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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 371, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absconding (i.e., escaping) is common among patients with mental illness admitted to psychiatric hospitals. Patients use various strategies to make absconding successful due to the experiences faced during admission. We conducted a study to identify patients' perspectives on the experience of absconding from the psychiatry facility. METHODS: We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with patients with a history of absconding from the hospital who were accessing care at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Mbarara city Uganda. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated when required, transcribed into English, and analyzed thematically to identify relevant themes. RESULTS: Participants ranged in age from 18 to 55 and the majority (n = 9) were male. Most had absconded at least twice from a psychiatric facility. We identified different experiences that influenced patients' engagement in absconding from the psychiatry hospital ward. These included: (1) stigma, (2) experiences with caregivers: mixed emotions, (3) poor resources and services, and (4) the influence of mental illness symptoms. The loneliness of stigma, negative emotions associated with the loss of important roles given the nature and framework of caregiving on the psychiatric ward, as well as the stress of limited resources were a salient part of the patient experience as it relates to absconding. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that absconding is a symptom of a larger problem with a mental health system that perpetuates stigma in its design, isolates patients and makes them feel lonely, and forces patients to rely on caregivers who infantilize them and take away all their freedom in a facility with no basic services. For many patients, this makes absconding the only option. Within such a system, all stakeholders (policymakers, health-care providers, caregivers, and patients) should be involved in rethinking how psychiatric facilities should be operated to make the journey of patient recovery more positive.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Uganda
2.
Behav Ther ; 52(4): 897-906, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134829

RESUMO

Tobacco use is consistently associated with greater levels of depression and anxiety, broadly, and preliminary evidence suggests that current tobacco use is a significant predictor of dropout from psychiatric treatment. The current study extends past work to examine the impact of tobacco use on treatment dropout and outcomes in an acute psychiatric treatment setting. Upon intake to a partial hospitalization program (PHP), patients completed a battery of measures assessing sociodemographic characteristics, current tobacco use, depression and generalized anxiety, and substance use. Patients at the PHP also completed measures assessing levels of depression and generalized anxiety again upon discharge from the program. In line with hypotheses, current tobacco use was a significant predictor of dropout from treatment at the PHP. Importantly, this relationship remained significant when statistically controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric and substance use severity (such as number of previous inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations and degree of alcohol or drug problems). Results from the current study indicate that tobacco use is a significant risk factor for treatment dropout. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to determine the mechanism underlying this link between tobacco use and treatment dropout for people receiving intensive psychiatric care.


Assuntos
Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(6): e329-e333, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared those patients who left without being seen (LWBS) with those who stay for evaluation and determined which subsets were more likely to depart prematurely in the largest pediatric population studied to date. METHODS: We retrospectively extracted data from the electronic medical records of all pediatric patients who visited the emergency department between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. The demographics and visit characteristics were compared between patients who LWBS and those seen by a provider. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the odds for premature departure of specific groups within the population. RESULTS: Of the 271,364 pediatric patients visiting the emergency department during the 3-year study period, 3835 (1.4%) LWBS by a provider. The mean age of those LWBS was younger, and the odds of leaving slightly decreased as the patient's age increased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98). Those triaged as having "nonurgent" medical conditions had a statistically significant increase in odds of premature departure when compared with those with "urgent" medical conditions (OR, 1.16). Patients arriving during the evening and overnight hours had a much greater odds of LWBS (OR, 6.7 and 7.3, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated and confirmed that age, time of arrival, and acuity level upon presentation were predictors of patients leaving before evaluation. This can guide institutions with staffing and flow processes as they attempt to reduce LWBS rates but also raises further questions as to whether these subsets go forward to have worse clinical outcomes after leaving prematurely.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Criança , Demografia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822794

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality as a single infectious agent globally with increasing numbers of case notification in developing countries. This study seeks to investigate the clinical and socio-demographic factors of time to TB treatment interruption among Tuberculosis patients in Kiambu County, 2016-2019. We retrospectively analyzed data for all treatment outcomes patients obtained from TB tracing form linked with the Tuberculosis Information Basic Unit (TIBU) of patients in Kiambu County health facilities using time to treatment interruption as the main outcome. Categorical variables were presented using frequency and percentages. Kaplan-Meir curve was used to analyze probabilities of time to treatment interruptions between intensive and continuation phases. Log-rank test statistics was used to compare the equality of the curves. Cox proportion model was used to determine determinants of treatment interruption. A total of 292 participants were included in this study. Males were 68%, with majority (35%) of the participants were aged 24-35 years; 5.8% were aged 0-14 years and 5.1% aged above 55 years. The overall treatment success rate was 66.8% (cured, 34.6%; completed 32.2%), 60.3% were on intensive phase of treatment. Lack of knowledge and relocation were the major reasons of treatment interruptions. Patients on intensive phase were 1.58 times likely to interrupt treatment compared to those on continuation phase (aHR: 1.581; 95%CI: 1.232-2.031). There is need to develop TB interventions that target men and middle aged population in order to reduce treatment interruption and increase the treatment success rates in the County and Country.


Assuntos
Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(5): 1127-1135, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817936

RESUMO

Absconding from inpatient psychiatric care is a complex problem with significant and broad ranging effects for patients, staff, family/carers, and the broader community. Absconding includes leaving the ward without permission and failing to return from leave at an agreed time. This study is a retrospective chart audit of a data set of absconding events from 11 psychiatric wards in a metropolitan Australian city. The data set included both quantitative and qualitative data. The focus of this study is analysis of the qualitative data documenting what happened during events, with quantitative data provided to contextualize the qualitative analysis. A total of 995 absconding events by 488 patients were reported between January 2016 and June 2018, representing a rate of 1.6 per 100 admissions. Two themes were identified in the qualitative analysis. 'Having things to do' encompassed opportunistic absconding and volitional absconding. 'Something changed' represented predisposing events that affected the absconding behaviour, such as being stepped down in care (moving from a more acute to a less acute psychiatric unit), receiving bad news, or interpersonal conflict either between patients or between nursing staff and patients. Results highlight the importance of harm minimization strategies to reduce the incidence of absconding.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais , Austrália , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(4): e25695, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are approximately 1.7 million adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10 to 19) globally, including 110,000 in Kenya. While ALHIV experience poor retention in care, limited data exist on factors underlying disengagement. We investigated the burden of trauma among disengaged ALHIV in western Kenya, and its potential role in HIV care disengagement. METHODS: We performed in-depth qualitative interviews with ALHIV who had disengaged from care at two sites, their caregivers and healthcare workers (HCW) at 10 sites, from 2018 to 2020. Disengagement was defined as not attending clinic ≥60 days past a missed scheduled visit. ALHIV and their caregivers were traced through phone calls and home visits. Interviews ascertained barriers and facilitators to adolescent retention in HIV care. Dedicated questions elicited narratives surrounding traumatic experiences, and the ways in which these did or did not impact retention in care. Through thematic analysis, a conceptual model emerged for a cascade from adolescent experience of trauma to disengagement from HIV care. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 42 disengaged ALHIV, 34 caregivers and 28 HCW. ALHIV experienced a high burden of trauma from a range of stressors, including experiences at HIV disclosure or diagnosis, the loss of parents, enacted stigma and physical or sexual violence. A confluence of factors - trauma, stigma and isolation, and lack of social support - led to hopelessness and depression. These factors compounded each other, and resulted in complex mental health burdens, poor antiretroviral adherence and care disengagement. HCW approaches aligned with the factors in this model, suggesting that these areas represent targets for intervention and provision of trauma-informed care. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma is a major factor underlying disengagement from HIV care among Kenyan adolescents. We describe a cascade of factors representing areas for intervention to support mental health and retention in HIV care. These include not only the provision of mental healthcare, but also preventing or addressing violence, trauma and stigma, and reinforcing social and familial support surrounding vulnerable adolescents. In this conceptualization, supporting retention in HIV care requires a trauma-informed approach, both in the individualized care of ALHIV and in the development of strategies and policies to support adolescent health outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Retenção nos Cuidados , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Saúde Mental , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(7): 631-636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, and venom allergy. Compliance is essential for SCIT to obtain maximal benefit as it is a long-term treatment. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level of real-life SCIT compliance in pediatric patients and the associated factors. Additional aims were to determine how SCIT compliance was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and why some patients dropped out SCIT. METHOD: Pediatric patients diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, or venom allergy that received SCIT between September 2012 and July 2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 201 children (66.7% male) with a median (interquartile range) age of 12.8 years (9.4-15.2) at the time of the first SCIT injection. The overall compliance rate before COVID-19 pandemic was 86.1%. Short SCIT follow-up time and venom anaphylaxis were found to be risk factors for drop out. The leading causes of drop outs were moving to another city/country (32.1%), symptom improvement (17.8%), treatment ineffectiveness (14.2%), and adverse reactions (14.2%). Among the 108 patients that were still receiving SCIT during the COVID-19 pandemic, 31 (28.7%) dropped out the therapy. The most frequent reasons for drop-out were fear of being infected with COVID-19 (35.4%) and thinking that the AIT practise stopped due to COVID-19 pandemic (29%). Male gender and older age were found to be the independent risk factors for drop-out of SCIT. CONCLUSIONS: Real life compliance in children was found 13.9% and it was higher than adults. Nearly one-third of children dropped out during the CO-VID-19 pandemic. Male gender and older age are associated with SCIT drop-out during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Dessensibilização Imunológica/efeitos adversos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/psicologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(2): 148-155, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856294

