The study aims to investigate the effects of Qingchang Suppository powder (QCSP) and its ingredients by regulating the IL-17A signaling pathway which plays an important role in the development of UC. METHODS: HPLC was used to analyze the main ingredients (Gallic acid, Indigo, Indirubin) in QCSP. HT-29 cells were induced by rhIL-17A and TNF-α, and IL-17A related protein expressions were determined by western blot. BALB/C mice were induced by 4% Dextran Sodium sulfate (DSS). The effects of QCSP and its ingredients were evaluated by measuring weight loss, disease activity index (DAI), colon length, histological analysis. Western blot was used for analysis of IL-17A and MAPK related proteins p-ERK, p-JNK, p-P38. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) was used to detect the expression of IL-17A, HSP90 and ACT1 in colon tissue. Cytokines such as IL-17A, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and TNF-α were determinated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: QCSP had good therapeutic effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice. QCSP significantly relieved weight loss, restored colon length, repaired colon lesions, reduced histological scores and DAI, decreased TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-17 and IFN-γ contents, significantly suppressed the gene expressions of IL-17A, ACT1 and HSP90, and up-regulated the expressions of tight junction proteins like ZO-1 and Occludin. IL-17A pathway related proteins such as IL-17A, IL-17RA, HSP90, MAPKs, P-iκbα and iNOS were significantly increased in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This paper reveals that QCSP inhibited the IL-17A signaling pathway in HT-29 cells and DSS induced mice, presenting a new mechanism of QCS on treating UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Células HT29 , Humanos , Interleucina-17/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pós/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Supositórios/administração & dosagem , Supositórios/efeitos adversos
20.
Food Chem ; 361: 130136, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051599

RESUMO

Alterations in surface chemical composition relating to rehydration properties of spray-dried camel milk powders during accelerated storage (11-33% RH, 37 °C) over 18 weeks were investigated. The results showed that the surface of the fresh spray-dried camel milk powder (t = 0) was dominated by lipids (78%), followed by proteins (16%) and lactose (6%). During storage, the surface protein and lactose content decreased while the surface lipid content increased, resulting in an increase in surface hydrophobicity and slight agglomeration of the powder, especially for powder kept at 33% RH. Although fresh camel milk powder had very poor wettability, it displayed very high dispersibility and solubility (99%). During storage, dispersibility and solubility declined with increasing storage time and increasing RH levels, which correlated with an increase in surface lipid content. However, at the end of the storage period, camel milk powder still retained very high solubility (>93%).


Assuntos
Camelus , Leite/química , Animais , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lactose/química , Lactose/metabolismo , Pós/química , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
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