Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.756
Filtrar
1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(10): 1287-1295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028753

RESUMO

Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects including lipid-lowering that have been extensively studied. However, its bioavailability is low. To investigate the effect of nanoemulsified rice bran wax policosanol (NPOL) on plasma homocysteine, heart and liver histology in hyperlipidemic rats, high-fat diet containing 2.5% cholesterol was used to induce hyperlipidemia in Sprague Dawley rats. The hyperlipidemic rats were treated with NPOL and rice bran wax policosanol (POL) in comparison with normal diet (ND), high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and simvastatin-treated rats. Plasma homocysteine, heart and liver histology, and hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) were evaluated. The NPOL group, similar to the simvastatin group, showed reduced plasma homocysteine, preserved heart and liver histology, and down-regulated hepatic PPARG mRNA in comparison to the control group, and was better than the POL group. The results suggest that the modest effect of NPOL on homocysteine and preservation of heart and liver histology could be through the regulation of PPARG expression on a background of increased assimilation of rice bran wax policosanol.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Oryza/química , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Ceras/química , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homocisteína/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 407-412, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The biochemical and anthropometric consequences of metabolic disorders exert an enormous effect on the functioning of people worldwide. The aim of this study is to assess relationships between biochemical and anthropometric parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, and the presence of the PPAR-γ rs1801282, the FTO rs9939609, and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms in women aged 45-60. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 425 women, aged 45-59 years, from the general population of the West Pomeranian Province in north-west Poland. The research procedure involved a structured interview, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, biochemical analysis of serum, and genetic analysis. RESULTS: The carriers of the A/A genotype of the FTO polymorphism had higher LDL levels than their counterparts with the T/T genotype (p = 0.01). The carriers of the T/T genotype of the MC4R polymorphism had lower non-HDL levels than those with the C/C and C/T genotypes (p = 0.019). Weight was related to the C/C and the C/G + G/G genotypes of the PPAR-γ gene polymorphism (p = 0.046). The model of inheritance for the MC4R polymorphism had a significant effect on TG (p = 0.039) and non-HDL (p = 0.05) levels. CONCLUSIONS: The genotypes analyzed in the study had only a slight direct effect on the biochemical and anthropometric abnormalities typical of metabolic disorders. Nonetheless, the risk alleles (A allele of the FTO rs9939609 and the C allele of the MC4R rs17782313) were found to be related to lipid metabolism disorders in 45-60-year-old women.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Antropometria , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Polônia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1409-1433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907360

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis (SB), a herbal medicine, is commonly used to treat metabolic diseases, while Metformin (MF) is a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether co-treatment of SB with MF could produce a potential therapeutic effect on high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-induced metabolic dysregulation. First, we optimized the dose of SB (100, 200, 400, and 800[Formula: see text]mg/kg) with MF (200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in HFFD-induced C57BL6J mice. Next, the optimized dose of SB (400[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was co-administered with MF (50, 100, and 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg) in a similar animal model to find the effective combinations of SB and MF. Metabolic markers were determined in serum and tissues using different assays, histology, gene expression, and gut microbial population. The SB and MF co-treatment significantly decreased the body, liver, and VAT weights. The outcome of OGTT was improved, and the fasting insulin, HbA1c, TG, TC, LDL-c, AST, and ALT were decreased, while HDL-c was significantly increased. Histological analyses revealed maintained the integrity of liver, adipose tissue, and intestine prevented lipid accumulation in the liver and intestine and combated neuronal damage in the brain. Importantly, controlled the expression of PPAR[Formula: see text], and IL-6 genes in the liver, and expression of BDNF, Glut1, Glut3, and Glut4 genes in the brain. Treatment-specific gut microbial segregation was observed in the PCA chart. Our findings indicate that SB and MF co-treatment is an effective therapeutic approach for HFFD-induced metabolic dysregulation which is operated through the gut-liver-brain axis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
4.
Gene ; 762: 145019, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755657

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we examined the associations between PPAR-γ polymorphisms (rs1801282, rs3856806, rs12497191, rs1151999, and rs1152003) and serum lipids in two cross-sectional studies. In the Shizuoka area of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined 4,952 participants (3,356 men and 1,596 women) in a baseline survey and 2,245 participants (1,550 men and 695 women) in a second survey 5 years later. Outcome measures were the prevalence of dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs) and the prevalence of high LDL-C (LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dl and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 2,114 and 1,431 individuals (42.7% and 28.9%) had dyslipidemia and high LDL-C in the baseline survey, respectively, as did 933 and 716 (41.6% and 31.9%), respectively, in the second survey. In the baseline study, compared with major allele homozygotes, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 and rs12497191 had a 42% (OR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.85) and 23% (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99) lower risk of dyslipidemia, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In addition, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 had a 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86) lower risk of high LDL-C. Similar risk reductions were found in the second survey. In conclusion, rs3856806 and rs12497191 polymorphisms may be related to a lower risk of dyslipidemia and high LDL-C.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Gene ; 759: 144981, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707300

