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1.
BMJ ; 372: n534, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short term associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide, using a uniform analytical protocol. DESIGN: Two stage, time series approach, with overdispersed generalised linear models and multilevel meta-analysis. SETTING: 398 cities in 22 low to high income countries/regions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily deaths from total (62.8 million), cardiovascular (19.7 million), and respiratory (5.5 million) causes between 1973 and 2018. RESULTS: On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration on lag 1 day (previous day) was associated with 0.46% (95% confidence interval 0.36% to 0.57%), 0.37% (0.22% to 0.51%), and 0.47% (0.21% to 0.72%) increases in total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained robust after adjusting for co-pollutants (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide). The pooled concentration-response curves for all three causes were almost linear without discernible thresholds. The proportion of deaths attributable to NO2 concentration above the counterfactual zero level was 1.23% (95% confidence interval 0.96% to 1.51%) across the 398 cities. CONCLUSIONS: This multilocation study provides key evidence on the independent and linear associations between short term exposure to NO2 and increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting that health benefits would be achieved by tightening the guidelines and regulatory limits of NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Cidades , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD004265, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hand-washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, nine other databases, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), and metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) on 8 January 2020, together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Individually-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand-washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, we pooled incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using the generic inverse variance method and a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 RCTs: 13 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,471 participants), 15 community-based trials in LMICs (29,347 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with AIDS in a high-income country (148 participants). All the trials and follow-up assessments were of short-term duration. Hand-washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevent around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high-income countries (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; 9 trials, 4664 participants, high-certainty evidence) and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs, but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; 2 trials, 45,380 participants; low-certainty evidence). Only four trials reported measures of behaviour change, and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand-washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; 3 trials, 1845 participants; low-certainty evidence). Hand-washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.81; 9 trials, 15,950 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). However, six of these nine trials were from Asian settings, with only one trial from South America and two trials from sub-Saharan Africa. In seven trials, soap was provided free alongside hand-washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.75; 7 trials, 12,646 participants; education only: RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; 2 trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating or cooking, after visiting the toilet, or cleaning the baby's bottom) and increased compliance with hand-hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups compared with the control in community trials (data not pooled: 4 trials, 3591 participants; high-certainty evidence). Hand-washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among a high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (mean difference -1.68, 95% CI -1.93 to -1.43; 1 trial, 148 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Hand-washing frequency increased to seven times a day in the intervention group versus three times a day in the control arm in this hospital trial (1 trial, 148 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We found no trials evaluating the effects of hand-washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths or cost effectiveness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Hand-washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. The included trials do not provide evidence about the long-term impact of the interventions.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Creches/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sabões
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2425, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510274

RESUMO

