Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.109
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572991

RESUMO

In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), the Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) has been traditionally targeted at reducing flood risk. However, other Ecosystem Services (ES) became increasingly relevant in response to the challenges of urbanization and climate change. In total, 90 scientific articles addressing ES considered crucial contributions to the quality of life in cities are reviewed. These are classified as (1) regulating ES that minimize hazards such as heat, floods, air pollution and noise, and (2) cultural ES that promote well-being and health. We conclude that the planning and design of UGI should balance both the provision of ES and their side effects and disservices, aspects that seem to have been only marginally investigated. Climate-sensitive planning practices are critical to guarantee that seasonal climate variability is accounted for at high-latitude regions. Nevertheless, diverging and seemingly inconsistent findings, together with gaps in the understanding of long-term effects, create obstacles for practitioners. Additionally, the limited involvement of end users points to a need of better engagement and communication, which in overall call for more collaborative research. Close relationships and interactions among different ES provided by urban greenery were found, yet few studies attempted an integrated evaluation. We argue that promoting interdisciplinary studies is fundamental to attain a holistic understanding of how plant traits affect the resulting ES; of the synergies between biophysical, physiological and psychological processes; and of the potential disservices of UGI, specifically in Nordic cities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade de Vida , Cidades , Finlândia , Islândia , Noruega , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Suécia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 144385, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401058

RESUMO

Cultivated peatlands under drainage practices contribute significant carbon losses from agricultural sector in the Nordic countries. In this research, we developed the BASGRA-BGC model coupled with hydrological, soil carbon decomposition and methane modules to simulate the dynamic of water table level (WTL), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions for cultivated peatlands. The field measurements from four experimental sites in Finland, Denmark and Norway were used to validate the predictive skills of this novel model under different WTL management practices, climatic conditions and soil properties. Compared with daily observations, the model performed well in terms of RMSE (Root Mean Square Error; 0.06-0.11 m, 1.22-2.43 gC/m2/day, and 0.002-0.330 kgC/ha/day for WTL, CO2 and CH4, respectively), NRMSE (Normalized Root Mean Square Error; 10.3-18.3%, 13.0-18.6%, 15.3-21.9%) and Pearson's r (Pearson correlation coefficient; 0.60-0.91, 0.76-0.88, 0.33-0.80). The daily/seasonal variabilities were therefore captured and the aggregated results corresponded well with annual estimations. We further provided an example on the model's potential use in improving the WTL management to mitigate CO2 and CH4 emissions while maintaining grass production. At all study sites, the simulated WTLs and carbon decomposition rates showed a significant negative correlation. Therefore, controlling WTL could effectively reduce carbon losses. However, given the highly diverse carbon decomposition rates within individual WTLs, adding indicators (e.g. soil moisture and peat quality) would improve our capacity to assess the effectiveness of specific mitigation practices such as WTL control and rewetting.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Poaceae , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Finlândia , Metano/análise , Noruega , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Solo
4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 94-105, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer tends to be diagnosed at a younger age (median age 51 years) compared with most other malignancies (such as breast cancer [62 years] or lung cancer [71 years]). The incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in women than men diagnosed from early adolescence. However, few in-utero and early life risk exposures associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer have been identified. METHODS: In this population-based nested case-control study we used registry data from four Nordic countries to assess thyroid cancer risk in offspring in relation to maternal medical history, pregnancy complications, and birth characteristics. Patient with thyroid cancer (cases) were individuals born and subsequently diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer from 1973 to 2013 in Denmark, 1987 to 2014 in Finland, 1967 to 2015 in Norway, or 1973 to 2014 in Sweden. Each case was matched with up to ten individuals without thyroid cancer (controls) based on birth year, sex, country, and county of birth. Cases and matched controls with a previous diagnosis of any cancer, other than non-melanoma skin cancer, at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis were excluded. Cases and matched controls had to reside in the country of birth at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the 2437 cases, 1967 (81·4%) had papillary carcinomas, 1880 (77·1%) were women, and 1384 (56·7%) were diagnosed before age 30 years (range 0-48). Higher birth weight (OR per kg 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]) and congenital hypothyroidism (4·55 [1·58-13·08]); maternal diabetes before pregnancy (OR 1·69 [0·98-2·93]) and postpartum haemorrhage (OR 1·28 [1·06-1·55]); and (from registry data in Denmark) maternal hypothyroidism (18·12 [10·52-31·20]), hyperthyroidism (11·91 [6·77-20·94]), goiter (67·36 [39·89-113·76]), and benign thyroid neoplasms (22·50 [6·93-73·06]) were each associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in offspring. INTERPRETATION: In-utero exposures, particularly those related to maternal thyroid disorders, might have a long-term influence on thyroid cancer risk in offspring. FUNDING: Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 09 14.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926397

RESUMO

Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT) is used to treat patients with intracranial lesions such as epileptogenic foci, radiation necrosis, cavernomas and brain tumors in the United States. The approval for this treatment in Europe has first been granted in 2018, with the first treatment(s) in the Nordic countries - in the form of 3 brain tumor patients - performed at the Karolinska University Hospital in 2019. In this article we briefly describe our initial experience in the context of current literature.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Terapia a Laser , Lesões por Radiação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
6.
Nature ; 585(7825): 390-396, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939067

RESUMO

The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about AD 750-1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history1,2. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east. We observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, with diversity hotspots in the south and restricted gene flow within Scandinavia. We find evidence for a major influx of Danish ancestry into England; a Swedish influx into the Baltic; and Norwegian influx into Ireland, Iceland and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial ancestry from elsewhere in Europe entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. Our ancient DNA analysis also revealed that a Viking expedition included close family members. By comparing with modern populations, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the past millennium, and trace positively selected loci-including the lactase-persistence allele of LCT and alleles of ANKA that are associated with the immune response-in detail. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Migração Humana/história , Alelos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Inglaterra , Evolução Molecular , Groenlândia , História Medieval , Humanos , Imunidade/genética , Irlanda , Lactase/genética , Lactase/metabolismo , Masculino , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Seleção Genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 116, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep mitochondrial divergences were observed in Scandinavian populations of the terrestrial to semi-aquatic annelid Fridericia magna (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae). This raised the need for testing whether the taxon is a single species or a complex of cryptic species. RESULTS: A total of 62 specimens from 38 localities were included in the study, 44 of which were used for species delimitation. First, the 44 specimens were divided into clusters using ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery) on two datasets, consisting of sequences of the mitochondrial markers COI and 16S. For each dataset, the worms were divided into six not completely congruent clusters. When they were combined, a maximum of seven clusters, or species hypotheses, were obtained, and the seven clusters were used as input in downstream analyses. We tested these hypotheses by constructing haplowebs for two nuclear markers, H3 and ITS, and in both haplowebs the specimens appeared as a single species. Multi-locus species delimitation analyses performed with the Bayesian BPP program also mainly supported a single species. Furthermore, no apparent morphological differences were found between the clusters. Two of the clusters were partially separated from each other and the other clusters, but not strongly enough to consider them as separate species. All 62 specimens were used to visualise the Scandinavian distribution, of the species, and to compare with published COI data from other Fridericia species. CONCLUSION: We show that the morphospecies Fridericia magna is a single species, harbouring several distinct mitochondrial clusters. There is partial genetic separation between some of them, which may be interpreted as incipient speciation. The study shows the importance of rigorous species delimitation using several independent markers when deep mitochondrial divergences might give the false impression of cryptic speciation.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Oligoquetos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
9.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1771-1783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930955

RESUMO

Reference conditions of water bodies are defined as the natural or minimal anthropogenically disturbed state. We compared the methods for determining total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in rivers in Finland, Norway and Sweden as well as the established reference conditions and evaluated the possibility for transfer and harmonisation of methods. We found that both methods and values differed, especially for lowland rivers with a high proportion of agriculture in the catchment. Since Denmark has not yet set reference conditions for rivers, two of the Nordic methods were tested for Danish conditions. We conclude that some of the established methods are promising but that further development is required. We moreover argue that harmonisation of reference conditions is needed to obtain common benchmarks for assessing the impacts of current and future land use changes on water quality.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Agricultura , Finlândia , Nitrogênio/análise , Noruega , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Suécia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853240

RESUMO

Individual geographic mobility is a key social dynamic of early Viking-Age urbanization in Scandinavia. We present the first comprehensive geographic mobility study of Scandinavia's earliest emporium, Ribe, which emerged around AD 700 in the North Sea region of Denmark. This article presents the results of strontium isotope analyses of 21 individuals buried at Ribe, combined with an in-depth study of the varied cultural affinities reflected by the burial practices. In order to investigate geographic mobility in early life/childhood, we sampled multiple teeth and/or petrous bone of individuals, which yielded a total of 43 strontium isotope analyses. Most individuals yielded strontium isotope values that fell within a relatively narrow range, between 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709 to 0.711. Only two individuals yielded values >87Sr/86Sr = 0.711. This suggests that most of these individuals had local origins but some had cultural affinities beyond present-day Denmark. Our results raise new questions concerning our understanding of the social and cultural dynamics behind the urbanization of Scandinavia.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Geografia , Marcação por Isótopo , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Alemanha , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726948

RESUMO

Climate change in the Nordic countries is projected to lead to both wetter and warmer seasons. This, in combination with associated vegetation changes and increased animal migration, increases the potential incidence of tick-borne diseases (TBD) where already occurring, and emergence in new places. At the same time, vegetation and animal management influence tick habitat and transmission risks. In this paper, we review the literature on Ixodes ricinus, the primary vector for TBD. Current and projected distribution changes and associated disease transmission risks are related to climate constraints and climate change, and this risk is discussed in the specific context of reindeer management. Our results indicate that climatic limitations for vectors and hosts, and environmental and societal/institutional conditions will have a significant role in determining the spreading of climate-sensitive infections (CSIs) under a changing climate. Management emerges as an important regulatory "tool" for tick and/or risk for disease transfer. In particular, shrub encroachment, and pasture and animal management, are important. The results underscore the need to take a seasonal view of TBD risks, such as (1) grazing and migratory (host) animal presence, (2) tick (vector) activity, (3) climate and vegetation, and (4) land and animal management, which all have seasonal cycles that may or may not coincide with different consequences of climate change on CSI migration. We conclude that risk management must be coordinated across the regions, and with other land-use management plans related to climate mitigation or food production to understand and address the changes in CSI risks.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(10): 2124-2135, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705608

RESUMO

In some Scandinavian countries, the United Kingdom and the United States, there is evidence of a dramatic decline in adolescent emotional wellbeing, particularly among girls. It is not clear to what extent this decline can be generalised to other high-income countries. This study examines trends over time (2005-2009-2013-2017) in adolescent wellbeing in the Netherlands, a country where young people have consistently reported one of the highest levels of wellbeing across Europe. It also assesses parallel changes over time in perceived schoolwork pressure, parent-adolescent communication, and bullying victimization. Data were derived from four waves of the nationally representative, cross-sectional Dutch Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (N = 21,901; 49% girls; Mage = 13.78, SD = 1.25). Trends in emotional wellbeing (i.e., emotional symptoms, psychosomatic complaints, life satisfaction) were assessed by means of multiple regression analyses with survey year as a predictor, controlling for background variables. Emotional wellbeing slightly declined among adolescent boys and girls between 2009 and 2013. A substantial increase in perceived schoolwork pressure was associated with this decline in emotional wellbeing. Improved parent-adolescent communication and a decline in bullying victimization may explain why emotional wellbeing remained stable between 2013 and 2017, in spite of a further increase in schoolwork pressure. Associations between emotional wellbeing on the one hand and perceived schoolwork pressure, parent-adolescent communication, and bullying victimization on the other were stronger for girls than for boys. Overall, although increasing schoolwork pressure may be one of the drivers of declining emotional wellbeing in adolescents, in the Netherlands this negative trend was buffered by increasing support by parents and peers. Cross-national research into this topic is warranted to examine the extent to which these findings can be generalised to other high-income countries.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Pais , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
14.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(4): e12941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697855

RESUMO

The Scandinavian Society for Immunology (SSI) was established with the purpose to advance the study of immunology in Scandinavia and to facilitate contacts between individuals and laboratories working within the field. To fulfill this the Society should organize scientific meetings and laboratory courses and take any other measure to support the development of immunology. A second objective was to establish contact and scientific exchange with other societies in Europe and overseas. By joining five national societies from the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) into one umbrella society this has given SSI a more powerful voice in international organizations such as European Federation of Immunological Societies (EFIS) and International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). The Scandinavian Foundation for Immunology and the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology has greatly facilitated the annual meetings to be of international high quality and by attracting more participants. Thus, SSI provides a forum for Nordic immunologists to share their research results and to increase collaboration over the borders. In conclusion, the SSI has undoubtedly been and will hopefully continue to be a major strength for Scandinavian immunology.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia , Sociedades Médicas/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 764, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-life self-harm (SH) is often linked to depression. However, very few studies have explored the role of other factors and their interaction with depression in the occurrence of late-life SH. The objective of this research was to examine sociodemographic and gender factors associated with non-fatal SH, in older adults with and without antidepressant therapy. METHODS: We used national longitudinal register data from a total cohort of all Swedish residents aged ≥75 years between 2006 and 2014 (N = 1,413,806). Using personal identity numbers, we linked individuals' data from numerous national registers. We identified all those with at least one episode of non-fatal self-harm (regardless of level of intent to die) and matched 50 controls to each case. A nested case-control design was used to investigate sociodemographic factors associated with non-fatal SH in the total cohort and among antidepressant users and non-users. Risk factors were analysed in adjusted conditional logistic regression models for the entire cohort and by gender. RESULTS: In all, 2242 individuals had at least one episode of a non-fatal SH (980 men and 1262 women). Being unmarried was a risk factor for non-fatal SH in men but not in women. Among users of antidepressants, higher non-fatal SH risk was observed in those born outside the Nordic countries (IRR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.11-1.86), whereas in AD non-users increased risk was seen in those from Nordic countries other than Sweden (IRR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.08-2.29). Antidepressant users with higher education had an increased risk of non-fatal SH (IRR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.12-1.61), in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign country of birth was associated with increased risk for non-fatal SH in older adults with and without AD therapies. Being married was a protective factor for non-fatal SH in men. The complex association between sociodemographic factors and use of antidepressants in the occurrence of self-harm in older men and women indicates the need for multifaceted tailored preventive strategies including healthcare and social services alike.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estado Civil , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 06 15.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542613

RESUMO

This article describes the Scandinavian expansion of the previously described kidney exchange program STEP, and the first two exchanges that were performed between two Scandinavian countries late in 2019. All surgical procedures were performed simultaneously and/or coordinated at different hospitals in Scandinavia and the kidney grafts were transported between the participating units. Four weeks after surgery, all recipients had a good and stable kidney function and all donors had recovered.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Doadores de Tecidos , Humanos , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 24, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460832

RESUMO

Sami reindeer herders have considerable traditional knowledge about a neurological reindeer disease resembling elaphostrongylosis, but the causative agent was not identified prior to the description of the brainworm Elaphostrongylus rangiferi in Russia in 1958. Elaphostrongylosis was quickly recognised as a serious cause of reindeer morbidity and mortality. The ecology, epidemiology and pathophysiology of the disease were studied in Sweden and Norway during the 1960s and in particular the 1970s to 1990s. In Finland, elaphostrongylosis was not recognised as an important disease for Finnish reindeer husbandry, even though the presence of brainworm infection has been documented. Brainworm has an indirect lifecycle with snail and slug intermediate hosts. The free-living L1 larvae have extremely good freeze tolerance and can survive > 360 days at - 80 °C in water (solid ice). Even though reindeer brainworm is clearly well adapted to the Arctic chill, the lifecycle stages outside the reindeer final host are sped up at warmer environmental temperatures. Arctic summer temperatures are close to the developmental threshold of the parasite in the intermediate gastropod hosts (8-10 °C), and the parasite has typically had a 2-year life cycle. Disease outbreaks generally occur during the winter following the infection of reindeer with infected snails and slugs during the summer and autumn. Warmer summers result in faster development of brainworm larvae in the intermediate hosts. Clinical symptoms have been seen reported as early as August, such as in the outbreak in Trøndelag, Norway in 2018. The reindeer brainworm is also a cause of conflict between reindeer herders and small ruminant farmers, because it can cause severe disease in goats and sheep, which share pasture with reindeer. Many knowledge gaps remain if we wish to successfully predict and mitigate for large-scale outbreaks in a future with a predicted warmer, wetter and wilder climate.


Assuntos
Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Traços de História de Vida , Rena , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310984

RESUMO

Despite growing demand for practicable methods of research evaluation, the use of bibliometric indicators remains controversial. This paper examines performance assessment practice in Europe-first, identifying the most commonly used bibliometric methods and, second, identifying the actors who have defined wide-spread practices. The framework of this investigation is Abbott's theory of professions, and I argue that indicator-based research assessment constitutes a potential jurisdiction for both individual experts and expert organizations. This investigation was conducted using a search methodology that yielded 138 evaluation studies from 21 EU countries, covering the period 2005 to 2019. Structured content analysis revealed the following findings: (1) Bibliometric research assessment is most frequently performed in the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, Italy, and the United Kingdom. (2) The Web of Science (WoS) is the dominant database used for public research assessment in Europe. (3) Expert organizations invest in the improvement of WoS citation data, and set technical standards with regards to data quality. (4) Citation impact is most frequently assessed with reference to international scientific fields. (5) The WoS classification of science fields retained its function as a de facto reference standard for research performance assessment. A detailed comparison of assessment practices between five dedicated organizations and other individual bibliometric experts suggests that corporate ownership and limited access to the most widely used citation databases have had a restraining effect on the development and diffusion of professional bibliometric methods during this period.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Competência Profissional , Pesquisa , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Europa (Continente) , Competência Profissional/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...