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1.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 17-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Infant boys have worse outcomes than girls. In twins, the 'male disadvantage' has been reported to extend to female co-twins via a 'masculinising' effect. We studied the association between sex pairing and neonatal outcomes in extremely preterm twins. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Eleven countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of Neonates. PATIENTS: Liveborn twins admitted at 23-29 weeks' gestation in 2007-2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined in-hospital mortality, grades 3/4 intraventricular haemorrhage or cystic periventricular leukomalacia (IVH/PVL), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment and a composite outcome (mortality or any of the outcomes above). RESULTS: Among 20 924 twins, 38% were from male-male pairs, 32% were from female-female pairs and 30% were sex discordant. We had no information on chorionicity. Girls with a male co-twin had lower odds of mortality, IVH/PVL and the composite outcome than girl-girl pairs (reference group): adjusted OR (aOR) (95% CI) 0.79 (0.68 to 0.92), 0.83 (0.72 to 0.96) and 0.88 (0.79 to 0.98), respectively. Boys with a female co-twin also had lower odds of mortality: aOR 0.86 (0.74 to 0.99). Boys from male-male pairs had highest odds of BPD and composite outcome: aOR 1.38 (1.24 to 1.52) and 1.27 (1.16 to 1.39), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sex-related disparities in outcomes exist in extremely preterm twins, with girls having lower risks than boys and opposite-sex pairs having lower risks than same-sex pairs. Our results may help clinicians in assessing risk in this large segment of extremely preterm infants.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Displasia Broncopulmonar/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Leucomalácia Periventricular/mortalidade , Masculino , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Gêmeos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142187, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017761

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between exposure to outdoor and indoor solid fuel combustion and adverse health effects. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence from Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand on the association between outdoor and indoor exposure to solid fuel combustion and respiratory outcomes in children. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. We identified 74 articles. Due to limited evidence on other exposures and outcomes, we performed meta-analyses on the association between indoor wood burning exposure and respiratory outcomes. The RR for the highest vs the lowest category of indoor wood exposure was 0.90 (95% CI 0.77-1.05) considering asthma as an outcome. The corresponding pooled RRs for lower respiratory infection (LRI) and upper respiratory infection (URI) were 1.11 (95% CI 0.88, 1.41) and 1.11 (95% CI 0.85, 1.44) respectively. No association was found between indoor wood burning exposure and risk of wheeze and cough. Inconsistent and limited results were found considering the relationship between indoor wood burning exposure and other respiratory outcomes (rhinitis and hay fever, influenza) as well as indoor coal burning exposure and respiratory outcomes in children. Results from epidemiological studies that evaluated the relationship between the exposure to outdoor emissions derived from indoor combustion of solid fuels are too limited to allow firm conclusions. We found no association between indoor wood burning exposure and risk of asthma. A slight, but not significant, increased risk of LRI and URI was identified, although the available evidence is limited. Epidemiological studies evaluating the relationship between indoor coal burning exposure and respiratory outcomes, as well as, studies considering exposure to outdoor solid fuels, are too limited to draw any firm conclusions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Austrália , Criança , Culinária , Países Desenvolvidos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , América do Norte , Material Particulado/análise , Madeira/química
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To generate rankings of 35 countries from all continents (except Africa) on performance against COVID-19. DESIGN: International time series, cross-sectional analysis. SELECTED COUNTRIES: Countries having 5500 or more cases (collectively including 85% of the world's cases) as of 16 April 2020 and that had reached 135 days into their pandemic by 30 July. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The initial severity and late-pandemic performance of countries can reasonably be ranked by COVID-19 cases or deaths per million population. For guiding policy and informing public accountability during the pandemic, we propose mid-pandemic performance rankings based on doubling time in days of the total number of cases and deaths in a country. Rank orderings then follow. RESULTS: At day 25 into a country's pandemic, cross-country performance variation was modest: in most countries, cumulative deaths doubled in fewer than 5 days. By day 65, and even more so by day 135, great cross-country variation emerged. By day 135, 9 of the 10 top-performing countries on deaths were European, although they were initially hard hit by the pandemic. Thus, rankings change rapidly enough to point to the value of a dynamic indicator. Five countries-Brazil, Mexico, India, Indonesia and Israel-were among the seven poorest performers at day 135 on both cases and deaths. Doubling times for cases and for deaths are positively correlated, but differ sufficiently to point to the value of both indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Readily available data support transparently generated rankings of countries' performance against COVID-19 based on doubling times of cases and deaths. It is premature to judge the value of these rankings in practice, but the potential and early experience suggest they might help facilitate identification of good policies and inform judgements on national leadership.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Países Desenvolvidos/classificação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
4.
Prof Inferm ; 73(3): 129-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355771

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of nursing supply flows, domestically and internationally. Its impact at the country-level has further highlighted preexisting nurse supply gaps and the effect of staffing shortages. Internationally, the pandemic has disrupted global supply chains. The world has witnessed the closing of borders, the interruption of travel, and, in some countries, the restriction of outflows. The State of the World's Nursing Report (SOWN) (WHO, 2020) noted a shortfall of almost six million nurses immediately pre-COVID-19, a shortage suffered particularly by low- and middle-income countries. This is of major concern given that increased international outflows of nurses in the new post-COVID era could undermine, even more than before, the readiness of those countries to meet healthcare demands (ICN, 2020). In this default scenario, some, but not all, highincome destination countries will continue to rely on international inflow of nurses to a significant extent, as they did pre-COVID- 19, further exacerbating the suffering of poor countries. Put simply, without country-level policy changes related to the nursing workforce and backed by international organisations, pre-COVID-19 trends of increased nurse flows from low- to high-income countries will likely continue. In this scenario, the iniquitous maldistribution of nurses may become more pronounced. This "do nothing" option risks undermining both country-level progress towards the attainment of Universal Health.


Assuntos
/enfermagem , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/provisão & distribução , /epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/provisão & distribução
5.
BMJ ; 371: m4750, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the premarket purchase commitments for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) vaccines from leading manufacturers to recipient countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis. DATA SOURCES: World Health Organization's draft landscape of covid-19 candidate vaccines, along with company disclosures to the US Securities and Exchange Commission, company and foundation press releases, government press releases, and media reports. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA AND DATA ANALYSIS: Premarket purchase commitments for covid-19 vaccines, publicly announced by 15 November 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Premarket purchase commitments for covid-19 vaccine candidates and price per course, vaccine platform, and stage of research and development, as well as procurement agent and recipient country. RESULTS: As of 15 November 2020, several countries have made premarket purchase commitments totaling 7.48 billion doses, or 3.76 billion courses, of covid-19 vaccines from 13 vaccine manufacturers. Just over half (51%) of these doses will go to high income countries, which represent 14% of the world's population. The US has reserved 800 million doses but accounts for a fifth of all covid-19 cases globally (11.02 million cases), whereas Japan, Australia, and Canada have collectively reserved more than one billion doses but do not account for even 1% of current global covid-19 cases globally (0.45 million cases). If these vaccine candidates were all successfully scaled, the total projected manufacturing capacity would be 5.96 billion courses by the end of 2021. Up to 40% (or 2.34 billion) of vaccine courses from these manufacturers might potentially remain for low and middle income countries-less if high income countries exercise scale-up options and more if high income countries share what they have procured. Prices for these vaccines vary by more than 10-fold, from $6.00 (£4.50; €4.90) per course to as high as $74 per course. With broad country participation apart from the US and Russia, the COVAX Facility-the vaccines pillar of the World Health Organization's Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator-has secured at least 500 million doses, or 250 million courses, and financing for half of the targeted two billion doses by the end of 2021 in efforts to support globally coordinated access to covid-19 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an overview of how high income countries have secured future supplies of covid-19 vaccines but that access for the rest of the world is uncertain. Governments and manufacturers might provide much needed assurances for equitable allocation of covid-19 vaccines through greater transparency and accountability over these arrangements.


Assuntos
/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , /imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003457, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211689

RESUMO

In this Perspective, Gordon Smith discusses the findings of Miller et al, and the balance of risks and benefits associated with different modes of delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1938): 20201182, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143582

RESUMO

Density-dependent and extrinsic mortality are predicted to accelerate reproductive maturation. The first 5 years of life is a proposed sensitive period for life-history regulation. This study examines the ways in which local mortality during this sensitive period was related to subsequent marriage timing in nineteenth-century Belgium (n women = 11 892; n men = 14 140). Local mortality during the sensitive period was inversely associated with age at first marriage for men and women controlling for literacy, occupational status, population growth and migration. Cox regression indicated decreased time to marriage for women (HR = 1.661, 95% CI: 1.542-1.789) and men (HR = 1.327, 95% CI: 1.238-1.422) from high mortality municipalities. Rising population growth rates were associated with earlier marriage for men and women. Migration in general was associated with later marriage for men and women. Consistent with life-history predictions, harsh ecological conditions during early life such as famine coincided with earlier marriage.


Assuntos
Fome Epidêmica/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Demografia , Países Desenvolvidos , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Crescimento Demográfico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166365

RESUMO

Limited research in high-income countries (HICs) examines adolescent abortion care-seeking pathways. This review aims to examine the pathways and experiences of adolescents when seeking abortion care, and service delivery processes in provision of such care. We undertook a systematic search of the literature to identify relevant studies in HICs (2000-2020). A directed content analysis of qualitative and quantitative studies was conducted. Findings were organised to one or more of three domains of an a priori conceptual framework: context, components of abortion care and access pathway. Thirty-five studies were included. Themes classified to the Context domain included adolescent-specific and restrictive abortion legislation, mostly focused on the United States. Components of abortion care themes included confidentiality, comprehensive care, and abortion procedure. Access pathway themes included delays to access, abortion procedure information, decision-making, clinic operation and environments, and financial and transportation barriers. This review highlights issues affecting access to abortion that are particularly salient for adolescents, including additional legal barriers and challenges receiving care due to their age. Opportunities to enhance abortion access include removing legal barriers, provision of comprehensive care, enhancing the quality of information, and harnessing innovative delivery approaches offered by medical abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Aborto Legal/economia , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/métodos , Adolescente , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
11.
J Bioeth Inq ; 17(4): 479-482, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169267

RESUMO

The structure of this intervention is deliberately schizo-analytic: "and then-," and "then-." They are preparatory notes for a webinar by Transform! Europe on the COVID, arranged before the global explosion of Black Lives Matter. I question the top-down philanthropy of the bourgeois Left. I take the Rohingyas as bottom-line victims. I speak from two hometowns-Calcutta and New York. I ask the bourgeois Euro-U.S. Left not to monolithize the Global South. Many examples of how "India" is constructed are given. From New York, the United States is declared a failed state. Trump's delinquencies are mentioned. It is argued that the only remedy at present is human behaviour and the typical U.S. character is not ready to practice this. This empirical fact shows the failure of the Kantian Sublime and reminds us that Kant thinks that the human moral will comes in to protect us from a hugely frightening natural phenomenon only by "subreption," the same impulse that says that following steps provided by institutional religion will absolve us. Class and caste are taken into consideration throughout. I mention that as a coronavirus convalescent, I am donating plasma regularly.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Pandemias , Sistemas Políticos , Política , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo , Pandemias/ética , Filosofia , Saúde Pública , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206711

RESUMO

Combining global gridded population and fossil fuel based CO2 emission data at 1 km scale, we investigate the spatial origin of CO2 emissions in relation to the population distribution within countries. We depict the correlations between these two datasets by a quasi-Lorenz curve which enables us to discern the individual contributions of densely and sparsely populated regions to the national CO2 emissions. We observe pronounced country-specific characteristics and quantify them using an indicator resembling the Gini-index. As demonstrated by a robustness test, the Gini-index for each country arise from a compound distribution between the population and emissions which differs among countries. Relating these indices with the degree of socio-economic development measured by per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at purchase power parity, we find a strong negative correlation between the two quantities with a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.71. More specifically, this implies that in developing countries locations with large population tend to emit relatively more CO2, and in developed countries the opposite tends to be the case. Based on the relation to urban scaling, we discuss the implications for CO2 emissions from cities. Our results show that general statements with regard to the (in)efficiency of large cities should be avoided as it is subject to the socio-economic development of respective countries. Concerning the political relevance, our results suggest a differentiated spatial prioritization in deploying climate change mitigation measures in cities for developed and developing countries.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cidades , Mudança Climática , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis , Produto Interno Bruto
13.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2040-2043, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To review scientific literature dealing with evaluation of medical rehabilitation effectiveness and quality in the world. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Review and generalization of scientific literature on the criteria of evaluation of medical rehabilitation quality in advanced industrialized societies. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Despite differences in the structure of medical rehabilitation in world societies, the end point is similar - assessment of quality of life of a sick person, measured by various criteria and standards. This experience is of great value for the development of national system of rehabilitation services.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Países Desenvolvidos , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 113, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218359

RESUMO

Welfare states around the world restrict access to public healthcare for some migrant groups. Formal restrictions on migrants' healthcare access are often justified with economic arguments; for example, as a means to prevent excess costs and safeguard scarce resources. However, existing studies on the economics of migrant health policies suggest that restrictive policies increase rather than decrease costs. This evidence has largely been ignored in migration debates. Amplifying the relationship between welfare state transformations and the production of inequalities, the Covid-19 pandemic may fuel exclusionary rhetoric and politics; or it may serve as an impetus to reconsider the costs that one group's exclusion from health can entail for all members of society.The public health community has a responsibility to promote evidence-informed health policies that are ethically and economically sound, and to counter anti-migrant and racial discrimination (whether overt or masked with economic reasoning). Toward this end, we propose a research agenda which includes 1) the generation of a comprehensive body of evidence on economic aspects of migrant health policies, 2) the clarification of the role of economic arguments in migration debates, 3) (self-)critical reflection on the ethics and politics of the production of economic evidence, 4) the introduction of evidence into migrant health policymaking processes, and 5) the endorsement of inter- and transdisciplinary approaches. With the Covid-19 pandemic and surrounding events rendering the suggested research agenda more topical than ever, we invite individuals and groups to join forces toward a (self-)critical examination of economic arguments in migration and health, and in public health generally.


Assuntos
/economia , Dissidências e Disputas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Política de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Formulação de Políticas , Migrantes , Países Desenvolvidos , Emigração e Imigração , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Saúde da População , Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos , Seguridade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Nat Med ; 26(12): 1919-1928, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057181

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed many social, economic, environmental and healthcare determinants of health. We applied an ensemble of 16 Bayesian models to vital statistics data to estimate the all-cause mortality effect of the pandemic for 21 industrialized countries. From mid-February through May 2020, 206,000 (95% credible interval, 178,100-231,000) more people died in these countries than would have had the pandemic not occurred. The number of excess deaths, excess deaths per 100,000 people and relative increase in deaths were similar between men and women in most countries. England and Wales and Spain experienced the largest effect: ~100 excess deaths per 100,000 people, equivalent to a 37% (30-44%) relative increase in England and Wales and 38% (31-45%) in Spain. Bulgaria, New Zealand, Slovakia, Australia, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Norway, Denmark and Finland experienced mortality changes that ranged from possible small declines to increases of 5% or less in either sex. The heterogeneous mortality effects of the COVID-19 pandemic reflect differences in how well countries have managed the pandemic and the resilience and preparedness of the health and social care system.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Demografia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Pandemias , Dinâmica Populacional , /epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Política Pública , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 18(6): 525-532, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118846

RESUMO

Background: Biobankers have been unexpectedly involved in the pandemic of COVID-19 since early 2020. Although specific guidance was not available, the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) Best Practices and the ISO 20387 document have been utilized to deal with the pandemic disaster. The ISO experts and best practice experts in ISBER teamed up to share the available information and learn the experiences of biobanks concerning COVID-19 through organizing webinars, surveys, and town hall meetings. Four ISBER regional ambassadors (RAs) from the Indo-Pacific Rim (IPR) region were also actively involved at one of the town hall meetings. These RAs, who are from Australia, India, Indonesia, and Japan, and the Director-at-Large of the region, have summarized their experiences in this article. Materials and Methods: The ISBER Standards Committee COVID-19 Task Force has kindly provided the survey results. The extracted glossary from the results was categorized into 10 factors: (1) crisis management; (2) sample-related issues; (3) logistics-related issues; (4) equipment-related issues; (5) ethical, legal, and social implication-related issues; (6) operation-related issues; (7) personnel-related issues; (8) management-related issues; (9) infection-related issues; and (10) research-related issues. Each IPR RA has provided a case considering these 10 factors. Results and Discussion: Two key points have emerged from the scenarios, which are as follows: (1) impacts of the biobanks in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are similar to those in high-income countries (HICs) and (2) tolerance of the biobanks in LMICs is not so robust as those in HICs. Furthermore, communication strategies with internal and external stakeholders are critical for a biobank to manage this crisis. This article summarizes the impacts, indicates the opportunities that COVID-19 has brought to the biobank community, and highlights the usefulness of the network beyond biobank services. Lastly, the biobanks need to turn the challenges into opportunities to overcome the crisis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Pandemias , /metabolismo , /epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(12): 1735-1740, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058710

RESUMO

Objectives. To quantify changes in US health care spending required to reach parity with high-resource nations by 2030 or 2040 and identify historical precedents for these changes.Methods. We analyzed multiple sources of historical and projected spending from 1970 through 2040. Parity was defined as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) median or 90th percentile for per capita health care spending.Results. Sustained annual declines of 7.0% and 3.3% would be required to reach the median of other high-resource nations by 2030 and 2040, respectively (3.2% and 1.3% to reach the 90th percentile). Such declines do not have historical precedent among US states or OECD nations.Conclusions. Traditional approaches to reducing health care spending will not enable the United States to achieve parity with high-resource nations; strategies to eliminate waste and reduce the demand for health care are essential.Public Health Implications. Excess spending reduces the ability of the United States to meet critical public health needs and affects the country's economic competitiveness. Rising health care spending has been identified as a threat to the nation's health. Public health can add voices, leadership, and expertise for reversing this course.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Produto Interno Bruto , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Estados Unidos
20.
Am J Nurs ; 120(11): 17, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105212
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