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1.
Life Sci ; 237: 116890, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606379

RESUMO

AIMS: Telmisartan (TEL), an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker and PPARγ partial agonist, has been used for to treat hypertension. It is known that PPARγ activation induces bone loss. Therefore, we evaluate the effects of telmisartan on PPARγ protein expression, biomechanics, density and bone microarchitecture of femurs and lumbar vertebrae in SHR ovariectomized animals, a model of hypertension in which preexisting bone impairment has been demonstrated. MAIN METHODS: SHR females (3 months old) were distributed into four groups: sham (S), sham + TEL (ST), OVX (C) and OVX + TEL (CT). TEL (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle were administered according to the groups. After the protocol, blood pressure was measured and density, microarchitecture and biomechanics of bone were analyzed. Western blotting analysis was performed to evaluate PPARγ protein expression in the bones. KEY FINDINGS: Castration induced a deleterious effect on mineral density and trabecular parameters, with telmisartan enhancing such effects. Telmisartan increased PPARγ levels, which were at their highest when the treatment was combined with castration. As to biomechanical properties, telmisartan reduced the stiffness in the castration group (CT vs. S or C group), as well as resilience and failure load in ST group (vs. all others groups). SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that telmisartan compromised bone density and microarchitecture in animals that shows preexisting osteoporotic bone disorders, probably via mechanisms associated with increased PPARγ. If this translates to humans, a need for greater caution in the use of telmisartan by patients that have preexisting bone problems, as in the postmenopausal period, may be in order.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Doenças Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Telmisartan/farmacologia , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Ósseas/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Feminino , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/genética , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(7): 560-568, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479167

RESUMO

Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein secreted by phagocytic cells which plays a pivotal role on the resolution of inflammation by enhancing phagocytosis carried out by phagocytes. Which factors and intracellular mechanisms are linked to such actions exerted by AnxA1 are yet to be completely understood. In order to investigate such, BV2 microglial cells were transfected with plasmids aimed at down-modulating AnxA1 expression and also treated with exogenous recombinant rAnxA1; gene and protein expression of proliferated-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CD36, STAT6 phosphorylation and phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons were investigated. Down-modulating AnxA1 in BV2 cells impaired gene and protein expression of PPARγ, effects reversed by treatment with recombinant AnxA1 (rAnxA1). Lower levels of CD36 were also verified in AnxA1 down-modulated BV2 cells. AnxA1-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was abrogated due to blockade of PPARγ activation, and in AnxA1 down-modulated cells exogenous AnxA1 failed to exert any effects on phagocytosis. Lower levels of STAT6/pSTAT6 in AnxA1 down-modulated BV2 cells suggest the involvement of this transcription factor with PPARγ and CD36 synthesis and actions. Data here shown suggest that there is a probable connection between AnxA1, PPARγ, and CD36, which must all act in association in order for efferocytosis to occur properly. AnxA1-mediated phosphorylation of STAT6 is probably involved with intracellular pathways involving PPARγ and CD36 actions. These data evidence that PPARγ/CD36 play a role on AnxA1-mediated efferocytosis in microglial cells. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The findings of this work provide evidence that the glucocorticoid-mediated protein annexin A1 modulates PPARγ expression and that PPARγ is important for annexin A1-mediated efferocytosis. Only recently the interaction between these two factors has begun to be explored, and knowledge on associated cell mechanisms are still scarce. Elucidating how annexin A1 and PPARγ interact with one another provides basis for further research aimed at understanding molecular pathways and cell signaling events involved with these factors, expanding existing knowledge on the anti-inflammatory effects of such factors.


Assuntos
Anexina A1/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , PPAR gama/genética , Ratos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10321-10329, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419115

RESUMO

Pterostilbene (PTS) is a phenolic compound with diverse pharmacologic activities. However, its potential for inhibiting obesity-related colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Our study evaluated the mechanism of inhibitory effects of PTS on adipocyte conditioned-medium (aCM)-induced malignant transformation in HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that PTS could downregulate the expression of aCM-induced fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and prometastatic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, and extracellular tumor necrosis factor α via inhibiting aCM-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), ß-catenin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Moreover, PTS can suppress aCM-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK 1/2) signaling pathways activation that are upstream of NF-κB, ß-catenin, and PPAR-γ. Therefore, we suggest that PTS could alleviate adiposity-induced metastasis in CRC via inhibiting cell migration through downregulating FABP5 gene expression.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108795, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419397

RESUMO

Citreoviridin (CIT), a mycotoxin and ATP synthase inhibitor, is regarded as one of aetiology factors of cardiac beriberi and Keshan disease. Thiamine (VB1) and selenium (Se) improve the recovery of these two diseases respectively. The underlying mechanisms of cardiotoxic effect of CIT and cardioprotective effect of VB1 and Se have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that ectopic ATP synthase was more sensitive to CIT treatment than mitochondrial ATP synthase in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. CIT inhibited the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in mice hearts and H9c2 cells. PPAR-γ agonist attenuated the inhibitory effect of CIT on mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and stimulatory effect of CIT on autophagy in cardiomyocytes. CIT induced apoptosis through lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in cardiomyocytes. PPAR-γ agonist and autophagy inhibitor alleviated CIT-induced apoptosis and accelerated cardiac biomarker. VB1 and Se accelerated the basal transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ in mice hearts and H9c2 cells. Furthermore, VB1 and Se reversed the effect of CIT on PPAR-γ, autophagy and apoptosis. Our findings defined PPAR-γ-mTORC2-autophagy pathway as the key link between CIT cardiotoxicity and cardioprotective effect of VB1 and Se. The present study would shed new light on the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy and the cardioprotective mechanism of micronutrients.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aurovertinas/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Tiamina/farmacologia , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 233: 116745, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404524

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease worldwide and is striking more young people, which is characterized by impaired vascular endothelial function. To find the functional lncRNAs associated with hypertension, high throughput lncRNA microarray were used to analyze expression profile of the lncRNAs in the aortic vascular endothelial cells (VECs) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The tail vein injection of siRNA was used to study the influence of lncRNA AK094457 inhibition on endothelial function in vivo. In vitro, endothelial function was studied in endothelial cells transfected with lncRNA AK094457-overexpressed vectors and siRNAs. pPPARγ and iNOS protein levels were detected with Western blot. Elisa assay was used to analyze the secretion of AngII, ET-1, ROS and LDH level. The nitrite/nitrate (NO2-/NO3-) concentration was measured using a colorimetric assay. LncRNA AK094457 was a most upregulated lncRNA in SHRs. It is showed that downregulation of AK094457 significantly reduced rat arterial pressure, increased activation of endothelial PPARγ, and suppressed serum contents of AngII and NO in vivo. Furthermore, results from gain-and-loss of function in primary aortic endothelial cells indicated that AK094457 negatively regulated activation of PPARγ and promoted AngII-mediated endothelial dysfunction, manifested by decreased capacities of cell proliferation and migration, and increased levels of ROS production and LDH release. In conclusion, lncRNA AK094457 is identified as a key regulator in blood pressure and endothelial function, which can increase AngII-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via suppression of PPARγ.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , PPAR gama/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Vasoconstritores/toxicidade , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Transdução de Sinais , Remodelação Vascular
6.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(2): 56-60, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406043

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand activated transcription factor known to regulate fatty acid metabolism. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), PPARγ synthetic agonists, currently used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, have been shown to lower the blood pressure and protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In line with these findings, it has been reported that individuals with loss-of-function mutations of PPARγ developed sever early-onset hypertension in addition to metabolic abnormalities. Accumulating evidences suggest PPARγ in the vasculature has protective effects on cardiovascular disease despite unclear mechanism. Because of ubiquitous expression of PPARγ, TZDs are well-known to be associated with serious side effects such as weight gain, fluid retention, and bone fractures. Thus identification of mechanisms on tissue-specific PPARγ activity may lead to the development of targeted treatment which is characterized by no deleterious effects. This review discusses role of PPARγ in cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , PPAR gama/agonistas
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 844-847, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400143

RESUMO

Congenital lipodystrophic diabetes (CLD) is a rare genetic disease characterized by generalized or topical subcutaneous fat loss combined with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. Recent studies have discovered genes underlying the disease. Mutations of such genes are associated with adipogenic anomaly, especially regulational function of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (γPPAR) for lipid. This paper has provided a review for the main clinical symptoms, classification, pathogenic genes, molecular mechanism and the relationship between PPARγ and fat loss.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Lipodistrofia Generalizada Congênita/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Transcrição
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108755, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319077

RESUMO

Effective control of white adipose tissue accumulation would provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity, which poses a growing global problem. The plant chemical mangiferin stimulates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits adipogenesis and has therefore been considered a therapeutic target for obesity and related diseases. We previously reported the anti-inflammatory properties of 6'-O-acetyl mangiferin (OAM). In this study, we evaluated the potential of OAM as an AMPK activator in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. OAM inhibited adipogenesis as indicated by lower intracellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation as well as reduced adipogenic gene and protein expression upon treatment. OAM-treated 3T3-L1 cells excreted more glycerol, indicating increased lipolysis, which was supported by increased expression of lipolysis-related genes, including adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. We determined that OAM upregulates lipolysis via phosphorylation-dependent activation of AMPK. Further, OAM upregulated the ß-oxidation pathway as indicated by enhanced expression of phosphorylated acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1. In conclusion, OAM markedly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation by enhancing lipolysis via AMPK activation and by upregulating ß-oxidation. Thus, OAM has potential as a drug for the prevention and/or improvement of obesity and related diseases and deserves further study.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Iris (Planta)/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2330-2336, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313321

RESUMO

It has been reported that genistein could improve metabolic syndromes. Our study aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of genistein on improving cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cell. HepG2 cells were cultured with 0, 0.01, 1.00, 10.00, and 50.00 µM genistein for 24 hr. The current results showed a dose-dependent manner between genistein and intracellular contents of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and cellular apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) secretion. TC was increased by 25.69%, meanwhile HDL-C and Apo-A1 were decreased by 56.00% and 25.93%, respectively, when the dosage of genistein was 1.00 µM. Genistein dose-dependently upregulated the protein and mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins-2 (SREBP-2), as well as the mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), by 145.91%, 72.29%, 310.23%, and 123.08%, respectively, when we gave 1.00 µM genistein, indicating that intracellular cholesterol synthesis and absorption of exogenous cholesterol were increased. In addition, the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor (LXRα), lowered by 58.23% and 34.86% at 0.01 µM genistein, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. LXRα and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein levels were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by 50.35% and 11.60% at 1.00 µM genistein, which indicated that cellular cholesterol efflux was inhibited. Taken together, our results suggested that genistein at dosage of more than 1.00 µM was able to increase the intracellular cholesterol levels by up regulating SREBP-2/LDLR/HMGCR pathway and suppressing PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1 pathway. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, genistein appeared to be effective in reducing plasma cholesterol levels due to increase the intracellular cholesterol levels by upregulating cholesterol absorption through SREBP-2/LDLR/HMGCR pathway, and also downregulating cholesterol efflux via PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1 pathway in vitro. In addition, plasma cholesterol is regarded as the key indicator of atherosclerosis; therefore, we believe that our findings could be used for further exploration on a possible therapeutic application of genistein for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Genisteína/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína A-I/genética , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8361-8369, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339708

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein receptor, is well recognized for its role in the regulation of adipocyte proliferation, in modulating adipose tissue dysfunction, and as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of γ-glutamylvaline (γ-EV) on mouse adipocytes and explore the role of γ-EV-activated CaSR in the regulation of cellular homeostasis using the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line in vitro model. Our results indicate that the 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells accumulated lipids and expressed CaSR after 2 days of differentiation and 7 days of maturation period. The pretreatment with γ-EV (10 µM) suppressed the production of TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-6 (23.92 ± 5.45 ng/mL, p < 0.05)) and MCP-1 (101.17 ± 39.93 ng/mL, p < 0.05), while enhancing the expression of PPARγ (1.249 ± 0.109, p < 0.001) and adiponectin (7.37 ± 0.59 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Elevated expression of Wnt5a was detected in γ-EV-treated cells (115.90 ± 45.50, p < 0.001), suggesting the involvement of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Also, phosphorylation of ß-catenin was shown to be significantly inhibited (0.442 ± 0.034) by TNF-α but restored when cells were pretreated with γ-EV (0.765 ± 0.048, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that γ-EV-induced CaSR activation not only prevents TNF-α-induced inflammation in adipocytes but also modulates the cross-talk between Wnt and PPARγ pathways. Concentrations of serine phosphorylated IRS-1 were shown to be lower in γ-EV-treated cells, indicating γ-EV may also prevent inflammation in the context of insulin resistance. Thus, γ-EV-activated CaSR plays a significant role in the cross-talk between adipocyte inflammatory and metabolic pathways through the regulation of extracellular sensing.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/imunologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/imunologia , Animais , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/imunologia , Fosforilação , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
11.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(9): 945-954, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355674

RESUMO

Domestic cattle are an important type of livestock, with beef production playing a major role in the agricultural economy. Adipocyte levels and fat content are interrelated, with meat quality being highly dependent on its fat content and distribution. Acyl-CoA synthetases of long-chain (ACSL) fatty acids (FAs) play an integral role in virtually every metabolic pathway in mammalian biochemistry, including complex lipid biosynthesis, protein modification, and ß-oxidation processes. ACSL3 activity is also known to be associated with adipocyte differentiation; however, its biological mechanism of action is currently unclear. Gene expression in subcutaneous preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous deposits of Chinese Red Steppe cattle has been studied using in vitro cell transfection, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The lipid and triglyceride contents of lipid droplets have also been measured to verify the levels of gene expression. These combined studies show that ACSL3 is induced during adipocyte differentiation, with its overexpression promoting an increase in the triglyceride content of lipid droplets. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression levels for adipocyte differentiation marker genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), were markedly increased during mature adipocyte cell differentiation. Knockdown of ACSL3 expression using ACSL3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in a decrease in lipid content of cattle adipocytes, providing further evidence that ACSL3 plays a key role in the differentiation process.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia , Bovinos/genética , Coenzima A Ligases/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2987, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278260

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease in which the intricate alveolar network of the lung is progressively replaced by fibrotic scars. Myofibroblasts are the effector cells that excessively deposit extracellular matrix proteins thus compromising lung structure and function. Emerging literature suggests a correlation between fibrosis and metabolic alterations in IPF. In this study, we show that the first-line antidiabetic drug metformin exerts potent antifibrotic effects in the lung by modulating metabolic pathways, inhibiting TGFß1 action, suppressing collagen formation, activating PPARγ signaling and inducing lipogenic differentiation in lung fibroblasts derived from IPF patients. Using genetic lineage tracing in a murine model of lung fibrosis, we show that metformin alters the fate of myofibroblasts and accelerates fibrosis resolution by inducing myofibroblast-to-lipofibroblast transdifferentiation. Detailed pathway analysis revealed a two-arm mechanism by which metformin accelerates fibrosis resolution. Our data report an antifibrotic role for metformin in the lung, thus warranting further therapeutic evaluation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Gene ; 711: 143947, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in several metabolic processes, including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we examined PPARA: rs4253778, rs1800206, PPARD: rs2267668, rs2016520, rs1053049, PPARG rs1801282 and PPARGC1A rs8192678 polymorphisms in patients with unstable angina. This study included 246 patients with unstable angina confirmed by coronary angiography (defined by >70% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery) and 189 healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed statistically significant difference in distribution of PPARG rs1801282 genotypes and alleles between patients and control group. Among patients there was the increased frequency of CG and GG genotypes and G alleles. The association between PPARG rs1801282 G allele and unstable angina was confirmed in multivariate regression analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in the distributions of other studied polymorphisms between patients with unstable angina and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest the association between PPARG rs1801282 G allele and unstable angina in Polish population.


Assuntos
Angina Instável/genética , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR delta/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Alelos , Angina Instável/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polônia
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5417-5423, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059053

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a global public health problem. Therefore, the development of novel and effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of HCC is considered an emergency. Avicularin, a bio­active flavonoid from plants, has been reported to exhibit diverse pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of avicularin in HCC and the underlying mechanism of action. Huh7 cells were treated with avicularin in a concentration­dependent manner, and the cell proliferation was examined using a 3­(4, 5­dimethylthiazol­2­yl)­2, 5­diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay kit. The cell migration and invasion abilities were detected using wounding­healing assays and Transwell assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to investigate the cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)­κB (p65), cyclooxygenase­2 (COX­2) and peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor γ (PPAR­Î³) were measured by reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. The results indicated that avicularin treatment markedly decreased cell proliferation concentration­dependently in HCC, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in Huh7 cells. It was also found that the treatment of avicularin markedly inhibited the G0/G1­phase cells and decreased the accumulation of S­phase cells in the cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, it was confirmed that the anticancer efficacy of avicularin in HCC was dependent on the regulation of NF­κB (p65), COX­2 and PPAR­Î³ activities. In conclusion, the findings suggested that avicularin serves an antineoplastic role in HCC and may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , PPAR gama/genética
15.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 4719-4726, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059010

RESUMO

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) modulates various biological processes. Although previous studies have described the effects of LIF on adipocyte differentiation, the role of LIF receptor (LIFR) on adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Using reverse transcription­quantitative PCR (RT­qPCR), LIFR expression was demonstrated to increase during adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), indicating that LIFR may be involved in this process. To further evaluate the association between LIFR and adipogenic differentiation, lentivirus­mediated LIFR knockdown was performed in hMSCs. Cells were divided into two groups: Negative control group and LIFR­knockdown group. During the adipogenic differentiation process, intracellular lipid accumulation was assessed with Oil Red O staining at various time points (days 3, 6 and 9). Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LIF, LIFR and three molecular indicators of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator­activated receptor Î³ (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/aP2), were assessed by RT­qPCR and western blotting. The culture supernatant was collected to evaluate the concentration of LIF using ELISA. The present results suggested that LIFR expression progressively increased during adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Conversely, LIFR knockdown significantly suppressed this process. Additionally, PPARγ, C/EBPα and aP2 were inhibited following LIFR knockdown. In contrast with LIFR, the expression levels of LIF were significantly decreased after the initiation of adipogenic differentiation. Therefore, the expression levels of LIF and LIFR exhibited opposite trends. Collectively, the present results suggested that LIFR promoted adipogenic differentiation, whereas LIF may negatively regulate this process.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia/genética , Células da Medula Óssea , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2958-2969, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073569

RESUMO

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) has a significant polyphenol content and has been reported to elicit anti-obesity effects. Previous studies have focused on the properties of cacao extract and procyanidins, while the potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of procyanidin metabolites on adipogenic cocktail-induced adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. It was observed that 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV), a major procyanidin metabolite, exhibited the greatest inhibitory effects on adipogenesis and lipogenesis. DHPV dose-dependently reduced the expression levels of proteins involved in adipogenesis including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ) and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP α), as well as lipogenesis-related factors such as fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These inhibitory effects were primarily due to G1 phase arrest and the suppression of cell proliferation during mitotic clonal expansion, the early stage of adipogenesis. In an extensive kinase array, DHPV directly suppressed activation of the CDK2/cyclin O complex, and inhibited the phosphorylation of C/EBP ß, which is responsible for the induction of PPAR γ and C/EBP α. Taken together, these findings suggest that DHPV is a highly biologically active compound with potential anti-obesity effects and works by inhibiting the intracellular lipid content and cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Cacau/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Lactonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação
17.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091729

RESUMO

Delphinidin-3-O-ß-glucoside (D3G) is a health-promoting anthocyanin whose anti-obesity activity has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We examined the effects of D3G on adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary white adipocytes using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. D3G significantly inhibited the accumulation of lipids in a dose-dependent manner without displaying cytotoxicity. In the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, D3G downregulated the expression of key adipogenic and lipogenic markers, which are known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Moreover, the relative protein expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were increased, alongside reduced lipid levels and the presence of several small lipid droplets. Furthermore, D3G increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which suggests that D3G may play a role in AMPK and ACC activation in adipocytes. Our data indicate that D3G attenuates adipogenesis and promotes lipid metabolism by activating AMPK-mediated signaling, and, hence, could have a therapeutic role in the management and treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Adipócitos Brancos/enzimologia , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética
18.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 77(3): 245-252, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134453

RESUMO

Satiety peptides convey information about short-term energy reserves in the gut to the hypothalamus and aid in regulation of appetite and food intake. Obestatin is one such gastro peptide that has been shown to upregulate glycerolipid metabolism and PPARγ signalling. Obestatin brings about moderate reduction in circulating and stored triglyceride levels and reduction in gain in body weight in mice. We wanted to test whether obestatin could be further potentiated by co-administration with nutraceuticals genistein and capsaicin that are well known to reduce triglyceride levels. Hence, we chose to administer the compounds individually and pair-wise with obestatin in 3T3-L1 cells at concentrations of 200 nM obestatin, 10 µM capsaicin and 100 µM genistein. When treated along with induction of differentiation, both capsaicin and genistein in combination with obestatin reduced triglyceride levels in 3T3-L1 cells by 25 and 20%, respectively, when accessed on day 14 after induction. The combined administrations were dominated by the effect of the nutraceuticals and showed the same effect as of capsaicin or genistein. Upregulation of Fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl/Pnpla2) by obestatin were reversed by both capsaicin and genistein. However, their ability to upregulate Peroxisome proliferation activating receptor gamma (Pparγ), Hormone sensitive lipase (Hsl), Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) were retained while upregulation of Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) by capsaicin was unchanged upon co-administration. Over expression of the lipases and UCP1 in case of capsaicin could be resulting in net lowering of lipid accumulation in the cells.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/farmacologia , Genisteína/farmacologia , Grelina/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Hypertension ; 74(1): 173-183, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104564

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy associated with vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk to offspring. We hypothesize that endothelial PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) provides cardiovascular protection in offspring from pregnancies complicated by hypertension. C57BL/6J dams were bred with E-V290M sires, which express a dominant-negative allele of PPARγ selectively in the endothelium. Arginine vasopressin was infused throughout gestation. Vasopressin elevated maternal blood pressure at gestational day 14 to 15 and urinary protein at day 17 consistent. Systolic blood pressure and vasodilation responses to acetylcholine were similar in vasopressin-exposed offspring compared to offspring from control pregnancies. We treated offspring with a subpressor dose of angiotensin II to test if hypertension during pregnancy predisposes offspring to hypertension. Male and female angiotensin II-treated E-V290M offspring from vasopressin-exposed but not control pregnancy exhibited significant impairment in acetylcholine-induced relaxation in carotid artery. Endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-treated E-V290M vasopressin-exposed offspring was attenuated by tempol, an effect which was more prominent in male offspring. Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor) protein levels were significantly elevated in aorta from male E-V290M offspring, but not female offspring compared to controls. Blockade of ROCK (Rho-kinase) signaling and incubation with a ROCK2-specific inhibitor improved endothelial function in both male and female E-V290M offspring from vasopressin-exposed pregnancy. Our data suggest that interference with endothelial PPARγ in offspring from vasopressin-exposed pregnancies increases the risk for endothelial dysfunction on exposure to a cardiovascular stressor in adulthood. This implies that endothelial PPARγ provides protection to cardiovascular stressors in offspring of a pregnancy complicated by hypertension and perhaps in preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Prenhez , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108834

RESUMO

Clitoria ternatea (commonly known as blue pea) flower petal extract (CTE) is used as a natural colorant in a variety of foods and beverages. The objective of study was to determine the inhibitory effect of CTE on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The phytochemical profiles of CTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Anti-adipogenesis effect of CTE was measured by using Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assay, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cell cycle studies were performed by flow cytometry. Lipolysis experiments were performed using a colorimetric assay kit. In early stages, CTE demonstrated anti-adipogenic effects through inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle retardation by suppressing expression of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results also showed that CTE inhibited the late stage of differentiation through diminishing expression of adipogenic transcription factors including PPARγ and C/EBPα. The inhibitory action was subsequently attenuated in downregulation of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, causing the reduction of TG accumulation. In addition, CTE also enhanced catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. These results suggest that CTE effectively attenuates adipogenesis by controlling cell cycle progression and downregulating adipogenic gene expression.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clitoria/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Flores/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipólise , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
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