Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.757
Filtrar
1.
BJOG ; 127(1): 8-16, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With expanding recreational cannabis legalisation, pregnant women and their offspring are at risk of potentially harmful consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of recreational cannabis use among pregnant women, health outcomes associated with prenatal recreational cannabis use, and the potential impact of recreational cannabis legalisation on this population. SEARCH STRATEGY: Five databases and the grey literature were systematically searched (2000-2019). SELECTION CRITERIA: Human studies published in English or French reporting on the prevalence of prenatal recreational cannabis use in high-income countries. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data on study characteristics, prenatal substance use, and health outcomes were extracted and qualitatively synthesised. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-one publications met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of prenatal cannabis use varied substantially (min-max: 0.24-22.6%), with the greatest use in the first trimester. In the three studies with temporal data available, rates of prenatal cannabis use increased across years. Only 7/41 and 5/41 studies provided information on gestational age of exposure and frequency of use, respectively. The concomitant use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco was higher among cannabis users than nonusers. Prenatal cannabis use was associated with select neonatal, but not maternal, health outcomes. There were insufficient data to compare prenatal cannabis use between the pre- and post-legalisation periods. CONCLUSION: Cannabis use among pregnant women is prevalent and may be associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Future studies should assess the gestational age and frequency of cannabis exposure, and usage patterns prior to and following legalisation. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women who consume cannabis during pregnancy could risk predisposing their newborns to poor birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Renda , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia
4.
BMJ ; 367: l6326, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine how the UK National Health Service (NHS) is performing relative to health systems of other high income countries, given that it is facing sustained financial pressure, increasing levels of demand, and cuts to social care. DESIGN: Observational study using secondary data from key international organisations such as Eurostat and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. SETTING: Healthcare systems of the UK and nine high income comparator countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 79 indicators across seven domains: population and healthcare coverage, healthcare and social spending, structural capacity, utilisation, access to care, quality of care, and population health. RESULTS: The UK spent the least per capita on healthcare in 2017 compared with all other countries studied (UK $3825 (£2972; €3392); mean $5700), and spending was growing at slightly lower levels (0.02% of gross domestic product in the previous four years, compared with a mean of 0.07%). The UK had the lowest rates of unmet need and among the lowest numbers of doctors and nurses per capita, despite having average levels of utilisation (number of hospital admissions). The UK had slightly below average life expectancy (81.3 years compared with a mean of 81.7) and cancer survival, including breast, cervical, colon, and rectal cancer. Although several health service outcomes were poor, such as postoperative sepsis after abdominal surgery (UK 2454 per 100 000 discharges; mean 2058 per 100 000 discharges), 30 day mortality for acute myocardial infarction (UK 7.1%; mean 5.5%), and ischaemic stroke (UK 9.6%; mean 6.6%), the UK achieved lower than average rates of postoperative deep venous thrombosis after joint surgery and fewer healthcare associated infections. CONCLUSIONS: The NHS showed pockets of good performance, including in health service outcomes, but spending, patient safety, and population health were all below average to average at best. Taken together, these results suggest that if the NHS wants to achieve comparable health outcomes at a time of growing demographic pressure, it may need to spend more to increase the supply of labour and long term care and reduce the declining trend in social spending to match levels of comparator countries.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Reino Unido
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765537

RESUMO

The article analyzes the indicators of population reproduction on the example of the Kostroma region, presents the dynamics of the main medical and demographic indicators of the region: age structure of the population, mortality, fertility, migration, marriage and divorce rates, as well as the starting positions for overcoming reproductive and demographic disadvantages.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Fertilidade , Mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ ; 367: l6122, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658950
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 287, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the prevalence of preterm birth, post term birth, intra-uterine growth restriction and distribution of Apgar scores in offspring of foreign-born women in Western Australia with that of their Australian-born non-Indigenous and Indigenous counterparts. METHODS: A population-based linked data study, involving 767,623 singleton births in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010 was undertaken. Neonatal outcomes included preterm birth, post term births, intra-uterine growth restriction (assessed using the proportion of optimal birth weight) and low Apgar scores. These were compared amongst foreign-born women from low, lower-middle, upper middle and high income countries and Australian-born non-Indigenous and Indigenous women over two different time periods using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Compared with Australian born non-Indigenous women, foreign-born women from low income countries were at some increased risk of extreme preterm (aRRR 1.59, 95% CI 0.87, 2.89) and very early preterm (aRRR 1.63, 95% CI 0.92, 2.89) births during the period from 1980 to 1996. During the period from 1997 to 2010 they were also at some risk of extreme preterm (aRRR 1.42, 95% CI 0.98, 2.04) very early preterm (aRRR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11, 1.62) and post term birth (aRRR 1.93, 95% CI 0.99, 3.78). During this second time period, other adverse outcomes for children of foreign-born women from low income and middle income countries included increases in severe (aRRR 1.69, 95% CI 1.30, 2.20; aRRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.53, 1.93), moderate (aRRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32, 1.81; aRRR 1.59, 95% CI 1.48, 1.70) and mild (aRRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14, 1.43; aRRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.25, 1.38) IUGR compared to children of Australian-born non-Indigenous mothers. Uniformly higher risks of adverse outcomes were also demonstrated for infants of Indigenous mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate the vulnerabilities of children born to foreign women from low and middle-income countries. The need for exploratory research examining mechanisms contributing to poorer birth outcomes following resettlement in a developed nation is highlighted. There is also a need to develop targeted interventions to improve outcomes for these women and their families.