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), as a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation and regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. In this study, the transcripts of PPARG gene were isolated and identified in buffalo mammary gland. The results showed that two types of transcripts (PPARG1 and PPARG2) of PPARG gene produced by alternative 5' end use were expressed in buffalo mammary gland, and each of them had four different alternative splicing variants. The PPARG1 includes PPARG1a, PPARG1b, PPARG1c and PPARG1d, while the PPARG2 contains PPARG2a, PPARG2b, PPARG2c and PPARG2d. Among them, only PPARG1a, PPARG2a and PPARG2d can encode complete functional proteins with three complete functional domains, and the rest encode truncated proteins with incomplete functional domains. All the eight variants of PPARG protein do not contain transmembrane regions and signal peptides, but their conserved domain, secondary and tertiary structure and subcellular localization were different. Subcellular localization confirmed that the main transcripts PPARG1a and PPARG2a played a functional role in the nucleus, which was consistent with the results by in silico prediction. RT-qPCR analysis of buffalo mammary tissue showed that the mRNA expression levels of PPARG1 and PPARG2 in lactation were higher than those in non-lactation, and the expression levels of transcripts PPARG2d and PPARG1b + PPARG2b in lactating stage were also higher than those in non-lactating stage, but the mRNA abundance of transcripts PPARG1c, PPARG1d and PPARG2c in non-lactating period was higher than that in lactating period. The results of this study suggest that PPARG1 and PPARG2 may play important role in buffalo milk fat synthesis, and the eight alternative splicing variants found here are likely to be related to the post-transcriptional regulation of lactation.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 256: 117908, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol intake contributes to severe liver damage involving oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, which make them promising therapeutic targets. Previous studies have demonstrated that empagliflozin (EMPA) showed cardiovascular, renal, and cerebral benefits potentially mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. AIMS: This experiment aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of EMPA on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and the possible underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum biochemical parameters and the liver contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Real-time qPCR was conducted to determine the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1). In addition, ELISA was performed to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, Nrf-2, and PPAR-γ. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was detected by immunohistochemical staining using an anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. KEY FINDINGS: Our results revealed that the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly reduced by EMPA. EMPA also decreased the content of MDA and NO and increased the activities of SOD and GSH in liver homogenates. Moreover, EMPA inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6, via the downregulation of NF-κB. These changes were associated with an improvement in histopathological deterioration. The protective effect of EMPA against oxidative stress and inflammation was associated with the upregulation of PPAR-γ, Nrf-2, and their target gene Hmox-1. SIGNIFICANCE: EMPA showed protective activities against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress via modulation of the NF-κB/Nrf-2/PPAR-γ axis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E117-E132, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369418

RESUMO

One of the primary metabolic functions of a mature adipocyte is to supply energy via lipolysis, or the catabolism of stored lipids. Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are critical lipolytic enzymes, and their phosphorylation generates phospho-binding sites for 14-3-3 proteins, a ubiquitously expressed family of molecular scaffolds. Although we previously identified essential roles of the 14-3-3ζ isoform in murine adipogenesis, the presence of 14-3-3 protein binding sites on ATGL and HSL suggests that 14-3-3ζ could also influence mature adipocyte processes like lipolysis. Here we demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ is necessary for lipolysis in male mice and fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as depletion of 14-3-3ζ significantly impaired glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) release. Unexpectedly, reducing 14-3-3ζ expression was found to significantly impact adipocyte maturity, as observed by reduced abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2 protein and expression of mature adipocyte genes and those associated with de novo triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis. The impact of 14-3-3ζ depletion on adipocyte maturity was further examined with untargeted lipidomics, which revealed that reductions in 14-3-3ζ abundance promoted the acquisition of a lipidomic signature that resembled undifferentiated preadipocytes. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel aspect of 14-3-3ζ in adipocytes, as reducing 14-3-3ζ was found to have a negative effect on adipocyte maturity and adipocyte-specific processes like lipolysis.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Lipólise/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Masculino , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/genética , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008823, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453789

RESUMO

The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) depends on interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and a better understanding of gene-diet interactions in T2DM will be useful for disease prediction and prevention. Ascorbic acid has been proposed to reduce the risk of T2DM. However, the links between ascorbic acid and metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Here, we report that glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) maintains intracellular levels of ascorbic acid to promote adipogenesis, white adipose tissue (WAT) development and protect mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic dysregulation. We found genetic polymorphisms in SLC2A10 locus are suggestively associated with a T2DM intermediate phenotype in non-diabetic Han Taiwanese. Additionally, mice carrying an orthologous human Glut10G128E variant (Glut10G128E mice) with compromised GLUT10 function have reduced adipogenesis, reduced WAT development and increased susceptibility to HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation. We further demonstrate that GLUT10 is highly expressed in preadipocytes, where it regulates intracellular ascorbic acid levels and adipogenesis. In this context, GLUT10 increases ascorbic acid-dependent DNA demethylation and the expression of key adipogenic genes, Cebpa and Pparg. Together, our data show GLUT10 regulates adipogenesis via ascorbic acid-dependent DNA demethylation to benefit proper WAT development and protect mice against HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation. Our findings suggest that SLC2A10 may be an important HFD-associated susceptibility locus for T2DM.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PPAR gama/genética
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 20725-20735, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246423

RESUMO

Chicoric acid (CA) is a natural antioxidant with promising hepatoprotective activity. We investigated the potential of CA to prevent methotrexate (MTX) hepatotoxicity, pointing to the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and PPARγ. Rats received CA for 15 days and were then injected with MTX at day 16. Blood and tissue samples were collected for analysis at day 19. CA ameliorated liver function markers and mitigated histological alterations in MTX-induced rats. Pre-treatment with CA suppressed reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidants in MTX-induced rats. Moreover, CA upregulated hepatic Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1, and PPARγ, and attenuated inflammation. Consequently, CA inhibited apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 expression and suppressing Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3 in MTX-administered rats. In conclusion, CA prevented oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver injury induced by MTX by activating Nrf2 /HO-1 signaling and PPARγ.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cafeicos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , PPAR gama , Animais , Antioxidantes , Inflamação , Fígado , Metotrexato , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Succinatos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208989

RESUMO

Tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway generates a variety of bioactive metabolites. Physical exercise can modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism in skeletal muscle and thus change the concentrations of select compounds in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how exercise alters tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in muscle and its subsequent local and distal effects. We propose that the effects of kynurenine pathway metabolites on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, immune system, and the brain suggest that some of these compounds could qualify as exercise-induced myokines. Indeed, some of the more recently discovered biological activities for kynurenines include many of the best-known benefits of exercise: improved energy homeostasis, promotion of an anti-inflammatory environment, and neuroprotection. Finally, by considering the tissue expression of the different membrane and cytosolic receptors for kynurenines, we discuss known and potential biological activities for these tryptophan metabolites.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Cinurenina/genética , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , PPAR gama/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219924

RESUMO

Antibiotics stimulate the growth of animals but result in drug residues and bacterial resistance. In this study, the negative effect of antibiotics on abdominal fat deposition was evaluated in broilers. The results showed that adding both chlortetracycline (50 g/1,000 kg) and tylosin (50 g/1,000 kg) significantly increased abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat percentage (p < .05), and triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p < .05) in blood. Also, both products synchronously stimulated intestinal absorption and synthesis of liver fat. The expression levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Î³ (PPARγ), diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) genes in abdominal fat tissue significantly increased (p < .05 or 0.01) when antibiotics were added to the feed. However, no significant difference was found in expression of the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) or acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) genes. Further in vitro study results revealed that antibiotics had no effect on fat content or the related gene expression levels in preadipocytes. In summary, the antibiotics induced fat deposition in adipose tissues by activating extracellular absorption of fatty acids from intestinal absorption and synthesis of liver fat. However, it shows no direct regulation by adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Tilosina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clortetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/sangue , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Absorção Intestinal , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Tilosina/efeitos adversos
12.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 55-62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166665

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the increase of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) in brain tissues after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The microglial cells obtained from newborn rats were cultured and then randomly divided into the normal control group (NC group), model control group (MC group), rosiglitazone (RSG) intervention group (RSG group), retinoic-acid intervention group (RSG+RA group), and sulforaphane group (RSG+SF group). The expression levels of NQO1, γ-GCS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the levels of NQO1, γ-GCS and Nrf2 were significantly increased in the MC group and the RSG group as compared with those in the NC group (P<0.01). They were found to be markedly decreased in the RSG+RA group and increased in the RSG+SF group when compared with those in the MC group or the RSG group (P<0.01). The RSG+SF group displayed the highest levels of NQO1, γ-GCS, and Nrf2 among the five groups. In conclusion, a medium dose of RSG increased the anti-oxidative ability of thrombin-activated microglia by increasing the expression of NQO1 and γ-GCS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increase of NQO1 and γ-GCS in thrombin-activated microglia may be associated with the activation of Nrf2.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Microglia/citologia , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Trombina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/administração & dosagem , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rosiglitazona/administração & dosagem , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Tretinoína/administração & dosagem , Tretinoína/farmacologia
13.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 250-257, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191575

