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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1296-1308, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) testing might provide a current assessment of the genomic profile of advanced cancer, without the need to repeat tumour biopsy. We aimed to assess the accuracy of ctDNA testing in advanced breast cancer and the ability of ctDNA testing to select patients for mutation-directed therapy. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicohort, phase 2a, platform trial of ctDNA testing in 18 UK hospitals. Participants were women (aged ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed advanced breast cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Patients had completed at least one previous line of treatment for advanced breast cancer or relapsed within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients were recruited into four parallel treatment cohorts matched to mutations identified in ctDNA: cohort A comprised patients with ESR1 mutations (treated with intramuscular extended-dose fulvestrant 500 mg); cohort B comprised patients with HER2 mutations (treated with oral neratinib 240 mg, and if oestrogen receptor-positive with intramuscular standard-dose fulvestrant); cohort C comprised patients with AKT1 mutations and oestrogen receptor-positive cancer (treated with oral capivasertib 400 mg plus intramuscular standard-dose fulvestrant); and cohort D comprised patients with AKT1 mutations and oestrogen receptor-negative cancer or PTEN mutation (treated with oral capivasertib 480 mg). Each cohort had a primary endpoint of confirmed objective response rate. For cohort A, 13 or more responses among 78 evaluable patients were required to infer activity and three or more among 16 were required for cohorts B, C, and D. Recruitment to all cohorts is complete and long-term follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03182634; the European Clinical Trials database, EudraCT2015-003735-36; and the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN16945804. FINDINGS: Between Dec 21, 2016, and April 26, 2019, 1051 patients registered for the study, with ctDNA results available for 1034 patients. Agreement between ctDNA digital PCR and targeted sequencing was 96-99% (n=800, kappa 0·89-0·93). Sensitivity of digital PCR ctDNA testing for mutations identified in tissue sequencing was 93% (95% CI 83-98) overall and 98% (87-100) with contemporaneous biopsies. In all cohorts, combined median follow-up was 14·4 months (IQR 7·0-23·7). Cohorts B and C met or exceeded the target number of responses, with five (25% [95% CI 9-49]) of 20 patients in cohort B and four (22% [6-48]) of 18 patients in cohort C having a response. Cohorts A and D did not reach the target number of responses, with six (8% [95% CI 3-17]) of 74 in cohort A and two (11% [1-33]) of 19 patients in cohort D having a response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were raised gamma-glutamyltransferase (13 [16%] of 80 patients; cohort A); diarrhoea (four [25%] of 20; cohort B); fatigue (four [22%] of 18; cohort C); and rash (five [26%] of 19; cohort D). 17 serious adverse reactions occurred in 11 patients, and there was one treatment-related death caused by grade 4 dyspnoea (in cohort C). INTERPRETATION: ctDNA testing offers accurate, rapid genotyping that enables the selection of mutation-directed therapies for patients with breast cancer, with sufficient clinical validity for adoption into routine clinical practice. Our results demonstrate clinically relevant activity of targeted therapies against rare HER2 and AKT1 mutations, confirming these mutations could be targetable for breast cancer treatment. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca, and Puma Biotechnology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Fulvestranto/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5417-5421, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type II diabetes agents have anticancer effects on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathway represents a putative target. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interrogated an Affymetrix HNSCC dataset for MTOR-related gene expression. RESULTS: MTOR expression itself was unchanged, but various related genes demonstrated differential expression. Pathway promoters ras homolog (RHEB), MTOR-associated protein (MLST8), and ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 (RPS6KB1) were up-regulated. Expression of growth suppressors tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), and BCL2 apoptosis regulator-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) were reduced in HNSCC. Upstream, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were up-regulated in cancer. CONCLUSION: Several MTOR pathway promoters and tumor suppressors were found to be differentially expressed, favoring MTOR pathway up-regulation in HNSCC. Genomic databases can be interrogated to identify intervention targets and endpoints in HNSCC trials.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/classificação , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína de Morte Celular Associada a bcl/genética , Homólogo LST8 da Proteína Associada a mTOR/genética
3.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 1008-1023.e4, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871104

RESUMO

TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion occurs in approximately 50% of cases of prostate cancer (PCa), and the fusion product is a key driver of prostate oncogenesis. However, how to leverage cellular signaling to ablate TMPRSS2-ERG oncoprotein for PCa treatment remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that DNA damage induces proteasomal degradation of wild-type ERG and TMPRSS2-ERG oncoprotein through ERG threonine-187 and tyrosine-190 phosphorylation mediated by GSK3ß and WEE1, respectively. The dual phosphorylation triggers ERG recognition and degradation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBW7 in a manner independent of a canonical degron. DNA damage-induced TMPRSS2-ERG degradation was abolished by cancer-associated PTEN deletion or GSK3ß inactivation. Blockade of DNA damage-induced TMPRSS2-ERG oncoprotein degradation causes chemotherapy-resistant growth of fusion-positive PCa cells in culture and in mice. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized TMPRSS2-ERG protein destruction mechanism and demonstrate that intact PTEN and GSK3ß signaling are essential for effective targeting of ERG protein by genotoxic therapeutics in fusion-positive PCa.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Tratamento Farmacológico , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/genética , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Prostate ; 80(12): 1012-1023, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate classically lose androgen receptor (AR) expression, may harbor loss of the RB1, TP53, and PTEN tumor suppressor genes, and are associated with a poor prognosis. However usual-type adenocarcinomas may also contain areas of NE differentiation, and in this context the molecular features and biological significance are less certain. METHODS: We examined the molecular phenotype and oncologic outcomes of primary prostate adenocarcinomas with ≥5% NE differentiation (≥5% chromogranin A-positive NE cells in any given tumor spot on tissue microarray) using three independent study sets: a set of tumors with paneth cell-like NE differentiation (n = 26), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and primary tumors from a retrospective series of men with eventual castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (n = 55). RESULTS: Benign NE cells expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels compared with paired benign luminal cells (P < .001). Similarly, paneth-like NE carcinoma cells or carcinoma cells expressing chromogranin A expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels than paired non-NE carcinoma cells (P < .001). Quantified ERG protein expression, was also lower in chromogranin A-labeled adenocarcinoma cells compared with unlabeled cells (P < .001) and tumors with NE differentiation showed lower gene expression scores for AR activity compared with those without. Despite evidence of lower AR signaling, adenocarcinomas with NE differentiation did not differ by prevalence of TP53 missense mutations, or PTEN or RB1 loss, compared with those without NE differentiation. Finally, NE differentiation was not associated with time to metastasis in intermediate- and high-risk patients (P = .6 on multivariate analysis), nor with progression-free survival in patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (P = .9). CONCLUSION: NE differentiation in usual-type primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a molecularly and clinically distinct form of lineage plasticity from that occurring in small cell NE carcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3669, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699356

RESUMO

Recent characterization of spatiotemporal genomic architecture of IDH-wild-type multifocal glioblastomas (M-GBMs) suggests a clinically unobserved common-ancestor (CA) with a less aggressive phenotype, generating highly genetically divergent malignant gliomas/GBMs in distant brain regions. Using serial MRI/3D-reconstruction, whole-genome sequencing and spectral karyotyping-based single-cell phylogenetic tree building, we show two distinct types of tumor evolution in p53-mutant driven mouse models. Malignant gliomas/GBMs grow as a single mass (Type 1) and multifocal masses (Type 2), respectively, despite both exhibiting loss of Pten/chromosome 19 (chr19) and PI3K/Akt activation with sub-tetraploid/4N genomes. Analysis of early biopsied and multi-segment tumor tissues reveals no evidence of less proliferative diploid/2N lesions in Type 1 tumors. Strikingly, CA-derived relatively quiescent tumor precursors with ancestral diploid/2N genomes and normal Pten/chr19 are observed in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but are distantly segregated from multi focal Type 2 tumors. Importantly, PI3K/Akt inhibition by Rictor/mTORC2 deletion blocks distant dispersal, restricting glioma growth in the SVZ.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Evolução Clonal , Evolução Molecular , Glioblastoma/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Cariotipagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Companheira de mTOR Insensível à Rapamicina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1854-1869, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our recent work demonstrates that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is an important regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. SMC-specific PTEN deletion promotes spontaneous vascular remodeling and PTEN loss correlates with increased atherosclerotic lesion severity in human coronary arteries. In mice, PTEN overexpression reduces plaque area and preserves SMC contractile protein expression in atherosclerosis and blunts Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced pathological vascular remodeling, suggesting that pharmacological PTEN upregulation could be a novel therapeutic approach to treat vascular disease. Approach and Results: To identify novel PTEN activators, we conducted a high-throughput screen using a fluorescence based PTEN promoter-reporter assay. After screening ≈3400 compounds, 11 hit compounds were chosen based on level of activity and mechanism of action. Following in vitro confirmation, we focused on 5-azacytidine, a DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase-1) inhibitor, for further analysis. In addition to PTEN upregulation, 5-azacytidine treatment increased expression of genes associated with a differentiated SMC phenotype. 5-Azacytidine treatment also maintained contractile gene expression and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression after PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) stimulation, suggesting 5-azacytidine blocks PDGF-induced SMC de-differentiation. However, these protective effects were lost in PTEN-deficient SMCs. These findings were confirmed in vivo using carotid ligation in SMC-specific PTEN knockout mice treated with 5-azacytidine. In wild type controls, 5-azacytidine reduced neointimal formation and inflammation while maintaining contractile protein expression. In contrast, 5-azacytidine was ineffective in PTEN knockout mice, indicating that the protective effects of 5-azacytidine are mediated through SMC PTEN upregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates 5-azacytidine upregulates PTEN expression in SMCs, promoting maintenance of SMC differentiation and reducing pathological vascular remodeling in a PTEN-dependent manner.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497036

RESUMO

Metastasis is responsible for 90% of human cancer mortality, yet it remains a challenge to model human cancer metastasis in vivo. Here we describe mouse models of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and deadliest human ovarian cancer type. Mice genetically engineered to harbor Dicer1 and Pten inactivation and mutant p53 robustly replicate the peritoneal metastases of human HGSC with complete penetrance. Arising from the fallopian tube, tumors spread to the ovary and metastasize throughout the pelvic and peritoneal cavities, invariably inducing hemorrhagic ascites. Widespread and abundant peritoneal metastases ultimately cause mouse deaths (100%). Besides the phenotypic and histopathological similarities, mouse HGSCs also display marked chromosomal instability, impaired DNA repair, and chemosensitivity. Faithfully recapitulating the clinical metastases as well as molecular and genomic features of human HGSC, this murine model will be valuable for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of metastatic ovarian cancer and also for evaluating potential therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/secundário , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Reparo do DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Cultura Primária de Células , Ribonuclease III/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
8.
Prostate ; 80(11): 906-914, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is convincing evidence that men with advanced prostate cancer experience improved quality of life as a result of exercise therapy, although there is limited preclinical, and no clinical, data to directly support the notion that exercise training improves prostate cancer prognosis or outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular exercise training on the early stages of prostate cancer progression, as well as assessing whether alterations to prostate cancer metabolism are induced by exercise. METHODS: Mice with prostate-specific deletion of Pten (Pten-/- ) remained sedentary or underwent 6 weeks of endurance exercise training or high-intensity exercise training involving treadmill running. At the conclusion of the training period, the prostate lobes were excised. A portion of fresh tissue was used to assess glucose, glutamine, and fatty acid metabolism by radiometric techniques and a second portion was fixed for histopathology. RESULTS: Despite the implementation of an effective exercise regime, as confirmed by improvements in running capacity, neither prostate mass, cell proliferation or the incidence of high-grade prostate intraepithelial hyperplasia or noninvasive carcinoma in situ were significantly different between groups. Similarly, neither glucose uptake, oxidation and de novo lipogenesis, glutamine oxidation, or fatty acid uptake, oxidation and storage into various lipids were significantly different in prostate tissue obtained from untrained and exercise trained mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 6 weeks of moderate or high-intensity exercise training does not alter substrate metabolism in the prostate or slow the progression of Pten-null prostate cancer. These results question whether exercise is a useful therapy to prevent or delay prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(22): 2103-2116, 2020 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) have germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). Such mutations have been associated with a hereditary predisposition to multiple types of cancer, including the Cowden syndrome. However, a majority of patients who have PHTS-related phenotypes have tested negative for PTEN mutations. In a previous study, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 negatively regulates the function of PTEN. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2005 through 2015, we enrolled 431 patients with wild-type PTEN who met at least the relaxed diagnostic criteria of the International Cowden Consortium. Patients were scanned for WWP1 germline variants. We used the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set as representative of apparently sporadic cancers and the Exome Aggregation Consortium data set excluding TCGA (non-TCGA ExAC) and the noncancer Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) as representative of population controls without a reported cancer diagnosis. We established both in vitro and murine in vivo models to functionally characterize representative WWP1 variants. RESULTS: The existence of germline WWP1 variants was first established in a family with wild-type PTEN who had oligopolyposis and early-onset colon cancers. A validation series indicated that WWP1 germline variants occurred in 5 of 126 unrelated patients (4%) with oligopolyposis as a predominant phenotype. Germline WWP1 variants, particularly the WWP1 K740N and N745S alleles, were enriched in patients who did not have PHTS but had prevalent sporadic cancers, including PTEN-related cancer types in TCGA (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.01). The prioritized WWP1 variants resulted in gain-of-function effects, which led to aberrant enzymatic activation with consequent PTEN inactivation, thereby triggering hyperactive growth-promoting PI3K signaling in cellular and murine models. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving patients with disorders resulting in a predisposition to the development of multiple malignant neoplasms without PTEN germline mutations, we confirmed the function of WWP1 as a cancer-susceptibility gene through direct aberrant regulation of the PTEN-PI3K signaling axis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1701-1709, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the incidence and prognostication of ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 protein expressions in prostate cancer cohort of Middle Eastern descent in comparison to published data from Western population. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 was performed in a cohort of localized PCA (n = 340). The data were correlated to pathological and clinical outcomes and compared to Western populations. RESULTS: ERG expression and PTEN loss were noted in 123/288 (42.7%) and 91/297 (30.6%) of patients, respectively. SPINK1 expression was assessed in a subset of cases, noted in 6/150 (4%) of patients. Only ERG expression was associated with grade groups, being more common in the lower grade groups (1-3 vs 4-5; p = 0.04). In contrast to the Western population, PTEN loss foci were more likely to be ERG negative, observed in 81% of tumor foci and patients with PTEN neg/ERG pos were more likely to exhibit biochemical recurrence (OR 2.831; 95% CI 1.10-726, p = 0.03). This association remained significant in multivariate analysis (OR 2.68; 95% CI 0.98-7.33, p = 0.05), after adjusting for GG, path stage and surgical margin. CONCLUSION: This study documents significant differences in key molecular events in PCA in Middle Eastern population compared to Western populations that could explain differences in PCA incidence, progression and prognostication. ERG, PTEN and SPINK1 genomic alteration occur less frequently and the enrichment of ERG for PTEN loss is not observed. Additionally, patients with combined PTEN loss/ERG positive are at highest risk for BCR vs North American Caucasian population where PTEN loss alone seems to be associated with the worst clinical outcome. The data presented here further support differences in clonal evolution between Middle Eastern and Western population in relation to PCA and add further insight to understanding PCA molecular pathways.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Grupos Étnicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Árabes/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Inibidor da Tripsina Pancreática de Kazal/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 818-829, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442409

RESUMO

Germline variation in PTEN results in variable clinical presentations, including benign and malignant neoplasia and neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite decades of research, it remains unclear how the PTEN genotype is related to clinical outcomes. In this study, we combined two recent deep mutational scanning (DMS) datasets probing the effects of single amino acid variation on enzyme activity and steady-state cellular abundance with a large, well-curated clinical cohort of PTEN-variant carriers. We sought to connect variant-specific molecular phenotypes to the clinical outcomes of individuals with PTEN variants. We found that DMS data partially explain quantitative clinical traits, including head circumference and Cleveland Clinic (CC) score, which is a semiquantitative surrogate of disease burden. We built logistic regression models that use DMS and CADD scores to separate clinical PTEN variation from gnomAD control-only variation with high accuracy. By using a survival-like analysis, we identified molecular phenotype groups with differential risk of early cancer onset as well as lifetime risk of cancer. Finally, we identified classes of DMS-defined variants with significantly different risk levels for classical hamartoma-related features (odds ratio [OR] range of 4.1-102.9). In stark contrast, the risk for developing autism or developmental delay does not significantly change across variant classes (OR range of 5.4-12.4). Together, these findings highlight the potential impact of combining DMS datasets with rich clinical data and provide new insights that might guide personalized clinical decisions for PTEN-variant carriers.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hamartoma/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/química , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 909-918, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472114

RESUMO

PD-1 blockade has transformed the management of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but the drivers and resistors of the PD-1 response remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we analyzed 592 tumors from patients with advanced ccRCC enrolled in prospective clinical trials of treatment with PD-1 blockade by whole-exome and RNA sequencing, integrated with immunofluorescence analysis, to uncover the immunogenomic determinants of the therapeutic response. Although conventional genomic markers (such as tumor mutation burden and neoantigen load) and the degree of CD8+ T cell infiltration were not associated with clinical response, we discovered numerous chromosomal alterations associated with response or resistance to PD-1 blockade. These advanced ccRCC tumors were highly CD8+ T cell infiltrated, with only 27% having a non-infiltrated phenotype. Our analysis revealed that infiltrated tumors are depleted of favorable PBRM1 mutations and enriched for unfavorable chromosomal losses of 9p21.3, as compared with non-infiltrated tumors, demonstrating how the potential interplay of immunophenotypes with somatic alterations impacts therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Deleção de Genes , Genômica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Prognóstico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2660, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461556

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC)-often referred to as a "silent killer"-is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. The fallopian tube (murine oviduct) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) are considered the main candidate tissues of origin of this cancer. However, the relative contribution of each tissue to HG-SOC is not yet clear. Here, we establish organoid-based tumor progression models of HG-SOC from murine oviductal and OSE tissues. We use CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to introduce mutations into genes commonly found mutated in HG-SOC, such as Trp53, Brca1, Nf1 and Pten. Our results support the dual origin hypothesis of HG-SOC, as we demonstrate that both epithelia can give rise to ovarian tumors with high-grade pathology. However, the mutated oviductal organoids expand much faster in vitro and more readily form malignant tumors upon transplantation. Furthermore, in vitro drug testing reveals distinct lineage-dependent sensitivities to the common drugs used to treat HG-SOC in patients.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Organoides , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Epitélio/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Camundongos , Mutação , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Ovário/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2073, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350270

RESUMO

Functional variomics provides the foundation for personalized medicine by linking genetic variation to disease expression, outcome and treatment, yet its utility is dependent on appropriate assays to evaluate mutation impact on protein function. To fully assess the effects of 106 missense and nonsense variants of PTEN associated with autism spectrum disorder, somatic cancer and PTEN hamartoma syndrome (PHTS), we take a deep phenotypic profiling approach using 18 assays in 5 model systems spanning diverse cellular environments ranging from molecular function to neuronal morphogenesis and behavior. Variants inducing instability occur across the protein, resulting in partial-to-complete loss-of-function (LoF), which is well correlated across models. However, assays are selectively sensitive to variants located in substrate binding and catalytic domains, which exhibit complete LoF or dominant negativity independent of effects on stability. Our results indicate that full characterization of variant impact requires assays sensitive to instability and a range of protein functions.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Dendritos/fisiologia , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
15.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 205-211, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389167

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effects of phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromsome ten (PTEN) knockout on rat heart function and pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes mediated by NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). Methods Rat models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury were established. The rats were divided into sham operation group (wild-type healthy rats), wild-type I/R group (wild-type healthy rats treated with myocardial I/R), and I/R group (PTEN KO rats treated with myocardial I/R). PTEN mRNA level was detected by reverse transcription PCR, and myocardial pathological damage was observed by HE staining. Heart rate (HR) and left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) were measured by echocardiography, and left ventricular systolic blood pressure (LVSP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and fraction shortening (FS) were recorded by BL-420F bioassay system. Serum creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), myoglobin (Mb) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were detected by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 1 (ELAVL1), caspase-1 (caspase-1), and IL-1ß in heart tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the content of caspase-1 in cardiac tissues. Apoptosis of myocardial tissue was observed with TUNEL staining. Results Compared with the sham operation group, PTEN mRNA and protein levels in the wild-type I/R group significantly increased, HR, LVSP, LVEF, FS, and LVWT went down significantly, and serum CK-MB, Mb, and cTnI levels significantly increased, and NLRP3, ELAVL1, caspase-1, and IL-1ß protein expression levels went up significantly. After PTEN was knocked out, PTEN mRNA and protein levels were significantly reduced, the pathological damage of cardiomyocytes was alleviated, and HR, LVSP, LVEF, FS, and LVWT were significantly elevated, and serum CK-MB, Mb, and cTnI levels were significantly inhibited. NLRP3, ELAVL1, caspase-1, and IL-1ß protein levels and the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes were significantly reduced after PTEN knockout. Conclusion Knockout of PTEN can alleviate the pathological damage of myocardium and inhibit nlrp3-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, indicating that knockout of PTEN can alleviate myocardial I/R damage.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Piroptose , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ratos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413098

RESUMO

Inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that acts as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. INPP4B dephosphorylates phospholipids at the 4th position of the inositol ring and inhibits AKT and PKC signaling by hydrolyzing of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(4,5)P2, respectively. INPP4B protein phosphatase targets include phospho-tyrosines on Akt and phospho-serine and phospho-threonine on PTEN. INPP4B is highly expressed in testes, suggesting its role in testes development and physiology. The objective of this study was to determine whether Inpp4b deletion impacts testicular function in mice. In testis, Inpp4b expression was the highest in postmeiotic germ cells in both mice and men. The testes of Inpp4b knockout male mice were significantly smaller compared to the testes of wild-type (WT) males. Inpp4b-/- males produced fewer mature sperm cells compared to WT, and this difference increased with age and high fat diet (HFD). Reduction in early steroidogenic enzymes and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor gene expression was detected, although androgen receptor (AR) protein level was similar in WT and Inpp4b-/- testes. Germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the knockout mice, while expression of meiotic marker γH2A.X was decreased. Our data demonstrate that INPP4B plays a role in maintenance of male germ cell differentiation and protects testis functions against deleterious effects of aging and high fat diet.


Assuntos
Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores do LH/genética , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1943-1951, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a standard treatment in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the role of PTEN in TKI resistance remains poorly understood. We aimed to determine the functional role of PTEN knockout and analyse the predictive significance of PTEN expression for TKI treatment in RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed PTEN knockout cells in RCC cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and analysed the effect of PTEN knockout on spheroid formation and resistance to sunitinib and sorafenib. RESULTS: PTEN knockout promoted spheroid formation and decreased sunitinib/sorafenib sensitivity in RCC cell lines. PTEN immunohistochemistry in 74 metastatic RCCs treated with sunitinib and sorafenib revealed negative PTEN expression in 23% of samples. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association of negative PTEN expression with poor progression-free survival in metastatic RCC treated with sunitinib and sorafenib (p=0.024) or sunitinib alone (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: PTEN may be a biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with metastatic RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Gene ; 744: 144630, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTEN is a tumour suppressor gene that has been proven to be related to breast cancer incidence and tumour progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of PTEN mutations in breast carcinomas in China and the relationships of PTEN mutations with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trimmomatic, Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA), ANNOVAR, SAMtools, and Sanger sequencing were used to analyse PTEN mutations and identify variants in Chinese breast cancer. The frequency of PTEN mutations and the relationships of PTEN mutations with clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated in breast carcinomas in China. RESULTS: The rate of PTEN germline mutation was 0.23% (n = 9) among 3955 unselected primary breast cancer patients. Of these 9 patients, 2 carried pathogenic mutations, and both were identified as having infiltrative carcinoma. One patient had a family history. The other 7 patients carried only PTEN germline variants that were not identified as pathogenic mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We studied the frequency of PTEN germline mutations in a sequential cohort of Chinese breast carcinoma patients. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the germline mutation of the PTEN gene is not closely related to the occurrence of breast cancer in the Chinese population. In the clinic, the PTEN germline mutation cannot be used as the basis for the detection of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Life Sci ; 253: 117685, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315726

RESUMO

AIMS: Cumulative evidence suggests that long-chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aimed to explore the regulatory role and related mechanisms of HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in OA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The OA mouse model was constructed by the medial meniscus (DMM) method, and Interleukin (IL)-1ß-induced chondrocytes were used to simulate OA in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: Results found that HOTAIR was significantly up-regulated in articular cartilage tissues of OA mice and IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of miR-20b and increased expression of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). HOTAIR silencing improved cartilage tissue damage in OA mice, and promoted the expression of collagen II and aggrecan in cartilage tissue, while inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-13 and ADAMTS-5. Overexpression of HOTAIR inhibited the proliferation of IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes and promoted apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, whereas the effect of HOTAIR knockdown was reversed. Bioinformatics software and luciferase reporter experiments confirmed that HOTAIR could negatively regulate miR-20b, and PTEN was a target gene of miR-20b. An increase in PTEN expression induced by HOTAIR overexpression could be reversed by the introduction of miR-20b mimic. HOTAIR overexpression significantly reversed miR-20 mimic-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and ECM degradation in IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes, whereas the introduction of si-HOTAIR eliminated anti-miR-20b-mediated apoptosis and ECM degradation. SIGNIFICANCE: HOTAIR can participate in OA by promoting chondrocyte apoptosis and ECM degradation, which may be related to its targeted regulation of miR-20b/PTEN axis.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoartrite/genética
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(6): 1509-1521, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266537

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is important for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment that the targets related to its progression are identified. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9)-based genetic screening is a powerful tool for identifying genes with loss-of-function mutations that are critical for tumour growth and metastasis. METHODS: We transduced the human SMMC7721 HCC cell line expressing Cas9 with a human genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 knockout (GeCKO) lentiviral library A (hGeCKOa) of 65,383 single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting 19,050 human genes; we then subcutaneously transplanted the transduced cells into nude mice. RESULTS: The transduced cells were found to proliferate and metastasize faster than the untransduced cells. Through next-generation sequencing, the genes potentially related to HCC proliferation and metastasis were identified. The sgRNAs targeting the ADAMTSL3 and PTEN genes appeared twice on the list of genes related to HCC proliferation and metastasis, respectively. Analysis based on the data mining of Oncomine revealed that the ADAMTSL3 and PTEN genes were expressed at lower levels in HCC cells than they were in normal liver cells, indicating their tumour-suppressive roles. Downregulation of ADAMTSL3 and PTEN displayed poor overall survival (OS) and predicted poor relapse-free survival (RFS), further supporting their tumour-suppressive roles. Moreover, knocking out either the ADAMTSL3 or PTEN genes promoted either the proliferation or metastasis of HCC cells, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we described the profound role of the ADAMTSL3 and PTEN genes. This study indicates novel candidate targets for use in HCC treatment and therapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Camundongos Nus , Metástase Neoplásica
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