Assuntos
Índice de Apgar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez Prolongada/etnologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia , Adulto , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez Prolongada/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 173, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Enhanced understanding of causal pathways, pathogenesis, and sequelae of diarrhea is urgently needed. Although the gut microbiota is believed to play a role in susceptibility to diarrheal diseases, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. Infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are susceptible to diarrhea making them an ideal model to address this question. RESULTS: The maturation of the infant rhesus macaque gut microbiome throughout the first 8 months of life occurs in a similar pattern as that described for human infants. Moreover, the microbiome of the captive reared infant rhesus macaque more closely resembles that of human infants in the developing world than in the western world. Importantly, prior to disease onset, the gut microbiome of infants that later develop diarrhea is enriched in pathways of immunomodulatory metabolite synthesis, while those of infants that remain asymptomatic are enriched in pathways for short-chain fatty acid production. We identify Prevotella strains that are more abundant at 1 month in infants that later develop diarrhea. At 8 months, the microbiomes of animals that experience diarrhea show increased abundance of Campylobacter and a reduction in Helicobacter macacae. CONCLUSION: The composition of the microbial community could provide a phenotypic marker of an infant's susceptibility to diarrheal disease. Given the significant physiological and immunological similarities between human and nonhuman primates, these findings provide potential markers of susceptibility to diarrhea that could be modulated to improve infant health, especially in the developing world.


Assuntos
Diarreia/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Lactente , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Metagenômica , Filogenia
13.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(192): 208-214, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185176

RESUMO

Objetivos: Determinar el tipo de personal médico, las prioridades y actividades para la protección y promoción de la salud de las Federaciones Nacionales de Natación (FNN) según su nivel económico y determinar si aplicaban los programas relacionados con la salud de la Federación Internacional de Natación (FINA).Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta confidencial distribuida a las 208 FNN adscritas a la FINA. La encuesta fue validada y se obtuvo su fiabilidad estadística (coeficiente α de Cronbach de 0,8642 para n = 15). Las FNN se dividieron según su nivel económico en FNN de países desarrollados (n=66) y FNN de países en desarrollo (n = 142) siguiendo la clasificación de la Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2016). Análisis: Se realizó una comparación estadística de las medias mediante la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Respondieron 80 FNN en desarrollo (56,3 %) y 55 desarrolladas (83,6 %). Hubo diferencias en la presencia de fisioterapeutas (FNN en desarrollo: 31,2%, desarrolladas: 58,1%, p < 0,005) y psicólogos (11,2% vs 21,8%; p = 0,096). La máxima prioridad para ambos grupos fue el Máximo rendimiento de los nadadores de élite, aunque Aumentar el número de nada-dores de élite era de mayor importancia para las FNN en desarrollo (4,1 vs 3,95; p < 0.05). Los Programas de Prevención de ahogamiento fueron los más frecuentes en ambos grupos, pero con diferencias significativas entre ellos (FNN En desarrollo: 58,7% vs FNN Desarrolladas: 74,5%; p = 0,058). Conclusiones: Las FNN no disponían del personal necesario para promover la salud de sus nadadores. La mayor prioridad de las FNN en desarrollo era Aumentar el número de atletas de élite, pero tenían bajos niveles de Prevención de lesiones, Vuelta a competir tras una lesión y de Exámenes médicos preparticipación, aunque en las FNN desarrolladas también eran bajos. La Prevención de ahogamiento fueron los programas más frecuentes pero la Salud de la población en general, la del atleta recreativo y el "Deporte Seguro" (sin acoso sexual) eran cuestiones de baja prioridad para todas


Purposes: To determine the profile of the medical personnel, the priorities and the activities/ researches of the National Swimming Federations of Developing and Developed countries with respect to the athletes' health protection and the promotion of health in the general population. Method: A descriptive transversal study through a confidential survey that was circulated to the 208 FINA National Member Federations. A statistical validity and reliability was obtained (Cronbach α coefficient of 0.8642 for n = 15). The NFs were divided based on their economic level, NFs of developed (n = 66) and developing countries (n = 142) following the classification of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, (2016). Analysis: A statistic comparison of measures with the test U of Mann- Whitney was executed. Results: 80 of the NFs from developing countries (56.3%) responded and 55 NFs from developed countries (83.6%). Evident differences were found in Presence of physiotherapists (Developing NFs: 31.2%, Developed NFs: 58.1%; p<0.005) and psycho-logists (11.2% vs 21.8%; p = 0.096). Top priority for both groups was Performance of the elite athletes, however Increasing the numbers of elite athletes was of major importance for the Developing NFs (4.1 vs 3.95, p < 0.05). The programs based around drowning prevention are the most prevalent of the programs run by both (58.7% vs 74.5%; p = 0.058). Conclusion: The NFs did not have the necessary personnel to promote the health of their athletes. Top priority for the Developed NFs was to Increase the numbers of elite athletes but they have low levels of Prevention of injuries programs. Coming back after an injury and Medical examination preparation were also low in Developed and in Developing NFs. Prevention of drowning program was the most frequent program/activity for health of general population, for the recreational athlete and "Save Sport" (without sexual abuse) they were questions of low priority for all of them


Assuntos
Natação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Organizações de Normalização Profissional/normas , Esportes/normas , Natação/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Coalizão em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Estudos Transversais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Papel (figurativo)
14.
Lancet ; 394(10199): 639-651, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive medicines are effective in reducing adverse cardiovascular events. Our aim was to compare hypertension awareness, treatment, and control, and how they have changed over time, in high-income countries. METHODS: We used data from people aged 40-79 years who participated in 123 national health examination surveys from 1976 to 2017 in 12 high-income countries: Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA. We calculated the proportion of participants with hypertension, which was defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or more, or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or more, or being on pharmacological treatment for hypertension, who were aware of their condition, who were treated, and whose hypertension was controlled (ie, lower than 140/90 mm Hg). FINDINGS: Data from 526 336 participants were used in these analyses. In their most recent surveys, Canada, South Korea, Australia, and the UK had the lowest prevalence of hypertension, and Finland the highest. In the 1980s and early 1990s, treatment rates were at most 40% and control rates were less than 25% in most countries and age and sex groups. Over the time period assessed, hypertension awareness and treatment increased and control rate improved in all 12 countries, with South Korea and Germany experiencing the largest improvements. Most of the observed increase occurred in the 1990s and early-mid 2000s, having plateaued since in most countries. In their most recent surveys, Canada, Germany, South Korea, and the USA had the highest rates of awareness, treatment, and control, whereas Finland, Ireland, Japan, and Spain had the lowest. Even in the best performing countries, treatment coverage was at most 80% and control rates were less than 70%. INTERPRETATION: Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control have improved substantially in high-income countries since the 1980s and 1990s. However, control rates have plateaued in the past decade, at levels lower than those in high-quality hypertension programmes. There is substantial variation across countries in the rates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and WHO.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo
16.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 113, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is prevalent in communities of migration. Given the harmful effects of the practice and its illegal status in many countries, there have been concerted primary, secondary and tertiary prevention efforts to protect girls from FGM. However, there is paucity of evidence concerning useful strategies and approaches to prevent FGM and improve the health and social outcomes of affected women and girls. METHODS: We analysed peer-reviewed and grey literature to extract the evidence for FGM prevention interventions from a public health perspective in high income countries by a systematic search of bibliographic databases and websites using appropriate keywords. Identified publications were screened against selection criteria, following the PRISMA guidelines. We examined the characteristics of prevention interventions, including their programmatic approaches and strategies, target audiences and evaluation findings using an apriori template. FINDINGS: Eleven documents included in this review described primary and secondary prevention activities. High income countries have given attention to legislative action, bureaucratic interventions to address social injustice and protect those at risk of FGM, alongside prevention activities that favour health persuasion, foster engagement with the local community through outreach and the involvement of community champions, healthcare professional training and capacity strengthening. Study types are largely process evaluations that include measures of short-term outcomes (pre- and post-changes in attitude, knowledge and confidence or audits of practices). There is a dearth of evaluative research focused on empowerment-oriented preventative activities that involve individual women and girls who are affected by FGM. Beattie's framework provides a useful way of articulating negotiated and authoritative prevention actions required to address FGM at national and local levels. CONCLUSION: FGM is a complex and deeply rooted sociocultural issue that requires a multifaceted response that encompasses socio-economic, physical and environmental factors, education and learning, health services and facilities, and community mobilisation activities. Investment in the rigorous longitudinal evaluation of FGM health prevention efforts are needed to provide strong evidence of impact to guide future decision making. A national evidence-based framework would bring logic, clarity, comprehension, evidence and economically more effective response for current and future prevention interventions addressing FGM in high income countries.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/legislação & jurisprudência , Países Desenvolvidos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos
17.
S Afr Med J ; 109(7): 471-476, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266571

RESUMO

For more than 70 years the default therapy for anaemia and blood loss was mostly transfusion. Accumulating evidence demonstrates a significant dose-dependent relationship between transfusion and adverse outcomes. This and other transfusion-related challenges led the way to a new paradigm. Patient blood management (PBM) is the application of evidence-based practices to optimise patient outcomes by managing and preserving the patient's own blood. 'Real-world' studies have shown that PBM improves patient outcomes and saves money. The prevalence of anaemia in adult South Africans is 31% in females and 17% in males. Improving the management of anaemia will firstly improve public health, secondly relieve the pressure on the blood supply, and thirdly improve the productivity of the nation's workforce. While high-income countries are increasingly implementing PBM, many middle- and low-income countries are still trying to upscale their transfusion services. The implementation of PBM will improve South Africa's health status while saving costs.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue Autóloga/normas , Padrão de Cuidado , Anemia/terapia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Desenvolvimento de Programas , África do Sul
18.
Int J Evid Based Healthc ; 17 Suppl 1: S38-S40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telephone consultations are increasingly used in primary care to deliver healthcare services to patients. However, there has been no review produced which identifies and maps the elements of the components, skills and training required for delivering telephone consultations in primary care. This review maps the evidence and can be used to inform clinical service and staff development. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Inclusion criteria for this review included: Participants - any study focusing on any qualified healthcare practitioner working within primary care services; Concept - was any initial telephone consultation within primary care; Context - was primary care within developed nations defined as having very high human development. A three-step search strategy was adopted to include published and unpublished literature in English from 2002 to 2017. RESULTS: The search identified 3378 sources of literature. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts then full text against the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 18 articles included in this scoping review. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers relevant to the review question: components, skills and training in telephone consultations. The 18 articles involved five countries, 144 healthcare professionals and between 55 and 1506 patients. The key attributes for telephone consultations (components, skills and training) were synthesized into tabular display and provide guidance on the main elements required for providing this service in primary care.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Telefone , Competência Clínica , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Países Desenvolvidos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos
19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 2015-2020, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350959

RESUMO

Background: breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death for women worldwide. In the past two decades, published epidemiological reports in different parts of the world show significant increase in breast cancer mortality rate. The aim of this study was to determine the 25-year trend of breast cancer mortality rate in 7 super regions defined by the Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), i.e. Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia and Oceania, Latin America and Caribbean, Central Europe and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, High-income. Methods: Our study population consisted of 195 world countries in the IHME pre-defined seven super regions. The age-standardized mortality rates from 1990 to 2015 were extracted from the IHME site. The reference life table for calculating mortality rates was constructed based on the lowest estimated age-specific mortality rates from all locations with populations over 5 million in the 2015 iteration of GBD. To determine the trend of breast cancer mortality rate, a generalized linear mixed model was fitted separately for each IHME region and super region. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant increase for breast cancer mortality rate in all super regions, except for High-income super region. For total world countries, the mean breast cancer mortality rate was 13.77 per 100,000 in 1990 and the overall slope of mortality rate was 0.7 per 100,000 from 1990 to 2015. The results showed that Latin America and Caribbean the highest increasing trend of breast cancer mortality rate during the years 1990 to 2015 (1.48 per 100,000). Conclusion: In general, our finding showed a significant increase in breast cancer mortality rate in the world during the past 25 years, which could be due to increase in incidence and prevalence of this cancer. Low this increasing trend is an alarm for health policy makers in all countries, especially in developing countries and low-income regions which experienced sharp slopes of breast cancer mortality rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 302-310, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158682

RESUMO

Nowadays, developing countries make more and more contributions to CO2 emissions in the world. Thus, it is interesting to explore the gravity movement and decoupling state of global CO2 emissions. Firstly, the gravity movement of global CO2 emissions is explored based on the gravity theory. Then, the contribution decomposition method (CDM) is adopted to identify leading forces of gravity movement. Finally, the decoupling state of CO2 emissions in most countries from economic development (GDP) are studied. In 2015, the biggest CO2 emitter was China, which accounted for 27.52% of global CO2 emissions. In 2015, the country with the biggest per capita CO2 emissions was Qatar. Per capita CO2 emissions for some developed countries in 2015 were lower than that in 1965. Over 1965-2015, the gravity center for global CO2 emissions moves towards the southeast, which is divided into two stages. The gravity movement of per capita CO2 emissions is towards southeast and is divided into four stages. Over 1990-2015, economic growth in 17 countries presented decoupling with CO2 emissions. Strong decoupling (SD) rarely occurred in developing countries, especially in the period 2010-2015.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA