Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 383
Filtrar
1.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 1062-1068, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029142

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary Enteromorpha powder supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality, and antioxidant performance of Zi geese during the late laying period. Three hundred twelve Zi geese (1 yr old) were randomly allocated into 2 cohorts to form a control group and an experimental group (with each cohort including 6 replicates and 21 female geese and 5 male geese in each replicate). The control group was fed a basal diet, and the experimental group was fed a diet containing 3% Enteromorpha powder. The data showed that Enteromorpha powder supplementation significantly improved egg production, laying rate, average daily egg weight (P < 0.01), and egg yolk color (P < 0.05). Supplementation decreased the ADFI and feed conversion rate (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly higher in serum and ovary tissue (P < 0.05), but GSH-Px activity was lower in liver tissue (P < 0.01). Malondialdehyde was reduced in liver and ovary tissue (P < 0.05) in the Enteromorpha powder supplementation group. Meanwhile, the expression of the CAT gene was significantly upregulated in the liver (P < 0.01) in the Enteromorpha group. These results indicate that dietary Enteromorpha powder supplementation improved productive performance and reduced the level of lipid peroxidation in Zi geese during the late laying period.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gansos/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Reprodução , Ulva/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 708-718, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029156

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) sources and rosemary leaves powder (RLP) on the semen quality, fatty acid analysis, and some reproductive hormones of senescent broiler breeder roosters. Thirty-five 45-wk-old Ross breeder roosters were randomly divided into 7 groups (5 birds/group), and received following treatments including control group (basal diet), fish oil (2%), corn oil (2%), an equal (50:50%) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%), fish oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, corn oil (2%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP, and an equal (50:50) proportion of fish oil and corn oil (50:50%) with 5 g/kg capsulated RLP of diet for 60 D, during which time their seminal characteristics were evaluated every 20 D. At the end of the trial (on day 60), semen samples were tested for determination of sperm fatty acid analysis, lipid peroxidation, and some reproductive hormones. Results showed that feeding fish oil and fish/corn oil with RLP was associated with an increase in docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) and docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4n-6) in sperm. The fish oil diet increased the proportion of n-3 fatty acids in sperm, and as a consequence, the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio also decreased (P < 0.05). RLP (5 g/kg) to the fish and fish/corn-oil (50:50%)-based diet resulted in improvement in sperm concentration, total motility (%), sperm progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and viability in terms 0 to 60 day trial (P < 0.05). Diets and age interacted to positively affect sperm concentration and sperm membrane integrity. Also this herbal antioxidant decreased the seminal content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (P < 0.05). Testosterone and LH serum levels of reproductive hormones were significantly higher in fish and fish/corn-oil with RPL (50:50%)-based diet than other groups (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that RLP as an antioxidant could remarkably improve the effects of n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA on sperm characteristics, seminal MDA, and hormones levels in aged breeder roosters. The susceptibility of semen to lipid peroxidation was increased in chickens fed without RLP. Future studies are needed to disclose the causal mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Luteinizante/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testosterona/metabolismo
3.
Int J Pharm ; 572: 118773, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678391

RESUMO

Knowledge that enables the accurate simulation of drug deposition in the human upper airway is necessary to develop robust platforms for efficient drug delivery by inhalation devices. The human upper airway is deformable during inhalation but how it could affect the deposition of inhaled drugs is unknown. We aimed to determine whether pharyngeal deformation at the soft palate level would have any significant effects on throat deposition, in vitro lung dose and fine particle fraction. In this study, dry mannitol powders were delivered to the next-generation cascade impactor (NGI) through the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) throat, and a realistic upper airway cast (RUPAC) at flow rates of 40, 60 and 80 L min-1. Deformation of the upper airway at 25%, 50%, and 75% in the lateral and antero-posterior directions were experimentally simulated in the RUPAC. Throat deposition (p = 0.04) is significantly affected when the upper airway deforms laterally but not antero-posteriorly.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Faringe/metabolismo , Pós/metabolismo , Administração por Inalação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/administração & dosagem
4.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 36(3): 239-276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679248

RESUMO

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb). As treatment for TB, dry powders for inhalation (DPIs) are considered stable compared with nebulizers and metered dose inhalers and are suitable for high-dose formulations. Although extensive research has been done over the last two to three decades on nanocarrier-based DPIs for targeting MTb infection, none of the anti-TB DPI formulations have reached the market. Challenges in the proper assessment of nanocarrier-based DPIs due to the complexity of lungs is one of the reasons. In this review, the details of in vitro evaluation parameters of nanocarriers and nanocarrier-based DPIs along with their need and basic principles are discussed. Further, the thorough in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo pharmacological evaluations, together with their procedures wherever required, are covered. The different evaluation parameters during process development, release specifications, and stability studies suggested by U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research to apply for new drug applications and abbreviated new drug applications of DPIs are also discussed. Lastly, the evaluation parameters for DPIs provided in European, United States, British, and Indian pharmacopeias are summarized.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antituberculosos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7425367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737676

RESUMO

Vegetables and beans are nutrient-dense foods with innate potential to mediate diabetes in a variety of cultures. The present study aims at evaluating vegetables and beans for assessing their glycemic index and response in raising glucose levels in human model. Powdered formulations of vegetables and beans were designed to modulate glycemic response of carbohydrate-rich staples. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted in healthy young adults (n = 24) who were challenged with vegetable powder-supplemented chapatti (VPSC), bean powder-supplemented chapatti (BPSC) and all-purpose wheat flour chapatti (APFC) to evaluate their postprandial glucose (PPG) and postprandial insulin (PPI) responses. In comparison with APFC, feeding VPSC and BPSC to healthy volunteers anticipated significant reduction in PPG (44% reduction in incremental area under the curve (AUC) for VPSC and 46% reduction in incremental AUC for BPSC, p = 0.005). Likewise, significant reduction in PPI levels was observed for VPSC (59%, p = 0.012) and BPSC (47%, p = 0.002) compared to APFC-treated group. The study concludes wheat flour enrichment with vegetables and beans powder as a viable approach to develop cost effective and culturally acceptable low glycemic foods bearing acceptable sensory attributes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Pós/administração & dosagem , Verduras/química , Adulto , Pão , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Farinha , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triticum/química , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pharm Res ; 36(12): 167, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650274

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral direct compressible tablets are the most frequently used drug products. Manufacturing of tablets requires design and development of formulations, which need a number of excipients. The choice of excipients depends on the concentration, manufacturability, stability, and bioavailability of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). At MIT, we developed a miniature platform for on-demand manufacturing of direct compressible tablets. This study investigated how formulations could be simplified to use a small number of excipients for a number of different API's in which long term stability is not required. METHOD: Direct compressible tablets of five pharmaceutical drugs, Diazepam, Diphenhydramine HCl, Doxycycline Monohydrate, Ibuprofen, and Ciprofloxacin HCl, with different drug loadings, were made using direct compression in an automated small scale system.. The critical quality attributes (CQA) of the tablets were assessed for the quality standards set by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). RESULTS: This miniature system can manufacture tablets - on-demand from crystalline API using the minimum number of excipients required for drug product performance. All drug tablets met USP quality standards after manufacturing and after 2 weeks of accelerated stability test, except for slightly lower drug release for Ibuprofen. CONCLUSIONS: On-demand tablets manufacturing where there is no need for long term stability using a flexible, miniature, automated (integrated) system will simplify pharmaceutical formulation design compared to traditional formulations. This advancement will offer substantial economic benefits by decreasing product time-to-market and enhancing quality.


Assuntos
Excipientes/química , Comprimidos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Diazepam/química , Difenidramina/química , Doxiciclina/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ibuprofeno/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem
7.
Parasite ; 26: 57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535969

RESUMO

The mass production of mosquitoes is becoming more wide-spread due to the increased application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and other genetic control programmes. Due to the variable availability and high cost of the bovine liver powder (BLP) constituent of many current larval diets, there is an urgent demand for new ingredients in order to support sustainable and efficient mosquito production while reducing rearing cost, without affecting the quality of the insects produced. Two black soldier fly (BSF) powder-based diet formulations (50% tuna meal, 35% BSF powder, 15% brewer's yeast and 50% tuna meal + 50% BSF powder) were tested for their suitability to support the development of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in mass-rearing conditions. Overall, the results indicate that the use of the BSF powder did not negatively impact the development and quality of the produced insects in terms of time to pupation, adult production and male flight ability. Furthermore, depending on the species and diet formulations, there were improvements in some parameters such as female body size, egg production, egg hatch rate and male longevity. BSF powder is a valuable ingredient that can effectively replace costly BLP for the mass production of high quality Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Both diet formulations can be used for Ae. aegypti showing high plasticity to nutrition sources. However, for Ae. albopictus we recommend the combination including brewer's yeast.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Pós/administração & dosagem , Simuliidae/química , Animais , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pós/química
8.
Foot Ankle Int ; 40(1_suppl): 12S-14S, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322928

RESUMO

RECOMMENDATION: Though one study supporting topically applied vancomycin has shown it to reduce the rate of deep infection in diabetic patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery, there is insufficient evidence to show benefits or to show any risks associated with the use of vancomycin powder during total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) or other foot and ankle procedures in a general population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Consensus. DELEGATE VOTE: Agree: 100%, Disagree: 0%, Abstain: 0% (Unanimous, Strongest Consensus).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pós/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Tornozelo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo , Consenso , Pé/cirurgia , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
9.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 650-660, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257946

RESUMO

Purpose: With the increase of population aging and the proportion of overweight and obese, a growing number of people are suffering from diabetes. Insulin (INS) as the most widely used hypoglycemic agent was always chosen as the most effective treatment method of diabetes. In this study, fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP) was used as a carrier for the pulmonary delivery of insulin. Patients and methods: The INS-loaded FDKP microspheres (INS@FDKP-MPs) were prepared by spray drying and physicochemical properties (drug loading, particle size, flowability, moisture content, morphology, and crystalline state) were further investigated. Pharmacodynamics was investigated on diabetic model rats administrated by intratracheal insufflation. Results: The INS-loaded FDKP microspheres show satisfied flowability and in vitro deposition with FPF 50.2% and MMAD 3.45 ± 0.13 µm, and the blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Moreover, no inflammatory reaction was observed during the safety study. Conclusion: To sum up, the aim was to develop a non-injection system for insulin, INS@FDKP-MPs powder inhalation with high dose, low toxicity, and good lung deposition inhalation could rapidly decrease the blood glucose level without immune stimulation, which shows remarkably potential on diabetes treatment by pulmonary delivery route.


Assuntos
Dicetopiperazinas/administração & dosagem , Dicetopiperazinas/química , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Microesferas , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
J Wound Care ; 28(7): 482-490, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To confirm the safety and wound healing activity of a topical spray powder containing hyaluronic acid (HA) and metallic silver (Hyalosilver, Fidia Farmaceutici S.p.A., Italy), and investigate its effect on the control of bacterial load in vascular ulcers or category I-II pressure ulcers (PU). METHODS: This is a single site, prospective, open label study involving patients with a vascular ulcer or category I-II PUs, presenting signs of critical bacterial colonisation. Patients with a wound size of ≤15cm2 were enrolled. At baseline, a swab was taken of each wound for a semi-quantitative analysis of bacterial load and the first treatment of topical spray powder was applied. The patient was then requested to self-apply the medication once a day for 28 consecutive days and to return on days one, seven and 28 for clinical and microbiological assessments. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study. Treatment with the topical spray powder enhanced the healing rate of chronic wounds in terms of a reduction of wound area as well as bacterial load (p<0.025) and the overall clinical status of wound (odour, exudate, erythema of periwound skin; p<0.017). Moreover, the spray powder increased overall patient perception of improvement in the wound (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The data demonstrated good safety and tolerability of the topical spray powder suggesting that the product is effective not only in reducing wound area, due to the presence of HA, but in keeping the bacterial colonisation under control.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Lesão por Pressão/tratamento farmacológico , Prata/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós/administração & dosagem , Lesão por Pressão/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Prata/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia
11.
Pharm Res ; 36(8): 110, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139939

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the predictive power of computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based dispersion parameters in the development of a new inline DPI that is actuated with low volumes of air. METHODS: Four new versions of a dose aerosolization and containment (DAC)-unit DPI were created with varying inlet and outlet orifice sizes and analyzed with results from five previous designs. A concurrent in vitro and CFD analysis was conducted to predict the emitted dose (ED; as a % of loaded dose) and aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) produced by each device when actuated with 10 ml air bursts. CFD simulations of device operation were used to predict flow field and particle-based dispersion parameters. RESULTS: Comparisons of experimental and CFD results indicated that multiple flow field and particle-based dispersion parameters could be used to predict ED (minimum RMS Error = 4.9%) and MMAD (minimum RMS Error = 0.04 µm) to a high degree of accuracy. Based on experiments, the best overall device produced mean (standard deviation; SD) ED = 82.9(4.3)% and mean MMAD (SD) = 1.73(0.07)µm, which were in close agreement with the CFD predictions. CONCLUSIONS: A unique relationship was identified in the DAC-unit DPI in which reducing turbulence also reduced the MMAD.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Inaladores de Pó Seco/instrumentação , Hidrodinâmica , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/administração & dosagem
12.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(8): 1379-1387, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099273

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) accelerates wound healing, as it is an excellent source of growth factors. PRP was separated from whole human blood by centrifugation. PRP powder and wafers were prepared by lyophilization, with the wafers prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC). The PRP wafers showed porous structures, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and the ability of the wafer to absorb exudates and thus promote wound healing was tested with the hydration capacity test. The platelet count was tested and indicated that the presence of PRP in the wafers had no effect on the platelet count. An antimicrobial activity test was carried out, showing that PRP had antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Compared with lyophilized PRP powder and PRP-free wafers, PRP wafers showed the highest percent of wound size reduction on induced wounds in rats. Histopathological examination of rat skin showed that the PRP wafers achieved the shortest healing time, followed by the lyophilized PRP powder and finally the PRP-free wafers. The present study revealed that PRP can be formulated as a wafer, which is a promising pharmaceutical delivery system that can be used for enhanced wound-healing activity and improved the ease of application compared to lyophilized PRP powder.


Assuntos
Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Liofilização/métodos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/microbiologia
13.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126050

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of Yellow Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and its biological activity on stallions following oral administration of hypocotyl powder. Maca was subjected to methanolic extraction and the chemical analysis was carried out by LC-MS-QTOF (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Our results showed that Maca contains some effective antioxidants, a high percentage of glucosinolates, and other important components with a high antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the plant biological activity in stallions fed with Maca powder for 60 days, the redox status and some reproductive parameters were investigated. Blood and semen samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days from the beginning of this study. Blood samples showed a decrease of the reactive oxygen metabolites, evaluated by d-ROMs test, and an increase of the antioxidant barrier in terms of biological antioxidant potential (BAP test), powerful oxidant capacity (OXY-Adsorbent test), and thiols evaluation (-SHp test). Furthermore, semen samples showed a positive trend during Maca administration in the following parameters: ejaculate volumes and sperm concentrations, total and progressive motility, and acrosome integrity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Sêmen/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucosinolatos/administração & dosagem , Glucosinolatos/química , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Cavalos , Hipocótilo/química , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pós/administração & dosagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(8): 1321-1331, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014129

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a combination dry powder formulation of ethionamide and moxifloxacin HCl as this combination is synergistic against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). L-leucine (20% w/w) was added in the formulations to maximize the process yield. Moxifloxacin HCl and/or ethionamide powders with/without L-leucine were produced using a Buchi Mini Spray-dryer. A next generation impactor was used to determine the in vitro aerosolization efficiency. The powders were also characterized for other physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity. All the spray-dried powders were within the aerodynamic size range of <5.0 µm except ethionamide-only powder (6.0 µm). The combination powders with L-leucine aerosolized better (% fine particle fraction (FPF): 61.3 and 61.1 for ethionamide and moxifloxacin, respectively) than ethionamide-only (%FPF: 9.0) and moxifloxacin-only (%FPF: 30.8) powders. The combination powder particles were collapsed with wrinkled surfaces whereas moxifloxacin-only powders were spherical and smooth and ethionamide-only powders were angular-shaped flakes. The combination powders had low water content (<2.0%). All the powders were physically stable at 15% RH and 25 ± 2 °C during 1-month storage and tolerated by bronchial epithelial cell-lines up to 100 µg/ml. The improved aerosolization of the combination formulation may be helpful for the effective treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms for improved aerosolization and test the synergistic activity of the combination powder.


Assuntos
Etionamida/administração & dosagem , Etionamida/química , Moxifloxacina/administração & dosagem , Moxifloxacina/química , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Dessecação/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Excipientes/química , Leucina/química , Tamanho da Partícula
15.
Orthopedics ; 42(5): e430-e436, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913295

RESUMO

Topical vancomycin has been shown to effectively reduce infections after spinal surgery while remaining safe and cost-effective; however, there are few studies evaluating topical vancomycin in total hip arthroplasty. The authors hypothesized that the incidence of periprosthetic joint infection would decrease with the use of topical vancomycin in total hip arthroplasty and that topical vancomycin would be cost-effective. A retrospective patient chart review was performed to evaluate consecutive primary cementless total hip arthroplasties performed in the authors' hospital system between April 2015 and December 2016. Demographic data were collected. Periprosthetic joint infection was defined by Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. Statistical analysis included t test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression. The costs of vancomycin and postoperative infection were used to determine the absolute risk reduction (1/number needed to treat) threshold needed for topical vancomycin to be cost-effective. In this study, 309 patients (55.7%) undergoing total hip arthroplasty were treated with topical vancomycin, and 246 patients (44.3%) did not receive treatment. There were 2 infections in the vancomycin group (0.6% incidence), and 4 in the no vancomycin group (1.6% incidence). There was no statistical difference in infection rate between the 2 cohorts (P=.414). The absolute risk reduction was 0.98%, and the number needed to treat with topical vancomycin was 102 patients to prevent 1 periprosthetic joint infection. Topical vancomycin ($12 per vial) resulted in an expected cost savings of $904 per patient. Topical vancomycin is inexpensive and cost-effective. Although not statistically significant, the topical vancomycin group had a 60% lower incidence of infection. Further research regarding appropriate prophylactic topical and intravenous antibiotic use is needed prior to widespread adoption. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(5):e430-e436.].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/economia , Artrite Infecciosa , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pós/administração & dosagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vancomicina/economia
17.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (2): 58-64, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855592

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate an efficacy of local administration of vancomycin powder in posterior lumbar fusion surgery for prevention of local infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 214 patients. All patients were divided into 2 groups: I group (control) and II (experimental). Patients of the first group underwent conventional antibiotic prophylaxis of wound infections, in group II traditional antibiotic prophylaxis was supplemented by local administration of vancomycin powder 1 g prior to wound closure. RESULTS: There were 12 cases of wound infection in group I and 5 cases in group II. There were significant differences in overall incidence of wound infection and wound infections caused by S. aureus (p=0.035; p=0.044, respectively). Significant risk factors of local infection were determined in group II: obesity, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, length of hospital-stay and previous lumbosacral spinal surgery. Multivariate analysis revealed following risk factors of wound infection: diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, the number of involved spinal segments and previous lumbosacral spinal surgery. CONCLUSION: Local application of vancomycin powder in posterior lumbar fusion surgery significantly reduces the incidence of wound infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Fusão Vertebral , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus aureus , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Humanos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845731

RESUMO

We determined the serum uric acid-lowering effects of combined daily supplementation of glycine and tryptophan in patients with mild hyperuricemia using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial design. Japanese healthy adult males and females with mild hyperuricemia (fasting serum uric acid of 6.6⁻7.9 mg/dL) ingested a powder mixture containing 3.0 g of glycine and 0.2 g of tryptophan or a placebo powder once daily at bedtime for 6 weeks. Combined supplementation with glycine and tryptophan significantly decreased serum uric acid levels (from 7.1 mg/dL to 6.7 mg/dL, p = 0.004) before and after the trial. Serum uric acid concentrations significantly decreased in the subjects supplemented with the amino acid mixture compared with those in placebo-treated subjects (p = 0.028). In addition, the combination treatment with glycine and tryptophan decreased serum triglyceride levels (from 119 mg/dL to 86 mg/dL, p = 0.002). Increased solubility of uric acid caused by urinary pH were likely contributors to the serum uric acid-lowering effects of the amino acid mixture.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 42, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerosol delivery through a nasal high flow (NHF) system is attractive for clinicians as it allows for simultaneous administration of oxygen and inhalable drugs. However, delivering a fine particle fraction (FPF, particle wt. fraction < 5.0 µm) of drugs into the lungs has been very challenging, with highest value of only 8%. Here, we aim to develop an efficient nose-to-lung delivery system capable of delivering improved quantities (FPF > 16%) of dry powder aerosols to the lungs via an NHF system. METHODS: We evaluated the FPF of spray-dried mannitol with leucine with a next generation impactor connected to a nasopharyngeal outlet of an adult nasal airway replica. In addition, we investigated the influence of different dispersion (20-30 L/min) and inspiratory (20-40 L/min) flow rates, on FPF. RESULTS: We found an FPF of 32% with dispersion flow rate at 25 L/min and inspiratory flow rate at 40 L/min. The lowest FPF (21%) obtained was at the dispersion flow rate at 30 L/min and inspiratory flow rate at 30 L/min. A higher inspiratory flow rate was generally associated with a higher FPF. The nasal cannula accounted for most loss of aerosols. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, delivering a third of inhalable powder to the lungs is possible in vitro through an NHF system using a low dispersion airflow and a highly dispersible powder. Our results may lay the foundation for clinical evaluation of powder aerosol delivery to the lungs during NHF therapy in humans.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pós/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Cânula , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Anatômicos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Tamanho da Partícula , Ventilação Pulmonar
20.
Int J Pharm ; 559: 68-75, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677482

RESUMO

Meloxicam is an anti-inflammatory drug that could be interesting to deliver locally to the lungs to treat inflammation occurring in cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Spray drying conditions were optimized to prepare inhalable dry powders, from meloxicam aqueous solution with pH adjustment. A comparison study between non-porous and large porous particles (LPPs) was carried out to demonstrate the relevance of the aimed large size (>5 µm) and low density (<0.2 mg/cm3) formulations. With the appropriate amount of porogen agent, ammonium bicarbonate, LPPs exhibited the same aerodynamic diameter and a higher deposited fraction than smaller but dense particles. The aerodynamic evaluation of LPPs showed that the fine particle fraction (FPF) reached up to 65.8%, while the emitted fraction (EF) reached 85.4%, both higher than for the non-porous particles. Stability tests demonstrated that, after 10 weeks of storage, no significant difference could be detected in the aerodynamic behaviour of the formulations. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time large porous particles, with enhanced aerodynamic properties, from an aqueous solution of meloxicam are reported.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/química , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA