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1.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 279-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976553

RESUMO

Insects are considered edible food resources with sufficient nutrients, but their nutrient composition and safety evaluation have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we investigated the nutrient composition and the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of locust powder in male rats. In the acute oral toxicological experiment, rats were administered locust powder at a dose of 10 or 20 g/kg/dose, followed by monitoring general signs of toxicity for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicological experiments, rats were fed with a diet containing 1% and 3% locust powder for 28 and 90 days. General signs of toxicity, body weight, plasma and blood components, weight and fat accumulation in tissues, and fecal fat excretion were investigated. The locust powder was rich in proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the acute toxicological experiment, no general signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 20 g/kg. In the sub-chronic toxicological experiments, parameters related to red blood cell were lowered by the 3% locust powder for 28 days, but not for 90 days. Liver lipid accumulation and fecal fat excretion were increased by the 3% locust powder for 90 days, but the liver lipids contents were considered to be within a nontoxic level. Cecum contents and cecum short-chain fatty acids were lowered by the locust powder, which can be caused by its fiber and fiber-like components. In conclusion, acute and sub-chronic intake of locust powder had little effect on general, biochemical, and hematological signs of toxicity in rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Edible insects are increasingly viewed as new sustainable protein sources for human foods and livestock feeds worldwide because of their high nutritional balance, high food conversion rate, and environmental merits. Here, we have clarified that a locust powder contains high levels of protein, polyunsaturated functional fatty acids, and minerals (iron, zinc, and magnesium), and intake of locust powder (3% in diet) had little effects on general, biochemical, and hematological signs of toxicity in male rats. Locust as an edible insect, in powder form, can contribute to human dietary needs.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/efeitos adversos , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Int J Pharm ; 570: 118647, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465838

RESUMO

In the pharmaceutical field, green fluidized bed granulation (GFBG) is a novel and eco-friendly manufacturing technology used to produce desired granules via simple blending and spraying steps at ambient temperature using a standard fluidized bed granulator. However, the relations between water content and granule and tablet qualities have not yet been elucidated for GFBG. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the influence of different water quantities used in the GFBG process on granule and tablet qualities. In addition, results from the GFBG process were compared with those from the moisture-activated dry granulation (MADG) process. In terms of tablet tensile strength and disintegration time, GFBG had a wider acceptable range for added water quantity (2.0-5.0%) than did MADG. For all added water quantities, the GFBG granules were within the upper limit of water activity (a surrogate of free water amount), which was 0.61 for tensile strength and 0.55 for disintegration time. The air flow in the GFBG process may have reduced the excess free water on the granules during the absorption process. It was concluded that as compared with MADG, GFBG may be a more robust process for manufacturing granules and tablets with superior properties.


Assuntos
Comprimidos/química , Água/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Pós/metabolismo , Resistência à Tração
3.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5768-5778, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454000

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed at investigating the antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried fruit powder of Actinidia arguta (FAA) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice and the effect of its extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. For pharmacodynamic studies, the oral administration of FAA (300 or 600 mg kg-1) could decrease the disease activity index (DAI), reduce the incidence of colon and spleen edemas (caused by inflammation), and alleviate the pathological changes in UC. For research involving biochemical indicators, FAA could decrease the expression of inflammatory markers (such as myeloperoxidase (MPO)) and attenuate the oxidative stress levels. ELISA results revealed that the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were downregulated by FAA. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammation-induced activation of p38, JNK, and ERK were decreased by FAA. Hence, it was concluded that FAA could alleviate the UC symptoms in mice and the inflammatory response of macrophages via the MAPK signal pathway. Overall, FAA might have the potential to treat UC when used as a dietary supplement.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Actinidia/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Preparações de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
4.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4584-4592, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347643