Countries worldwide have adopted various strategies to minimize the socio-economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Stringency of imposed measures universally reflects the standpoint from which protecting public health and avoiding damage to economy are seen as contradictory objectives. Based on epidemic trajectories of 25 highly developed countries and 10 US states in the (mobility reduction)-(reproduction number) plane we showed that delay in imposition of nation-wide quarantine elevates the number of infections and deaths, surge of which inevitably has to be suppressed by stringent and sustained lockdown. As a consequence, cumulative mobility reduction and population-normalized cumulative number of COVID-19-associated deaths are significantly correlated and this correlation increases with time. Overall, we demonstrated that, as long as epidemic suppression is the aim, the trade-off between the death toll and economic loss is illusory: high death toll correlates with deep and long-lasting lockdown causing a severe economic downturn.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Quarentena/economia , /economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Nature ; 589(7842): 415-419, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328634

RESUMO

The safe, highly effective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1-4. Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5-8. Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 × 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantified geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Sarampo/imunologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) on the front lines against COVID-19 may face increased workload and stress. Understanding HCPs' risk for burnout is critical to supporting HCPs and maintaining the quality of healthcare during the pandemic. METHODS: To assess exposure, perceptions, workload, and possible burnout of HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic we conducted a cross-sectional survey. The main outcomes and measures were HCPs' self-assessment of burnout, indicated by a single item measure of emotional exhaustion, and other experiences and attitudes associated with working during the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: A total of 2,707 HCPs from 60 countries participated in this study. Fifty-one percent of HCPs reported burnout. Burnout was associated with work impacting household activities (RR = 1·57, 95% CI = 1·39-1·78, P<0·001), feeling pushed beyond training (RR = 1·32, 95% CI = 1·20-1·47, P<0·001), exposure to COVID-19 patients (RR = 1·18, 95% CI = 1·05-1·32, P = 0·005), and making life prioritizing decisions (RR = 1·16, 95% CI = 1·02-1·31, P = 0·03). Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was protective against burnout (RR = 0·88, 95% CI = 0·79-0·97, P = 0·01). Burnout was higher in high-income countries (HICs) compared to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (RR = 1·18; 95% CI = 1·02-1·36, P = 0·018). INTERPRETATION: Burnout is present at higher than previously reported rates among HCPs working during the COVID-19 pandemic and is related to high workload, job stress, and time pressure, and limited organizational support. Current and future burnout among HCPs could be mitigated by actions from healthcare institutions and other governmental and non-governmental stakeholders aimed at potentially modifiable factors, including providing additional training, organizational support, and support for family, PPE, and mental health resources.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atitude , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21767, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871897

RESUMO

Risk factors such as smoking and sugar intake threaten the health of human being at an individual national level as well as at a global level. The globalization affect health indirectly through macro and micro-level factors. This study aimed to identify the global trend of dental caries according to countries national income level, and to examine the role of globalization, health services, obesity, and sugar consumption on dental caries. Data for 160 countries were collected for the time period of the 1990s to 2010s. The final sample included 46 countries with complete data (21 high income countries (HIC) and 25 middle and low income countries (MLIC)). The main dependent variable was the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index of 12-year-olds as an indicator of dental caries. Globalization was a main independent variable which was measured by economic growth, urbanization and economic freedom. Other independent variables were health services, obesity and sugar consumption. The data were analyzed first using repeated measures analysis of variance to compare dental caries trends in HIC and MLIC. Then, using multiple linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the relationships between globalization, health services, obesity, sugar consumption, and dental caries were examined. The results of PLS-SEM revealed that globalization was associated with lower DMFT in HIC. The global dental caries trend had a declined pattern, but this pattern has been attenuated in MLIC after the new millennium. There is a need for policy change and regulations on sugar trade especially in MLIC to diminish the adverse consequences of globalization, and to improve population dental health.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Criança , Açúcares da Dieta , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Urbanização
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785155

RESUMO

The stability of food supply chains is crucial to the food security of people around the world. Since the beginning of 2020, this stability has been undergoing one of the most vigorous pressure tests ever due to the COVID-19 outbreak. From a mere health issue, the pandemic has turned into an economic threat to food security globally in the forms of lockdowns, economic decline, food trade restrictions, and rising food inflation. It is safe to assume that the novel health crisis has badly struck the least developed and developing economies, where people are particularly vulnerable to hunger and malnutrition. However, due to the recency of the COVID-19 problem, the impacts of macroeconomic fluctuations on food insecurity have remained scantily explored. In this study, the authors attempted to bridge this gap by revealing interactions between the food security status of people and the dynamics of COVID-19 cases, food trade, food inflation, and currency volatilities. The study was performed in the cases of 45 developing economies distributed to three groups by the level of income. The consecutive application of the autoregressive distributed lag method, Yamamoto's causality test, and variance decomposition analysis allowed the authors to find the food insecurity effects of COVID-19 to be more perceptible in upper-middle-income economies than in the least developed countries. In the latter, food security risks attributed to the emergence of the health crisis were mainly related to economic access to adequate food supply (food inflation), whereas in higher-income developing economies, availability-sided food security risks (food trade restrictions and currency depreciation) were more prevalent. The approach presented in this paper contributes to the establishment of a methodology framework that may equip decision-makers with up-to-date estimations of health crisis effects on economic parameters of food availability and access to staples in food-insecure communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Fome , Renda , Pandemias , Prevalência
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): 1077-1088, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate survival estimates are important for cancer control planning. Although observed survival estimates are unavailable for many countries, where they are available, wide variations are reported. Understanding the impact of specific treatment and imaging modalities can help decision makers to effectively allocate resources to improve cancer survival in their local context. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model of stage-specific cancer survival in 200 countries and territories for 11 cancers (oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, anus, liver, pancreas, lung, breast, cervix uteri, and prostate) comprising 60% of global diagnosed cancer cases. The model accounts for country-specific availability of treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy) and imaging modalities (ultrasound, x-ray, CT, MRI, PET, single-photon emission CT), as well as quality of care. We calibrated the model to reported survival estimates from CONCORD-3 (which reports global trends in cancer survival in 2000-14). We estimated 5-year net survival for diagnosed cancers in each country or territory and estimated potential survival gains from increasing the availability of individual treatment and imaging modalities, and more comprehensive packages of scale-up of these interventions. We report the mean and 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all outcomes, calculated as the 2·5 and 97·5 percentiles of the simulation results. FINDINGS: The estimated global 5-year net survival for all 11 cancers combined is 42·6% (95% uncertainty interval 40·3-44·3), with survival in high-income countries being an average of 12 times (range 4-17) higher than that in low-income countries. Expanding availability of surgery or radiotherapy or improving quality of care would yield the largest survival gains in low-income (2·5-3·4 percentage point increase in survival) and lower-middle-income countries (2·4-6·1 percentage point increase), whereas upper-middle-income and high-income countries are more likely to benefit from improved availability of targeted therapy (0·7 percentage point increase for upper-middle income and 0·4 percentage point increase for high income). Investing in medical imaging will also be necessary to achieve substantial survival gains, with traditional modalities estimated to provide the largest gains in low-income settings, while MRI and PET would yield the largest gains in higher-income countries. Simultaneous expansion of treatment, imaging, and quality of care could improve 5-year net survival by more than ten times in low-income countries (3·8% [95% UI 0·5-9·2] to 45·2% [40·2-52·1]) and could more than double 5-year net survival in lower-middle-income countries (20·1% [7·2-31·7] to 47·1% [42·8-50·8]). INTERPRETATION: Scaling up both treatment and imaging availability could yield synergistic survival gains for patients with cancer. Expanding traditional modalities in lower-income settings might be a feasible pathway to improve survival before scaling up more modern technologies. FUNDING: Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
10.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): 1089-1098, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, causing more than 300 000 deaths globally each year. In addition to screening and prevention, effective cancer treatment is needed to reduce cervical cancer mortality. We discuss the role of imaging in cervical cancer management and estimate the potential survival effect of scaling up imaging in several different contexts. METHODS: Using a previously developed microsimulation model of global cancer survival, we estimated stage-specific cervical cancer 5-year net survival in 200 countries and territories. We evaluated the potential survival effect of scaling up treatment (chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy), and imaging modalities (ultrasound, x-ray, CT, MRI, PET, and single photon emission CT [SPECT]) to the mean level of high-income countries, both individually and in combination. FINDINGS: We estimate global cervical cancer 5-year net survival as 42·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·8-48·5). Among individual imaging modalities, expanding MRI would yield the largest 5-year survival gains globally (data are absolute percentage point increase in survival 0·6, 95% UI 0·1-2·1), scaling up ultrasound would yield the largest gains in low-income countries (0·5, 0·0-3·7), expanding CT and x-ray would have the greatest effect in Latin America (0·8, 0·0-3·4) and Oceania (0·4, 0·0-3·2), and expanding PET would yield the largest gains in high-income countries (0·2, 0·0-0·8). Scaling up SPECT did not show major changes in any region. Among individual treatment modalities, scaling up radiotherapy would yield the largest absolute percentage point gains in low-income countries (5·2, 0·3-13·5), and expanding surgery would have the largest effect in lower-middle-income countries (7·4, 0·3-21·1) and upper-middle-income countries (0·8, 0·0-2·9). Estimated survival gains in high-income countries were very modest. However, the gains from expanding any single treatment or imaging modality individually were small across all income levels and geographical settings. Scaling up all treatment modalities could improve global 5-year net survival to 52·4% (95% UI 44·6-62·0). In addition to expanding treatment, improving quality of care could raise survival to 57·5% (51·2-63·5), and the cumulative effect of scaling up all imaging modalities together with expanded treatment and quality of care could improve 5-year net survival for cervical cancer to 62·5% (57·7-67·8). INTERPRETATION: Comprehensive scale-up of treatment, imaging, and quality of care could substantially improve global cervical cancer 5-year net survival, with quality of care and imaging improvements each contributing about 25% of the total potential gains. These findings suggest that a narrow focus on the availability of treatment modalities could forgo substantial survival gains. Investments in imaging equipment, personnel, and quality of care efforts will also be needed to successfully scale up cervical cancer treatment worldwide. FUNDING: Harvard T H Chan School of Public Health and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1152-e1161, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintended pregnancy and abortion estimates document trends in sexual and reproductive health and autonomy. These estimates inform and motivate investment in global health programmes and policies. Variability in the availability and reliability of data poses challenges for measuring and monitoring trends in unintended pregnancy and abortion. We developed a new statistical model that jointly estimated unintended pregnancy and abortion that aimed to better inform efforts towards global equity in sexual and reproductive health and rights. METHODS: We developed a model that simultaneously estimated incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion within a Bayesian framework. Data on pregnancy intentions and abortion were compiled from country-based surveys, official statistics, and published studies found through a literature search, and we obtained data on livebirths from the World Population Prospects. We analysed results by World Bank income groups, Sustainable Development Goal regional groupings, and the legal status of abortion. FINDINGS: In 2015-19, there were 121·0 million unintended pregnancies annually (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 112·8-131·5), corresponding to a global rate of 64 unintended pregnancies (UI 60-70) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. 61% (58-63) of unintended pregnancies ended in abortion (totalling 73·3 million abortions annually [66·7-82·0]), corresponding to a global abortion rate of 39 abortions (36-44) per 1000 women aged 15-49 years. Using World Bank income groups, we found an inverse relationship between unintended pregnancy and income, whereas abortion rates varied non-monotonically across groups. In countries where abortion was restricted, the proportion of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion had increased compared with the proportion for 1990-94, and the unintended pregnancy rates were higher than in countries where abortion was broadly legal. INTERPRETATION: Between 1990-94 and 2015-19, the global unintended pregnancy rate has declined, whereas the proportion of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion has increased. As a result, the global average abortion rate in 2015-19 was roughly equal to the estimates for 1990-94. Our findings suggest that people in high-income countries have better access to sexual and reproductive health care than those in low-income countries. Our findings indicate that individuals seek abortion even in settings where it is restricted. These findings emphasise the importance of ensuring access to the full spectrum of sexual and reproductive health services, including contraception and abortion care, and for additional investment towards equity in health-care services. FUNDING: UK Aid from the UK Government, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Surgery ; 168(3): 550-557, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of access to essential surgical care in low-income countries is aggravated by emigration of locally-trained surgical specialists to more affluent regions. Yet, the global diaspora of surgeons, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists from low-income and middle-income countries has never been fully described and compared with those who have remained in their country of origin. It is also unclear whether the surgical workforce is more affected by international migration than other medical specialists. In this study, we aimed to quantify the proportion of surgical specialists originating from low-income and middle-income countries that currently work in high-income countries. METHODS: We retrieved surgical workforce data from 48 high-income countries and 102 low-income and middle-income countries using the database of the World Health Organization Global Surgical Workforce. We then compared this domestic workforce with more granular data on the country of initial medical qualification of all surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians made available for 14 selected high-income countries to calculate the proportion of surgical specialists working abroad. RESULTS: We identified 1,118,804 specialist surgeons, anesthesiologists, or obstetricians from 102 low-income and middle-income countries, of whom 33,021 (3.0%) worked in the 14 included high-income countries. The proportion of surgical specialists abroad was greatest for the African and South East Asian regions (12.8% and 12.1%). The proportion of specialists abroad was not greater for surgeons, anesthesiologists, or obstetricians than for physicians and other medical specialists (P = .465). Overall, the countries with the lowest remaining density of surgical specialists were also the countries from which the largest proportion of graduates were now working in high-income countries (P = .011). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of all surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians from low-income and middle-income countries currently work in high-income countries. In addition to decreasing migration from areas of surgical need, innovative strategies to retain and strengthen the surgical workforce could involve engaging this large international pool of surgical specialists and instructors.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologistas/economia , Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 953-961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID-19 pandemic has affected various countries differently due to variance in demographics, income level, health infrastructure, government response, control and enforcement, and cultural traits of different populations. This study aims to identify significant factors behind the unequal distribution of identified cases and deaths in different countries. Our study's objective is comparative analysis and identification of relations between the spread of COVID-19 pandemic, population characteristics, and government response. METHODS: The top 18 countries worst hit by COVID-19 cases were identified. The data metrics, such as the number of cases, deaths, fatality rates, tests, average life expectancy, and population, were collected and consolidated. RESULTS: Countries with significant percentage of the older population are vulnerable to a high number of deaths due to COVID-19. Developed countries have higher per capita testing, whereas testing is less intensive in developing/underdeveloped countries. There is a consensus among health experts that COVID-19 has higher fatality rates for people above 60, however, with further age, this increases exponentially. Countries with higher life expectancy are also high-income countries, and the best course of action would be to provide specialized support to self-isolate for people of ages 75 and above. CONCLUSION: The behaviour of disease occurring at a large scale and interaction with different populations is studied to understand and differentiate the factors and measures that successfully inhibited the pandemic. The study benchmarks different countries based on their performance and efforts against the pandemic and provides some useful insights on the efficiency of their governance and potential to improve & ramp up their programs. The economic status and existing healthcare infrastructure as they are the key factors in determining the country's ability to contain and minimize the losses from this pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2383-2397, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607706

RESUMO

Although black (Rattus rattus) and brown (Rattus norvegicus) rats are among the most widespread synanthropic wild rodents, there is a surprising scarcity of knowledge about their ecology in the urban ecosystem. In particular, relatively few studies have investigated their helminth species diversity in such habitat. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guideline to synthesize the existing published literature regarding the helminth fauna of urban rats in developed countries (North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan). We aimed at describing the species diversity and richness of urban rat helminths, the species prevalence and associations, the methods of investigation, the pathological changes observed in the hosts, the risk factors of infection and the public health significance of rat-borne helminthiases. Twenty-three scientific papers published between 1946 and 2019 were reviewed, half of them were conducted in Europe. Twenty-five helminth species and eight genera were described from the liver, digestive tract, lungs and muscles of urban rats. The most commonly reported parasite was Calodium hepaticum. Prevalence and risk factors of helminth infection in urban rats varied greatly between studies. Observed pathological findings in the rat host were generally minor, except for C. hepaticum. Several rat helminths can parasitize humans and are therefore of public health significance. The lack of references to identification keys and the rare use of molecular tools for species confirmation represent the main limitation of these studies. Knowledge gap on this topic and the needs for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Pesquisa/tendências , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A growing number of patients started renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Western industrialized countries between 1980 an early 2000s. Thereafter reports from national and international registries suggest a trend towards stabilization and sometimes a decrease in the incidence rate. AIM: To investigate the differences in overall and age-specific incidence rates between industrialized countries from 1998 until 2013. Secondly, to investigate changes in incidence rates over time and their association with specific age categories. METHOD: We extracted the unadjusted overall incidence of RRT and age-specific incidence rates from renal registry reports in Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Time trends in the incidence rate by country and age categories were analyzed by Joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: The incidence rate in 2013 ranged from 89 per million population (pmp) in Finland to 363 pmp in the US. Incidence rates in the lower age categories (20-64 year) were similar between countries and remained stable over time. Higher incidence countries were characterized by higher numbers of patients in both the 65-74 and ≥75 year categories starting RRT. Joinpoint analysis confirmed that most countries had significant reductions in the incidence rate at the end of the study period. These reductions were explained by lower numbers of older patients starting RRT and were observed also in countries with lower overall incidence rates. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed different incidence rates of RRT between industrialized countries worldwide. Countries with the highest overall incidence rates also had the highest incidence rates in the oldest age categories. Since the early 2000's the number of older patients starting RRT is either stabilizing or even decreasing in most countries. This reduction is universal and is also observed in countries with previously low incidence rates.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(3): 352-361, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many countries propose low-risk drinking guidelines (LRDGs) to mitigate alcohol-related harms. North American LRDGs are high by international standards. We applied the International Model of Alcohol Harms and Policies (InterMAHP) to quantify the alcohol-caused harms experienced by those drinking within and above these guidelines. We customized a recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) analysis to inform guidelines in high-income countries. METHOD: Record-level death and hospital stay data for Canada were accessed. Alcohol exposure data were from the Canadian Substance Use Exposure Database. InterMAHP was used to estimate alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital stays experienced by people drinking within LRDGs, people drinking above LRDGs, and former drinkers. GBD relative risk functions were acquired and weighted by the distribution of Canadian mortality. RESULTS: More men (18%) than women (7%) drank above weekly guidelines. Adherence to guidelines did not eliminate alcohol-caused harm: those drinking within guidelines nonetheless experienced 140 more deaths and 3,663 more hospital stays than if they had chosen to abstain from alcohol. A weighted relative risk analysis found that, for both women and men, the risk was lowest at a consumption level of 10 g per day. For all levels of consumption, men were found to experience a higher weighted relative risk than women. CONCLUSIONS: Drinkers following weekly LRDGs are not insulated from harm. Greater than 50% of alcohol-caused cancer deaths are experienced by those drinking within weekly limits. Findings suggest that guidelines of around one drink per day may be appropriate for high-income countries.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Pública
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003103, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in intervention rates, without subsequent reductions in adverse outcomes, can indicate overuse. We studied variations in and associations between commonly used childbirth interventions and adverse outcomes, adjusted for population characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this multinational cross-sectional study, existing data on 4,729,307 singleton births at ≥37 weeks in 2013 from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany (Hesse), Malta, the United States, and Chile were used to describe variations in childbirth interventions and outcomes. Numbers of births ranged from 3,987 for Iceland to 3,500,397 for the USA. Crude data were analysed in the Netherlands, or analysed data were shared with the principal investigator. Strict variable definitions were used and information on data quality was collected. Intervention rates were described for each country and stratified by parity. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed, adjusted for population characteristics, and associations between rates of interventions, population characteristics, and outcomes were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, despite adjustments for population characteristics. Adjustments for ethnicity and body mass index changed odds ratios for augmentation of labour and episiotomy. Largest variations were found for augmentation of labour, pain relief, episiotomy, instrumental birth, and cesarean section (CS). Percentages of births at ≥42 weeks varied from 0.1% to 6.7%. Rates among nulliparous versus multiparous women varied from 56% to 80% versus 51% to 82% for spontaneous onset of labour; 14% to 36% versus 8% to 28% for induction of labour; 3% to 13% versus 7% to 26% for prelabour CS; 16% to 48% versus 12% to 50% for overall CS; 22% to 71% versus 7% to 38% for augmentation of labour; 50% to 93% versus 25% to 86% for any intrapartum pain relief, 19% to 83% versus 10% to 64% for epidural anaesthesia; 6% to 68% versus 2% to 30% for episiotomy in vaginal births; 3% to 30% versus 1% to 7% for instrumental vaginal births; and 42% to 70% versus 50% to 84% for spontaneous vaginal births. Countries with higher rates of births at ≥42 weeks had higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset (rho = 0.82 for nulliparous/rho = 0.83 for multiparous women) and instrumental (rho = 0.67) and spontaneous (rho = 0.66) vaginal births among multiparous women and lower rates of induction of labour (rho = -0.71/-0.66), prelabour CS (rho = -0.61/-0.65), overall CS (rho = -0.61/-0.67), and episiotomy (multiparous: rho = -0.67). Variation in CS rates was mainly due to prelabour CS (rho = 0.96). Countries with higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset had lower rates of emergency CS (nulliparous: rho = -0.62) and higher rates of spontaneous vaginal births (multiparous: rho = 0.70). Prelabour and emergency CS were positively correlated (nulliparous: rho = 0.74). Higher rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury following vaginal birth were found in countries with higher rates of spontaneous birth (nulliparous: rho = 0.65). In countries with higher rates of epidural anaesthesia (nulliparous) and spontaneous births (multiparous), higher rates of Apgar score < 7 were found (rhos = 0.64). No statistically significant variation was found for perinatal mortality. Main limitations were varying quality of data and missing information. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, even after adjusting for population characteristics, indicating overuse of interventions in some countries. Multivariable analyses are essential when comparing intercountry rates. Implementation of evidence-based guidelines is crucial in optimising intervention use and improving quality of maternity care worldwide.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 673-683, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448986

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the global prevalences of central obesity according to age, sex, race, place of residence, geographical region, national income level, and the definitions of central obesity. MEDLINE and Embase were searched. Studies with sample size of ≥ 500 and investigated individuals aged ≥ 15 years were included. Metaprop (a Stata command) was adopted to conduct a meta-analysis of prevalence, and the Freeman-Tukey Double Arcsine Transformation was used to stabilize the variances. A random-effects model was used to evaluate the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of central obesity. There were 288 studies involving 13,233,675 individuals in this analysis. The overall prevalence of central obesity was 41.5% (95% CI 39.9-43.2%). A higher prevalence was found in older individuals, female subjects, urban residents, Caucasians, and populations of higher income level countries. Regarding regional variations, the highest prevalence was found in Sothern America (55.1%, 95% CI 45.8-64.3%) and Central American (52.9%, 95% CI 32.7-72.7%). Its prevalence was rapidly rising from 1985 to 2014. From 1985-1999 to 2010-2014, younger subjects aged 15-40 years showed a more drastic rise in prevalence (16.3 to 33.9%) than subjects aged > 40 years (43.6 to 57.9%). Male individuals have a more drastic rise (25.3 to 41.6%) than females (38.6 to 49.7%). Major increasing in prevalence of the condition in the past three decades, particularly in certain subgroups. These findings could act as a useful reference to inform public health strategies to minimize the impact of central obesity on population health.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 707, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child mortality has been reduced by more than 50 % over the past 30 years. A range of secular economic and social developments have been considered to explain this phenomenon. In this paper, we examine the association between ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which was specifically put in place to ensure the well-being of children, and declines in child mortality. METHODS: Data come from three sources: the United Nations Treaty Series Database, the World Bank World Development Indicators database and, the Polity IV database. Because CRC was widely ratified, leaving few control cases, we used interrupted times series analyses, which uses the trend in the health outcome before policy exposure to mathematically determine what the trend in the health outcome would have been after the policy exposure, if it had continued 'as is' - meaning, if the policy exposure had not occurred. RESULTS: CRC ratification was associated with declining child mortality. CRC ratification was associated with a significant change in shorter-term child mortality trends in all groups except high-income, non-democratic countries and low-imcome democratic countries. CRC ratification was associated with long-term child mortality trends in all groups except middle-income, non-democratic countries. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality rates would likely have declined even in the absence of CRC ratification, but CRC is associated with a larger decline. Our findings provide a way to assess the effects of widely-held societal norms on health and demonstrate the moderating effects of democracy and income level.


Assuntos
Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Normas Sociais , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Criança , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Cooperação Internacional , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Política , Nações Unidas
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