RESUMO

Obesity is a world-wide health concern with increasing mortality and morbidity rates. Development of novel therapeutic agents for obesity from phytochemicals may lead to the effective prevention and control of obesity and obesity-related complications. 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one (1) was isolated from a dietary plant, Artemisia princeps. The antiobesity effect of compound 1 was determined in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) induced to differentiate into adipocytes. Treatment with compound 1 resulted in decreased lipid accumulation and expression of key adipogenic markers, proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α, and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1. It was also shown that compound 1 downregulated the adipogenesis-induced p38 and JNK MAPK activation, while upregulating adipogenesis inhibitory ß-catenin-dependent Wnt10b pathway. Compound 1 was also able to stimulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which was suggested to be the underlying mechanism that resulted in inhibition of adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. In conclusion, 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one was identified as a bioactive constituent of A. princeps that exerts antiobesity properties via suppressing adipocyte formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 215-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191576

RESUMO

Anti-obesity activities of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGS) and/or Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract (GG) were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice. RGS and GG extracts were mixed at a mass ratio of 3:1 (SG31), 1:1 (SG11), or 1:3 (SG13). SG31 showed the highest anti-obesity activity among the three different mass ratios of RGS and GG extracts. SG31 showed higher inhibition efficiency on triglyceride (TG) accumulation than either single extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and without any cytotoxicity. It also decreases the expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes such as C/EBPα and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In the obese induced mouse model, SG31 significantly reduced white adipose tissue weight and body weight, attenuated dyslipidemia, and decreased serum TG levels. In some indices, the activity of SG31 was even higher compared with Garcinia Cambogia water extract, a positive control. The possible mechanism by which SG31 causes the above results was by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in adipose tissue to regulate energy metabolism balance, inhibit TG formation, and promote ß-oxidation of fatty acids. Therefore, SG31 may have efficacy as an anti-obesity functional food or raw material if the results can be confirmed in human studies.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(3): 1247-1254, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132021

RESUMO

AIM: We attempted to clarify the role of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its ligand, troglitazone (TRO) on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of PPARγ gene was examined in 47 human oral SCC tissues and two human oral SCC cell lines, CA9-22 and HSC-4. The effects of TRO on the growth and cell-cycle progression of human oral SCC cells were examined. RESULTS: PPARγ mRNA was detected in 20 of 47 oral SCC tissues and two human oral SCC cells. TRO significantly suppressed the growth of the cells, but did not induce apoptosis. CA9-22 cells treated with TRO showed an increased fraction in the G1 phase and decreased fractions in the S and G2-M phases. CONCLUSION: TRO did not induce apoptosis in oral SCC cells, but did inhibit the growth of the cells by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Troglitazona/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ligantes , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , PPAR gama/biossíntese , PPAR gama/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
16.
Gene ; 741: 144516, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119914

RESUMO

To study the influence of the PGC-1ß gene on chicken adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, we constructed RNA interference (RNAi) vectors that target the PGC-1ß gene and transfected these vectors into adipocytes. Oil Red O staining and a CCK-8 cell kit were used to determine cell triglyceride accumulation status and cell proliferation after transfection, respectively. The mRNA abundances of PGC-1ß and adipocyte-differentiation-related genes (PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, FAS, and A-FABP) were detected by real-time PCR. The results showed that the mRNA and protein abundances of PGC-1ß in PGC-1ß-shRNA transfected adipocytes were significantly lower than those in the control. Interference decreased cell differentiation, but did not depress the cell proliferation. PGC-1ß interference impeded the triglyceride accumulation, the mRNA expression levels of nuclear receptors PPARγ and SREBP-1c, and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and both proteins PPARγ and SREBP-1c, and the fatty acids transporting protein A-FABP. Generally, PGC-1ß modulated the cell differentiation and triglyceride accumulation in chicken adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , PPAR gama/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Receptor fas/genética
17.
Oncol Rep ; 43(3): 1019-1030, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020228

RESUMO

Kidney cancer is one of the most lethal urological malignancies associated with a high risk of mortality. Recent studies have shown that several antidiabetic drugs may limit the risk of the growth of different types of cancer. Pioglitazone (PIO) belongs to a novel class of antidiabetic drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This drug has been demonstrated to exert an inhibitory effect on cell growth in colon, prostatic, breast and pancreatic cancer lines. The aim of the present study was to assess the inhibitory effect of PIO on the proliferation of the renal adenocarcinoma cell line 769­P. In addition, the proapoptotic potential of combined treatment with PIO and methotrexate (MTX) was evaluated, as well as the impact of the above drugs on the cell cycle of the 769­P cells. The present study showed that PIO efficaciously inhibited the proliferation and viability of renal cancer cells, and it induced sub­G1 cell cycle arrest and a decrease in the number of cells in the G2 phase, which indicated cytotoxic activity. PIO also exhibited proapoptotic properties at the lowest dose applied (10 µM). Furthermore, combined therapy with PIO and MTX increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to MTX while at the same time this combined therapy did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect to normal kidney cells. In renal adenocarcinoma cells, the combination of the above cytostatic agent at the lowest dose administered (MTX, 5 µM) with the peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor Î³ agonist PIO exhibited better efficacy in triggering the process of apoptosis than that displayed by MTX alone.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/farmacologia , PPAR gama/genética , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
18.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(4): F1006-F1016, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003596

RESUMO

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulates diverse physiological functions, including bladder control. We recently reported that Crf expression is under genetic control of Aoah, the locus encoding acyloxyacyl hydrolase (AOAH), suggesting that AOAH may also modulate voiding. Here, we examined the role of AOAH in bladder function. AOAH-deficient mice exhibited enlarged bladders relative to wild-type mice and had decreased voiding frequency and increased void volumes. AOAH-deficient mice had increased nonvoiding contractions and increased peak voiding pressure in awake cystometry. AOAH-deficient mice also exhibited increased bladder permeability and higher neuronal firing rates of bladder afferents in response to stretch. In wild-type mice, AOAH was expressed in bladder projecting neurons and colocalized in CRF-expressing neurons in Barrington's nucleus, an important brain area for voiding behavior, and Crf was elevated in Barrington's nucleus of AOAH-deficient mice. We had previously identified aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ as transcriptional regulators of Crf, and conditional knockout of AhR or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in Crf-expressing cells restored normal voiding in AOAH-deficient mice. Finally, an AhR antagonist improved voiding in AOAH-deficient mice. Together, these data demonstrate that AOAH regulates bladder function and that the AOAH-Crf axis is a therapeutic target for treating voiding dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Neurônios/enzimologia , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Transtornos Urinários/enzimologia , Micção , Urodinâmica , Animais , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Núcleo de Barrington/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/deficiência , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Contração Muscular , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pressão , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Urinários/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Urinários/genética , Transtornos Urinários/fisiopatologia , Urodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 956, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075969

RESUMO

Nuclear receptor (NR) transcription factors use a conserved activation function-2 (AF-2) helix 12 mechanism for agonist-induced coactivator interaction and NR transcriptional activation. In contrast, ligand-induced corepressor-dependent NR repression appears to occur through structurally diverse mechanisms. We report two crystal structures of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in an inverse agonist/corepressor-bound transcriptionally repressive conformation. Helix 12 is displaced from the solvent-exposed active conformation and occupies the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket enabled by a conformational change that doubles the pocket volume. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR and chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry confirm the repressive helix 12 conformation. PRE NMR also defines the mechanism of action of the corepressor-selective inverse agonist T0070907, and reveals that apo-helix 12 exchanges between transcriptionally active and repressive conformations-supporting a fundamental hypothesis in the NR field that helix 12 exchanges between transcriptionally active and repressive conformations.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/metabolismo , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , PPAR gama/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Piridinas/metabolismo , Apoproteínas/química , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Correpressoras/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Coativadores de Receptor Nuclear/química , Coativadores de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/genética , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Transcrição Genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948061

RESUMO

Senile osteoporosis has become a worldwide bone disease with the aging of the world population. It increases the risk of bone fracture and seriously affects human health. Unlike postmenopausal osteoporosis which is linked to menopause in women, senile osteoporosis is due to aging, hence, affecting both men and women. It is commonly found in people with more than their 70s. Evidence has shown that with age increase, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) differentiate into more adipocytes rather than osteoblasts and undergo senescence, which leads to decreased bone formation and contributes to senile osteoporosis. Therefore, it is necessary to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional changes of BMSCs. It will benefit not only for understanding the senile osteoporosis development, but also for finding new therapies to treat senile osteoporosis. Here, we review the recent advances of the functional alterations of BMSCs and the related mechanisms during senile osteoporosis development. Moreover, the treatment of senile osteoporosis by aiming at BMSCs is introduced.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Senescência Celular/genética , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/terapia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA