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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5361-5376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801694

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention as promising carrier systems in lung cancer and brain metastases. Methods: Here, for the first time, we investigated the feasibility of using inhaled cholesterol-PEG co-modified poly (n-butyl) cyanoacrylate NPs (CLS-PEG NPs) of docetaxel (DTX) for sustained pulmonary drug delivery in cancer metastasis. Results: Spray-dried or freeze-dried NPs yielded sustained drug release in vitro. In vitro inhalation evaluation data indicated that the inhalation formulation had better inhalability. Compared with intravenous (IV) administration, pharmacokinetic data suggested that the inhalation formulation prolonged plasma concentration of DTX for greater than 24 h and is more quickly and completely absorbed into the rat lung after intratracheal (IT) administration. Furthermore, freeze-dried powders were found to increase the t1/2 and area under curve (AUC) by 2.3 and 6.5 fold compared to the free drug after IT administration, and spray-dried powders were found to increase the t1/2 and AUC by 3.4 and 8.8 fold, respectively. After pulmonary administration of the inhalation formulation, DTX appeared to prolong the pulmonary absorption time. In addition, the inhalation formulation was distributed to the brain in a sustained release manner. Conclusion: These experimental results demonstrated that freeze- and spray-dried powders have the potential for pulmonary sustained release, and they also have the potential to be used as a novel treatment for the delivery of drugs that pass through the air-blood barrier and enter the brain and are efficient carriers for the treatment of brain metastasis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Embucrilato/química , Feminino , Liofilização , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polímeros/química , Pós/química , Ratos Wistar , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Food Chem ; 332: 127420, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622191

RESUMO

The outbreaks of Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella spp, and Bacillus cereus in powdered foods have been increasing in worldwide. However, an effective method to pasteurize powdered foods before consumption remains lacking. A prototype Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) system was developed to disinfect powdered foods under different IPL and environmental conditions. Synergistic effect of IPL and TiO2 photocatalysis on microbial inactivation was studied. The results show that high energy intensity of each pulse, high peak intensity, and short pulsed duration contributed to a high microbe inactivation. With TiO2 photocatalysis, one additional log10 reduction was achieved, bringing the total log reduction to 4.71 ± 0.07 (C. sakazakii), 3.49 ± 0.01 (E. faecium), and 2.52 ± 0.10 (B. cereus) in non-fat dry milk, and 5.42 ± 0.10 (C. sakazakii), 4.95 ± 0.24 (E. faecium), 2.80 ± 0.23 (B. cereus) in wheat flour. IPL treatment combined with the TiO2 photocatalysis exhibits a strong potential to reduce the energy consumption in improving the safety of powdered foods.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii/efeitos da radiação , Cronobacter/efeitos da radiação , Farinha/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Leite/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus cereus/efeitos da radiação , Cronobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Luz , Pós/química , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/efeitos da radiação
3.
Food Chem ; 333: 127514, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683259

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of pH on the denaturation extent, the surface chemical composition, the water sorption isotherm and the glass transition temperature of camel and bovine whey protein's powders. The LC-MS analysis indicated that the ß-Lactoglobulin was the most denatured protein in bovine whey powders regardless the pH value, while this protein was totally absent in camel whey. The α-Lactalbumin was relatively heat stable after drying and predominated the powder surface (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results) in both camel and bovine whey powders regardless the pH (neutral (6.7) or acidic (4.3 and 4.6)). Analysis of the water sorption isotherms indicated that decreasing the pH induced the increase of the water activity of lactose crystallization for camel and bovine whey powders. Finally, decreasing the pH led to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of camel and bovine whey powder (at 0.13, 0.23, and 0.33 of water activity).


Assuntos
Pós/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Adsorção , Animais , Calorimetria , Camelus , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalização , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactoglobulinas/química , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Lactose/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Desnaturação Proteica , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura de Transição , Água/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127444, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653769

RESUMO

By-products of Belgian endive represent an interesting yet underutilised source of dietary fibre (DF). Dietary fibre concentrates (DFC) that are low in sugar and neutral in taste are sought by the food industry to increase DF content and improve texture in food products. The aim was to set up a biorefinery process to produce DFC from forced roots of Belgian endive (DFC-BE) and characterise the resulting product. As a control, non-treated forced roots powder (FRP-BE) was tested. Water extraction significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the content of sugars, phenolic acids (PA) and sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in DFC-BE. In contrast, total dietary fibre concentration (TDF) was higher in DFC-BE (81.82 g/100 g DW) in comparison to FRP-BE (49.04 g/100 g DW). DFC-BE offers an excellent water holding capacity (WHC) of 14.71 g water/g DW and a swelling capacity (SWC) of 23.46 mL water/g DW, suggesting possible use as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Bélgica , Alimento Funcional/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Verduras/química
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 181, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607628

RESUMO

Cocrystals have gained a lot of consideration regarding its superior role in enhancement of solubility and dissolution of the included API. Cocrystals could be converted to coamorphous systems via different techniques like milling and quench cooling; however, the use of spray-drying technique has not been investigated before. So, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of spray drying on the amorphization of indomethacin/nicotinamide, INDNIC, as model cocrystals. Spray-drying operating parameters were optimized using the Taguchi design of experiment for maximum powder yield and low moisture content. The obtained INDNIC spray-dried cocrystals were characterized for their degree of crystallinity, morphology, moisture content, and dissolution performance. In addition, stability study was performed at different temperature and humidity conditions. Experimental design results delineate that spray-drying inlet temperature and cocrystal concentrations as the most influential factors for maximum powder yield and low moisture content. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed the conversion of INDNIC cocrystals to a partial coamorphous or coamorphous structure without dissociation of INDNIC molecular structure. INDNIC coamorphous powders showed a significantly higher release of IND compared with cocrystals and remain physically stable for 2 months when stored in the refrigerator.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Indometacina/química , Niacinamida/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Pós/química , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
6.
Food Chem ; 326: 126965, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413755

RESUMO

Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) were introduced for the extraction of free seleno-amino acids from lyophilized and powdered milk samples. Different NADES were evaluated, and lactic acid:glucose (LGH) showed the highest selenium recoveries. Selenium analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Se-NADES analysis in ICP MS was optimized according to the radio frequency power and nebulization gas flow rate. Se-NADES extraction was optimized by an experimental design. LGH dilution, LGH volume, sample quantity, and ultrasound time were factors influencing the extraction. Seleno-amino acids were determined by liquid chromatography-ICP MS. After optimization, the limits of detection obtained were 7.37, 8.63, and 9.64 µg kg-1 for selenocysteine, selenomethionine, and seleno-methyl-selenocysteine, respectively. The NADES-extraction is a green procedure with 2 penalty points in the EcoScale. The method was applied to the analysis of powdered milk, lyophilized Se-fortified sheep milk, and ERM-BD151 skimmed milk powder.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leite/química , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Selenocisteína/análise , Selenometionina/análise , Animais , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Liofilização , Química Verde , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pós/química , Selênio/análise , Ovinos , Solventes/química
7.
Food Chem ; 322: 126636, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283375

RESUMO

Inter-relationship between lactose crystallization (LC), the amount and composition of surface free fat (SFF); and their effect on physico-chemical properties of infant formula (IF) containing hydrolyzed and intact (non-hydrolyzed) whey protein in their composition were investigated at two temperatures (25 and 45 °C) and five RH (11-65%) conditions. Results varied with compositional variation of IF. LC increased exponentially with SFF in non-hydrolyzed IF powders. IF composition influenced LC and caused selective migration of triglycerides, resulting in higher proportion of unsaturated fats in SFF of powders with large lactose crystals and vice-versa. Increase in SFF with increased proportion of saturated fats in their composition, resulted in reduced wettability of powders. Overall, IF composition affects LC which influences the amount and type of fat migration to particle surface resulting in varying wettability of IF powders.


Assuntos
Gorduras/química , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactose/química , Cristalização , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Pós/química , Temperatura , Molhabilidade , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
8.
Pharm Res ; 37(5): 84, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current trend for continuous drug product manufacturing requires new, affordable process analytical techniques (PAT) to ensure control of processing. This work evaluates whether property models based on spectral data from recent Fabry-Pérot Interferometer based NIR sensors can generate a high-resolution moisture signal suitable for process control. METHODS: Spectral data and offline moisture content were recorded for 14 fluid bed dryer batches of pharmaceutical granules. A PLS moisture model was constructed resulting in a high resolution moisture signal, used to demonstrate (i) endpoint determination and (ii) evaluation of mass transfer performance. RESULTS: The sensors appear robust with respect to vibration and ambient temperature changes, and the accuracy of water content predictions (±13 % ) is similar to those reported for high specification NIR sensors. Fusion of temperature and moisture content signal allowed monitoring of water transport rates in the fluidised bed and highlighted the importance water transport within the solid phase at low moisture levels. The NIR data was also successfully used with PCA-based MSPC models for endpoint detection. CONCLUSIONS: The spectral quality of the small form factor NIR sensor and its robustness is clearly sufficient for the construction and application of PLS models as well as PCA-based MSPC moisture models. The resulting high resolution moisture content signal was successfully used for endpoint detection and monitoring the mass transfer rate.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/economia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos , Pós/química , Pressão , Temperatura , Água
9.
Food Chem ; 319: 126591, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187569

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of storage parameters on the physicochemical changes of spray-dried infant milk formula (IMF) powders prepared with various lactose-to-maltodextrin (L:M) ratios (L:M 100:0, L:M 85:15 and L:M 70:30). Powders were characterized during 180 days of storage at 22 and 40 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 11, 23 and 54%. IMF powders were found mostly stable at both temperatures up to 23RH. Deteriorative physicochemical changes were observed at 54RH which were more rapid at 40 °C than at 22 °C. Increasing temperature and RH during storage decreased the glass transition temperature (Tg) to <0 °C and solubility to <25%, while crystallinity increased to >40%. Surface fat content, degree of aggregation and caking increased during storage. Increased surface fat was accompanied by a decrease in surface protein and carbohydrate contents. Incorporation of maltodextrin increased the Tg, decreased the crystallinity and improved the stability of powders.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Lactose/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Humanos , Umidade , Lactente , Leite/química , Pós/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 1787-1796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214811

RESUMO

Introduction: Curcumin faces a major challenge in clinical use due to its poor aqueous solubility, which affects its bioavailability over oral use. The present study was carried out to overcome this problem. Methods: An amorphous micellar curcumin-spray dried powder (MC-SDP) with self-assembled casein was prepared by the addition of sucrose as a protectant. The dry powder of curcumin-loaded micelles was obtained by a spray-drying technique in the presence of sucrose as a protectant. The MC-SDP in the form of dry powder was further developed into tablets to investigate the dissolution profile. The physical properties of preformed powder were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative analysis in the form of solutions was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The physical properties demonstrated that MC-SDP varies from dented to smoother surfaces as a function of sucrose. Furthermore, melting transitions of curcumin in the form of MC-SDP were broadened in all sample mixtures, as observed in the DTA thermogram. The XRD spectra showed that the sharp and very intense peaks of single curcumin crystalline structure no longer existed in all MC-SDP forms, indicating that the mixtures were amorphous. Moreover, a further dissolution study of MC-SDP showed a significant increase of drug dissolved with the presence of sucrose, where >80% of curcumin from MC-SDP was dissolved within 30 min. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the manufacture of micellar spray-dried powder that would contribute to the development of oral delivery of curcumin.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Oral , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cristalografia por Raios X , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Micelas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pós/química , Solubilidade
11.
Food Chem ; 320: 126567, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203830

RESUMO

Deliberate chemical contamination of food powders has become a major food safety concern worldwide. This study used Raman imaging and FT-IR spectroscopy to detect Sudan Red and white turmeric adulteration in turmeric powder. While Sudan Red Raman spectral peaks were identifiable in turmeric-Sudan Red samples, Sudan Red false positive detection was observed in binary Raman images, limiting effective quantitative detection. In addition, white turmeric Raman spectral peaks were unidentifiable in turmeric-white turmeric mixtures. However, IR spectra of turmeric-Sudan Red and turmeric-white turmeric samples provided discrete identifier peaks for both the adulterants. Partial least squares regression models were developed using IR spectra for each mixture type. The models estimated Sudan Red and white turmeric concentrations with correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Priority should be given to developing an IR imaging system and incorporating it with Raman system to simultaneously measure of food samples for detection of adulterants.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/análise , Curcuma/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Pós/química
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 628-638, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052434

RESUMO

Black chokeberry pomace extract is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, including anthocyanins. Added to foods, bioactive compounds of the extract can undergo undesirable changes both during food handling and digestion. In this study, we examined the possibility of encapsulating a considerable amount of black chokeberry pomace extract in the inner water phase of double emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water), for intended use in food applications. Furthermore, this study investigated the feasibility of double emulsions loaded with the extract for freeze-drying to obtain dispersible powders. A substantial amount (2.1%) of black chokeberry pomace extract was efficiently encapsulated in the inner water phase of double emulsion and remained entrapped during 60 days of storage (<97%) as well as during the freeze-drying of emulsions. Reconstituted emulsions obtained after the rehydration process were found to show monomodal droplet size distribution, decent creaming stability (approximately 97%), and good encapsulation efficiency (95.36%). Such characteristics of powdered double emulsions loaded by black chokeberry pomace extract make them suitable for food application as retainer and preservative of bioactive polyphenolic-rich extracts. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Powders of double emulsions loaded by black chokeberry pomace extract could be used as a source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Liofilização , Pós/química
13.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 279-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976553

RESUMO

Insects are considered edible food resources with sufficient nutrients, but their nutrient composition and safety evaluation have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we investigated the nutrient composition and the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of locust powder in male rats. In the acute oral toxicological experiment, rats were administered locust powder at a dose of 10 or 20 g/kg/dose, followed by monitoring general signs of toxicity for 14 days. In the sub-chronic toxicological experiments, rats were fed with a diet containing 1% and 3% locust powder for 28 and 90 days. General signs of toxicity, body weight, plasma and blood components, weight and fat accumulation in tissues, and fecal fat excretion were investigated. The locust powder was rich in proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the acute toxicological experiment, no general signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 20 g/kg. In the sub-chronic toxicological experiments, parameters related to red blood cell were lowered by the 3% locust powder for 28 days, but not for 90 days. Liver lipid accumulation and fecal fat excretion were increased by the 3% locust powder for 90 days, but the liver lipids contents were considered to be within a nontoxic level. Cecum contents and cecum short-chain fatty acids were lowered by the locust powder, which can be caused by its fiber and fiber-like components. In conclusion, acute and sub-chronic intake of locust powder had little effect on general, biochemical, and hematological signs of toxicity in rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Edible insects are increasingly viewed as new sustainable protein sources for human foods and livestock feeds worldwide because of their high nutritional balance, high food conversion rate, and environmental merits. Here, we have clarified that a locust powder contains high levels of protein, polyunsaturated functional fatty acids, and minerals (iron, zinc, and magnesium), and intake of locust powder (3% in diet) had little effects on general, biochemical, and hematological signs of toxicity in male rats. Locust as an edible insect, in powder form, can contribute to human dietary needs.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/análise , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Pós/efeitos adversos , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103376, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948617

RESUMO

Dry dairy powder is a commonly used ingredient for ready-to-eat foods. It has been implicated in multiple foodborne outbreaks. Listeria monocytogenes can survive in low-moisture conditions for a long duration. However, there is no information on Listeria survival in dry milk powder during storage and thermal treatments. The objectives of this study were to examine the stability of L. monocytogenes in non-fat dry milk (NFDM) during extended storage and further analyze thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes in NFDM under different water activities (aw) and its thermal stability after 1-year storage. We observed approximately 1.75 and 2.93 log CFU/g reduction of L. monocytogenes in aw 0.25 NFDM over 1-year storage at 4 and 22 °C, respectively. Thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was inversely related to aw, and the inactivation kinetic curves of L. monocytogenes in NFDM at target aw showed a log-linear trend under all tested conditions. For aw 0.25, 0.30, and 0.45 NFDM, the ranges of D-values, were 66.2-21.3, 33.5-9.4, and 14.6-4.3 min at 70, 75 and 80 °C, respectively. The z-values for L. monocytogenes in NFDM at aw 0.25-0.45 were 14.6-16.0 C°. Furthermore, the thermal stability of L. monocytogenes in aw 0.25 NFDM post 6-month or 12-month storage under refrigerated or ambient temperature did not deviate much from that in NFDM prior to the storage. Data indicated that a 60-min heat treatment at 80 °C resulted in ~ 5-log reduction of L. monocytogenes in NFDM of aw 0.30. This provides a promising intervention strategy to enhance bactericidal efficacy of thermal treatment while maintaining the quality of milk powder.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Leite/química , Pós/química , Temperatura , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
15.
Pharm Res ; 37(3): 38, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965333

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Asthma is a prevalent lung disorder that cause heavy burdens globally. Inhalation medicaments can relieve symptoms, improve lung function and, thus, the quality of life. However, it is well-documented that patients often do not get the prescribed dose out of an inhaler and the deposition of drug is suboptimal, due to incorrect handling of the device and wrong inhalation technique. This study aims to design and fabricate an acoustic dry powder inhaler (ADPI) for monitoring inhalation flow and related drug administration in order to evaluate whether the patient receives the complete dose out of the inhaler. METHODS: The devices were fabricated using 3D printing and the impact of the acoustic element geometry and printing resolution on the acoustic signal was investigated. Commercial Foradil (formoterol fumarate) capsules were used to validate the availability of the ADPI for medication dose tracking. The acoustic signal was analysed with Partial-Least-Squares (PLS) regression. RESULTS: Indicate that specific acoustic signals could be generated at different air flow rates using a passive acoustic element with specific design features. This acoustic signal could be correlated with the PLS model to the air flow rate. A more distinct sound spectra could be acquired at higher printing resolution. The sound spectra from the ADPI with no capsule, a full capsule and an empty capsule are different which could be used for medication tracking. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that it is possible to evaluate the medication quality of inhaled medicaments by monitoring the acoustic signal generated during the inhalation process.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/química , Inaladores de Pó Seco/instrumentação , Fumarato de Formoterol/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Acústica , Administração por Inalação , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Pulmão/metabolismo , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Pós/química , Pós/farmacologia , Análise de Regressão , Som
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986166

RESUMO

Onion skin is a waste produced during onion bulb processing. Recent studies have reported that it contains large amounts of bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds thus it can be used to design of novel food products. The objective of the study was an attempt to substitute semolina with onion skin (OS) powder in pasta at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/100 g levels. The effects on the chemical composition, antioxidant potential, technological and sensory properties of the fortified pasta samples were evaluated compared with a control sample. Fortification with OS resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in nutritional properties, which was demonstrated by an increase in the content of dietary fibre, ash, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids content and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH). Cooking loss increased with increasing levels of OS, however, all pasta samples were in the acceptable range (8 g/100 g). Onion skin incorporation decreased optimal cooking time, water solubility index and increase redness (a*), compared to the control sample. Results of sensory evaluation suggest that pasta, in which 2.5% of the flour was replaced by this plant component, showed the highest value of the "overall quality". Our study indicates that onion skin powder can be a potential alternative for the food industry to provide nutritional enriched pasta.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Farinha , Valor Nutritivo , Cebolas/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Pós/química , Pós/farmacologia , Triticum/química
17.
Food Chem ; 314: 126177, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954943

RESUMO

This study mainly investigated changes in milk serum proteins by simulating the industrial processing of whole milk powder using a label-free proteomic approach. A total of 391 proteins were identified, 89 of which were quantified in all groups. Compared with raw milk, the milk subjected to the heating pasteurization process showed significantly decreased the serum protein profile, whereas that subjected to vacuum concentration and spray-drying showed minimal changes. The LC-MS/MS results were further confirmed by determining the activity of bioactive xanthine oxidase and retention of lactoferrin and immunoglobulins. The data showed that 70%-85% of lactoferrin and immunoglobulins were retained in vacuum-concentrated or spray-dried milk but were hardly identifiable in heat-pasteurized milk or whole milk powders. These findings indicate the need for improving the current milk powder-manufacturing techniques to allow the retention of active milk proteins.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas do Leite/química , Leite/química , Pós/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Dessecação , Temperatura Alta , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Imunoglobulinas/química , Lactoferrina/análise , Lactoferrina/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Pasteurização , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Xantina Oxidase/análise , Xantina Oxidase/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1725-1730, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967806

RESUMO

Milk powders in the United States (US) may contain nitrates and nitrites from several potential sources. These sources include the ingestion of nitrates and nitrites by dairy cows during grazing and drinking, nitric acid used during the sanitization of dairy equipment, and the production of nitrous oxides in directly heated spray dryers. Recently, milk powders manufactured in the US have been rejected during import to other countries because nitrite concentrations were greater than 2 mg/kg (ppm). To date, the concentrations of nitrates and nitrites in milk and plant-based powders in the US are unknown. In this study the nitrate and nitrite concentrations present in diverse milk powders were investigated including 81 milk powders from local and online retailers from 2015 to 2018. In addition, 71 commercial milk powders were obtained from blinded production facilities. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined using ion chromatography with conductivity and UV detection. A subset of samples was analyzed for N-nitrosodimethylamine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Carbon and nitrogen bulk isotope ratios analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry were used to obtain some insights into the production method (organic vs conventional) and geographic source of the milk powder samples. Background nitrate concentrations in US-produced milk powder samples averaged 17 ± 12 mg/kg. Nitrite was detected at concentrations greater than 2 mg/kg in 5 out of 39 different brands of retail milk and plant-based powders. Of these brands, two were plant-based (soy and coconut) powders and the other three had consistently high nitrites. The analysis of milk powders using stable isotope analysis revealed further information about the cow's diet.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Plantas/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Leite/economia , Leite/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Pós/química , Pós/economia
19.
Food Chem ; 310: 125637, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791727

RESUMO

Reduction of bioactive compounds sensitive to heat, light and oxygen could be attributed to drying. The effectiveness of microwave pretreatment at 525 or 420 W and the ohmic heating at 17.5 V/cm over the properties of beetroot powder were compared. This study aimed to develop novel hybrid drying methods. The effects of microwave and ohmic heating pre-treatment and subsequent microwave-convection drying were studied. Several investigations were performed, such as phenolic content, antioxidant activity, betalains content and color. The samples pretreated by microwave have registered higher polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity than those ohmically heated. The ohmic heating pretreated samples registered highest values for ΔL = 7.33-7.65 and ΔH = 8.18-10.02. Confocal microscopy reveals that the MW heating favors cellular lysis and cell content agglutinates. In conclusion, even if the MW preheating has certain disadvantages, in some cases it provides increased bioavailability generated by the vegetal cell disruption and the release of the bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Dessecação/métodos , Pós/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Betacianinas/análise , Betalaínas/análise , Betalaínas/química , Cor , Convecção , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Ácidos Picolínicos/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112937, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679845

RESUMO

Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are single-phase amorphous systems, where drug molecules are molecularly dispersed (dissolved) in a polymer matrix. The molecular dispersion of the drug molecules is responsible for their improved dissolution properties. Unambiguously establishing the phase behavior of the ASDs is of utmost importance. In this paper, we focused on the complementary nature of (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((m)DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) to elucidate the phase behavior of ASDs as demonstrated by a critical discussion of practical real-life examples observed in our research group. The ASDs were manufactured by either applying a solvent-based technique (spray drying), a heat-based technique (hot melt extrusion) or mechanochemical activation (cryo-milling). The encountered limiting factors of XRPD were the lack of sensitivity for small traces of crystallinity, the impossibility to differentiate between distinct amorphous phases and its impossibility to detect nanocrystals in a polymer matrix. In addition, the limiting factors of (m)DSC were defined as the well-described heat-induced sample alteration upon heating, the interfering of residual solvent evaporation with other thermal events and the coinciding of enthalpy recovery with melting events. In all of these cases, the application of a single analytical technique would have led to erroneous conclusions, whilst the combination of (m)DSC and XRPD elucidated the true phases of the ASD.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Pós/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cristalização/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Nanopartículas/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Difração de Raios X/métodos
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