RESUMO

The natural food-derived compound curcumin (from turmeric root) is known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, due to its poor solubility when consumed in isolation, it is poorly bioavailable. In this crossover study we compared the bioavailability of curcumin from a meal containing either curcumin powder, turmeric powder or grated fresh turmeric root, all containing 400 mg of curcumin, along with mashed potatoes and cream. Healthy male participants consumed the meals following overnight fasting, and postprandial blood samples were taken to measure plasma curcuminoids (curcumin, dimethylcurcumin (DMC) and bisdimethylcurcumin (BDMC)). All plasma curcumin values refer to total curcumin (sum of free and conjugated curcumin). The meals were also analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the location of curcuminoids. Both of the turmeric meals produced significantly higher amounts (p < 0.05) of plasma curcuminoids at 1-3 hours after the meal was consumed, as compared to the curcumin powder. Plasma curcumin Cmax was 4.9 ng ml-1 95% CI (confidence interval) [2.2, 7.5] for the fresh turmeric meal, 8.4 ng ml-1 95% CI [4.4, 12.48] for the turmeric powder meal and 0.19 ng ml-1 95% [-0.08, 0.47] for the curcumin powder meal. Plasma DMC and BDMC were significantly higher (p < 0.05) following the turmeric powder meal, compared with the fresh turmeric meal and the curcumin powder meal. Microscopy images showed that the curcuminoid particles were mostly confined within curcuminoid cells in the fresh turmeric meal. They were unconfined but in clusters in the turmeric powder meal, while the curcuminoid particles appeared smaller in the curcumin powder meal. Conclusion: curcumin bioavailability is enhanced when consumed as fresh or powdered turmeric, which could be due to the co-presence of other turmeric compounds and/or a turmeric matrix effect.


Assuntos
Curcuma/metabolismo , Curcumina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/química , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 141: 210-220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154066

RESUMO

Although the mucus layer is the first biological barrier encountered by inhaled drugs upon their deposition in the upper airways, its potential impact on drug dissolution and absorption in the lung has hardly been investigated. Bio-relevant in vitro models were therefore used to assess the role of airway mucus in the fate of drug particles at the air-epithelium interface. Salbutamol and indomethacin were used as model Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class III and class II drugs, respectively. Dry powders were reproducibly aerosolised using a PennCentury™ Dry Powder Insufflator onto multiple air-liquid interfaced layers of the broncho-epithelial cell line Calu-3 or thin layers of porcine tracheal mucus mounted onto Transwells® inserts, as well as on empty Transwells®. Comparison of the permeation profiles of the two drugs indicated that mucus acted as a barrier for salbutamol transport but increased that of indomethacin, suggesting it facilitates the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs. In presence of Calu-3 layers, the permeability of salbutamol was even more restricted while indomethacin transport was enhanced further. This study demonstrates mucus distinctly affects the absorption characteristics of drugs with different physico-chemical properties. Hence, drug-mucus interactions should be considered during the development of inhaled drugs.


Assuntos
Albuterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Brônquios/metabolismo , Broncodilatadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós/metabolismo , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
6.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 106: 15-26, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028796

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are the most common metal allergens upon skin contact at occupational settings and during consumer handling of metals and alloys. A standardized test (EN, 1811) exists to assess Ni release from articles of metals and alloys in massive forms intended for direct and prolonged skin contact, but no corresponding test exists for other materials such as powders or massive forms of alloys placed on the market or to determine the release of Co, for which only limited data is available. Differences in Ni and Co release from massive forms of a range of common stainless steels and some high-alloyed grades compared to Ni and Co metals were therefore assessed in artificial sweat for 1 week at 30 °C according to EN 1811. A comparable modified test procedure was elaborated and used for powders and some selected massive alloys. All alloys investigated released significantly less amount of Ni (100-5000-fold) and Co (200-400,000-fold) compared with Ni and Co metal, respectively. Almost all alloys showed a lower bioaccessible concentration (0.007-6.8 wt% Ni and 0.00003-0.6 wt% Co) when compared to corresponding bulk alloy contents (0.1-53 wt% Ni, 0.02-65 wt% Co). Observed differences are, among other factors, related to differences in bulk composition and to surface oxide characteristics. For the powders, less Ni and Co were released per surface area, but more per mass, compared to the corresponding massive forms.


Assuntos
Ligas/análise , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Cobalto/análise , Níquel/análise , Aço Inoxidável/análise , Suor/química , Ligas/metabolismo , Cobalto/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/análise , Pós/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(10): 4686-4694, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of functional and nutraceutical foods comes from a greater awareness of the relationship between food and health by consumers. In recent years, the idea of purifying and encapsulating bioactive compounds through techniques such as spray drying has been well received by the food industry. The development and characterization of a grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) nutraceutical powder obtained by spray drying is of great interest owing to the different bioactive compounds and the potential health effects. RESULTS: The grapefruit powder was characterized by a low water amount (1.5 g water per 100 g powder) and a high porosity (75%). The color parameters were L* = 80.0 ± 1.8, hab * = 61.7 ± 0.4 and Cab * = 11.4 ± 0.6. The IC50 values determined for the freeze-dried oxalic acid extract (FDOA) and the freeze-dried methanol-water extract (FDMW) were 0.48 and 0.72 mg mL-1 respectively, while the total phenolic content (TPC) ranged between 1274 and 1294 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry basis (d.b.). Regarding total flavonoid content (TFC), FDOA presented the highest amount (6592 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) per 100 g d.b.). For both extracts, the cell viability in Caco-2 and HT29-MTX was above 90% at 100 µg mL-1 . The bioavailability of the bioactive compounds was analyzed through a 3D intestinal model. Delphenidin-3-glucoside and hesperitin-7-O-glucoside presented a permeation higher than 50%, followed by hesperidin which was close to 30%. CONCLUSION: This work allows to establish that the formulation of grapefruit powder has great potential as a nutraceutical food, with spray drying being a good alternative technique in the food industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrus paradisi/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Liofilização/instrumentação , Células HT29 , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo
8.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 282, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Designer eggs (DEs) have gained positive importance in maintaining cholesterol level, triglyceride profile and protection towards cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids. However, extreme heat conditions effect the quality as well as quantity of EFAs during the production of designer egg dried powder (DEDP). Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of DEDP and determination of spray drying conditions impact on fatty acids composition of DEDP samples. METHODS: The DEs were produced, collected, de-shelled, homogenized and diluted before spray drying to get fine powder. The spray drying of DEs was carried out using a laboratory spray drier. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used. The DEDP was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored after packaging for consecutive 2 months at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively. The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus. The oxidative stability of DEDP samples was estimated by following standard procedure of peroxide value. RESULTS: The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs sample. The decreasing trend in moisture content (4.4 ± 0.16% towards 4.0 ± 0.09%) and total fat content (45 ± 0.65 g/100 g towards 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g) in DEDP samples was observed with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed. In this study, loss of PUFAs in DEDP samples was followed due to their active role regarding to human health. For alpha-linolenic (ALA) fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days storage, respectively. The significant decrease trend for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids values from 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray dried conditions of inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period was noted. The docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP during storage intervals was found as 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C). The peroxide value (PV) levels obtained in DEDP samples after 60 days were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings at 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2). The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order showed that lipid oxidation increased with storage. However, the overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit. CONCLUSIONS: Extreme hot conditions (> 180 °C) of spray dryer reduce the quality of designer egg dry powder. Extreme conditions assist PUFAs loss and decrease in storage stability due to high lipid oxidation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Pós/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ovos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós/metabolismo , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
9.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 138(12): 1467-1472, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504659

RESUMO

Nasal application of powder formulations has garnered attention because of its significant potential for systemic drug delivery. Because a powder drug must first diffuse from the formulation and dissolve in the nasal cavity fluid before transepithelial permeation, dissolution and diffusion are distinct but important factors for nasal drug absorption. Since the formulation is directly administered onto the nasal mucosal surface, the effect of excipients on drug absorption may be significant. Therefore, the influence of excipients on nasal drug absorption was evaluated. Three types of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) [HPC (SL), HPC (M), and HPC (H)], lactose, and sodium chloride (NaCl) were used as excipients. Warfarin (WF), piroxicam (PXC), sumatriptan (STP), and norfloxacin (NFX) were selected as model drugs. HPC (M) enhanced the absorption of PXC, while both HPC (M) and HPC (H) enhanced the absorption of STP. All three HPCs failed to enhance the absorption of WF. An increase in the polymerization degree of HPCs decreased the diffusion of drugs in HPC solutions, but prolonged their nasal retention. Lactose and NaCl increased the fluid volume on the nasal mucosal surface by increasing the osmotic pressure, thereby enhancing the nasal absorption of PXC and NFX; however, lactose and NaCl accelerated the nasal clearance of these. These results indicate that nasal drug absorption from powder formulations can be controlled by excipients.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Composição de Medicamentos , Excipientes , Lactose , Absorção Nasal , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio , Administração Intranasal , Estudos de Viabilidade , Norfloxacino , Piroxicam , Sumatriptana , Varfarina
10.
J Food Drug Anal ; 26(3): 1054-1065, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976398

RESUMO

This research was the first to demonstrate changes in nutritional compositions (isoflavone and CLA) from the 50% methanol extracts of soy-powder milk (SPM) and soy-powder yogurt (SPY) through fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum S48 and P1201 strains. The radical scavenging activities and protective effects against oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells were also investigated. The average physicochemical characteristics including acidity and viable cell number as well as ß-glucosidase activity increased with 0.2 â†’ 0.7%, 7.5 â†’ 9.8 log cfu/mL, and 0.0 3 â†’ 1.75 U/g in SPYs. Total average isoflavones were considerably reduced (3180.3 â†’ 2018.3 µg/g) with the increase of aglycone contents (191.8 â†’ 770.2 µg/g), especially, daidzein exhibited the most remarkable increase rate (98.6 â†’ 460.9 µg/g; > 4.8 times) during fermentation. The CLA and total phenolics also increased with significant differences (ND → 1.6 mg/g; 2.4 â†’ 3.6 mg/GAE/g) between SPM and SPY. Interestingly, the cis-9, trans-11 CLA showed approximately 90% in total content. Moreover, the scavenging capacities against three radicals markedly increased with about 30% in SPYs, as the following order: ABTS > hydroxyl > DPPH. The protective effects on oxidative stress (pyrogallol: O2-, SNP: NO, and SIN-1: ONOO-) were also observed high cell viabilities (>10%) under LLC-PK1 cellular system. Our results suggest that SPY may be utilized as a potent source regarding natural antioxidants and beneficial components for health food and medical uses.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/análise , Pós/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/química , Leite de Soja/metabolismo , Iogurte/microbiologia
11.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 122: 1-5, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987513

RESUMO

Amorphization has been widely recognized as a useful solubilization technique for poorly water-soluble drugs, such as curcumin. We have recently reported the novel finding that the membrane transport of curcumin was markedly enhanced when amorphous solid particles of curcumin came into direct contact with the lipid membrane surface, but this was not true for crystalline solid particles. The increase in the permeation of curcumin was found to be independent of the improvements in aqueous solubility brought about by amorphization. Thus, we have identified a novel membrane transport mechanism that directly involves solid particles. In addition, it might represent a novel strategy for improving the bioavailability of curcumin that does not focus on the aqueous solubility of the drug. In this study, the direct effects of the administration of amorphous nanoparticles of curcumin (ANC) on the in vivo intestinal absorption of curcumin were investigated. After the intraduodenal administration of a curcumin suspension, the area under the curve of the plasma concentration of curcumin increased in a manner that was dependent on the curcumin concentration of the suspension, while no significant absorption was observed from a saturated solution. This finding is consistent with the results from our in vitro transepithelial transport study. In the latter experiment, the bioavailability of curcumin was found to be 1-2%. The intrapulmonary insufflation of ANC powder resulted in a significant increase in the bioavailability of curcumin (it was two orders of magnitude higher than that seen after the application of a crystalline suspension). This was due to the ANC particles coming into contact with epithelial cells in a more efficient manner after the pulmonary application of the ANC powder than after the intestinal application of the ANC suspension. Therefore, the pulmonary insufflation of amorphous powder is a novel approach to improving the bioavailability of curcumin and might be a useful way of increasing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, such as curcumin.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/química , Suspensões/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Curcumina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suspensões/metabolismo , Água/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(32): 6736-6744, 2017 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731709

RESUMO

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) used to recover P from wastewater have recently been proposed as new slow-release fertilizers. Here, the use of P-exchanged Mg-Al LDHs as powdered or granulated fertilizer is explored and compared with monoammonium phosphate (MAP), a fully water-soluble fertilizer, and with struvite, a recycled phosphate fertilizer with lower solubility. First, these three fertilizers were compared in a 100-day incubation experiment using P diffusion visualization and chemical analysis to assess P release from either granules or powdered fertilizer in three different soils. By the end of the incubation, 74-90% of P remained within the LDH granule, confirming a slow release. Second, a pot experiment was performed with wheat (Triticum aestivum) in an acid and a calcareous soil. The granular treatment resulted in a considerably higher P uptake for MAP compared to LDH and struvite. For the powder treatments, the P uptake was less than for granular MAP and was largely unaffected by the chemical form. The LDHs and struvite showed a lower agronomic effectiveness than granular MAP, but the benefits of their use in P recycling, potential residual value, and environmental benefits may render these slow-release fertilizers attractive.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Hidróxidos/química , Fosfatos/química , Fósforo/química , Estruvita/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidróxidos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Solo/química , Estruvita/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
Chin J Nat Med ; 15(3): 192-201, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411687

RESUMO

Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice. Initial analysis of intestinal damage indicated that the administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the severity of colitis, compared with the control and the activity was higher than that induced by oral administration of ginseng powder or probiotics only. Subsequent analysis of the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α, inflammatory biomarkers that are increased at the initiation stage of colitis, were significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups in comparison to the control group. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and mRNAs for inflammatory factors in colorectal tissues were also significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups. Collectively, oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng reduced the severity of colitis in a mouse model, suggesting that it can be used as a uniformly effective red ginseng product.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Panax/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Panax/química , Panax/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Pós/administração & dosagem , Pós/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
14.
Food Chem ; 227: 358-368, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274444

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) powder addition at 0, 4, 8 and 12% levels on the nutritional values, pasting properties, thermal characteristics, microstructure, in vitro starch digestibility, in vivo glycaemic index (GI) and sensorial properties of biscuits. Elevated incorporation levels of PSC powder increased the dietary fibre (DF) content and reduced the pasting viscosities and starch gelatinisation enthalpy value of biscuits. The addition of DF-rich PSC powder also interfered with the integrity of the starch granules by reducing the sizes and inducing the uneven spherical shapes of the starch granules, which, in turn, resulted in reduced starch susceptibility to digestive enzymes. The restriction starch hydrolysis rate markedly reduced the GI of biscuits. The incorporation of 8% PSC powder in biscuits (GI=49) could be an effective way of developing a nutritious and low-GI biscuit without jeopardizing its desirable sensorial properties.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Nutritivo , Pleurotus/química , Período Pós-Prandial , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Amido/química , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(12): 4142-4150, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. RESULTS: Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. CONCLUSION: Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Aromatizantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Phaseolus/química , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 18(2): 349-357, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961969

RESUMO

The objective was to improve the dissolution of valsartan by developing valsartan nanocrystals and design a pulsed release system for the chronotherapy of hypertension. Valsartan nanocrystals were prepared by sonication-anti-solvent precipitation method and lyophilized to obtain dry powder. Nanocrystals were directly compressed to minitablets and coated to achieve pulsatile valsartan release. Pharmacokinetic profiles of optimized and commercial formulations were compared in rabbit model. The mean particle size and PDI of the optimized nanocrystal batch V4 was reported as 211 nm and 0.117, respectively. DSC and PXRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of valsartan in nanocrystals. The dissolution extent of valsartan was markedly enhanced with both nanocrystals and minitablets as compared to pure valsartan irrespective of pH of the medium. Core minitablet V4F containing 5% w/w polyplasdone XL showed quickest release of valsartan, over 90% within 15 min. Coated formulation CV4F showed two spikes in release profile after successive lag times of 235 and 390 min. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that the bioavailability of optimized formulation (72.90%) was significantly higher than the commercial Diovan tablet (30.18%). The accelerated stability studies showed no significant changes in physicochemical properties, release behavior, and bioavialability of CV4F formulation. The formulation was successfully designed to achieve enhanced bioavailability and dual pulsatile release. Bedtime dosing will more efficiently control the circadian spikes of hypertension in the morning.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Valsartana/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Coelhos , Solubilidade , Comprimidos/química , Comprimidos/metabolismo , Valsartana/metabolismo
17.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 42(8): 1267-82, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592754

RESUMO

The present investigation was aimed at development of silicate corn fiber gum (SCFG) particles as superior solid carrier for the preparation of Aprepitant (APT)-loaded self-emulsifying powder (SEP) system. 2(4) D-optimal mixture design with three level process variables was employed to develop SCFG particles, utilizing flow descriptors and hydrophobicity descriptors as response variables. The results indicated that blending of CFG (51.4% w/w) and magnesium silicate (MS) (48.6% w/w) using freeze-drying technique was found to have highest desirability (0.904). The developed SEP showed highest oil desorbing capacity, low self-emulsification time and highest drug content. It was observed that SCFG-SEP (F2 formulation) showed lowest PDI (0.2445 ± 0.03) as well as smallest particle size (127 ± 5.8 nm). The droplets were uniform and maintain their integrity after reconstitution (TEM analysis). Furthermore, APT-loaded SEP showed enhanced in vitro dissolution (4 folds) and ex vivo performance (7-fold enhanced Papp) as compared to pure APT. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed that significant enhancement (p > 0.05) in Cmax was evident with APT-loaded F2 (SCFG-SEP) (1.93-fold) and F4 (Aerosil 200-SEP) (1.58-fold). The data also suggested increase in absorption rate when APT incorporated into SCFG-SEP. Thus, findings pointed toward enhanced bioavailability of APT when loaded into SCFG particles. Overall, the developed SCFG particles could be considered as a better alternative to already available solid carrier(s).


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Morfolinas/química , Silicatos/química , Zea mays/química , Animais , Aprepitanto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Masculino , Morfolinas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Dióxido de Silício/química , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Solubilidade
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(34): 7494-8, 2015 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26255668

RESUMO

There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Boca/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Percepção Gustatória , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Humanos , Boca/química , Pós/análise , Pós/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Suínos , Língua/química , Língua/metabolismo , Água/análise
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(7): 1252-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26281541

RESUMO

In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Bile/química , Ursidae , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Pós/farmacologia , Ursidae/metabolismo
20.
Biocontrol Sci ; 20(2): 153-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133513

RESUMO

The ability of heated scallop-shell powder (HSSP) to work against Listeria sp. biofilm formed at a low temperature was investigated. A biofilm of L. innocua ATCC 33090 was grown on a glass plate at 15˚C for 15 days, then immersed in HSSP slurry. Following treatment, the disinfection ability of the HSSP against the biofilm was non-destructively quantified by conductimetric assay. The biofilm grown at 15˚C was less sensitive than that grown at 37˚C to HSSP treatment and alkaline treatment. The biofilm grown at 15˚C was completely deactivated by 30 min of HSSP treatment (10 mg/mL, pH 12.5). In contrast, after 30 min treatment with alkaline solution at pH 12.5 or sodium hypochlorite (100 ppm), the activity was reduced by only one order of magnitude. The disinfection efficacy of HSSP (10 mg/mL) against L. innocua is similar to or higher than that of sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm). Fluorescence microscopy validated the results of the conductimetric assay. Therefore, HSSP treatment is a potentially powerful alternative control agent against Listeria sp. biofilms that present hazards in the food industry.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desinfetantes/metabolismo , Desinfecção/métodos , Listeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria/fisiologia , Animais , Condutometria , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pectinidae , Pós/metabolismo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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