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED) patients who leave before treatment is complete (LBTC) represent medicolegal risk and lost revenue. We sought to examine LBTC return visits characteristics and potential revenue effects for a large healthcare system. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter study examined all encounters from January 1-December 31, 2019 at 18 EDs. The LBTC patients were divided into left without being seen (LWBS), defined as leaving prior to completed medical screening exam (MSE), and left subsequent to being seen (LSBS), defined as leaving after MSE was complete but before disposition. We recorded 30-day returns by facility type including median return hours, admission rate, and return to index ED. Expected realization rate and potential charges were calculated for each patient visit. RESULTS: During the study period 626,548 ED visits occurred; 20,158 (3.2%) LBTC index encounters occurred, and 6745 (33.5%) returned within 30 days. The majority (41.7%) returned in <24 hours with 76.1% returning in 10 days and 66.4% returning to index ED. Median return time was 43.3 hours, and 23.2% were admitted. Urban community EDs had the highest 30-day return rate (37.8%, 95% confidence interval, 36.41-39.1). Patients categorized as LSBS had longer median return hours (66.0) and higher admission rates (29.8%) than the LWBS cohort. There was a net potential realization rate of $9.5 million to the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: In our system, LSBS patients had longer return times and higher admission rates than LWBS patients. There was significant potential financial impact for the system. Further studies should examine how healthcare systems can reduce risk and financial impacts of LBTC patients.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes/psicologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Tratamento de Emergência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triagem/métodos , Listas de Espera
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922802

RESUMO

Lifestyle interventions, including meal replacement, are effective in the prevention and treatment of type-2-diabetes and obesity. Since insulin is the key weight regulator, we hypothesised that the addition of meal replacement to a lifestyle intervention reduces insulin levels more effectively than lifestyle intervention alone. In the international multicentre randomised controlled ACOORH (Almased Concept against Overweight and Obesity and Related Health Risk) trial, overweight or obese persons who meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome (n = 463) were randomised into two groups. Both groups received nutritional advice focusing on carbohydrate restriction and the use of telemonitoring devices. The intervention group substituted all three main meals per day in week 1, two meals per day in weeks 2-4, and one meal per day in weeks 5-26 with a protein-rich, low-glycaemic meal replacement. Data were collected at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. All datasets providing insulin data (n = 446) were included in this predefined subanalysis. Significantly higher reductions in insulin (-3.3 ± 8.7 µU/mL vs. -1.6 ± 9.8 µU/mL), weight (-6.1 ± 5.2 kg vs. -3.2 ± 4.6 kg), and inflammation markers were observed in the intervention group. Insulin reduction correlated with weight reduction and the highest amount of weight loss (-7.6 ± 4.9 kg) was observed in those participants with an insulin decrease > 2 µU/mL. These results underline the potential for meal replacement-based lifestyle interventions in diabetes prevention, and measurement of insulin levels may serve as an indicator for adherence to carbohydrate restriction.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Jejum/sangue , Índice Glicêmico , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Refeições , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705421

RESUMO

Novel strategies to re-engage and retain people living with HIV (PLWH) who are out of care are greatly needed. While mobile clinics have been used effectively for HIV testing and linkage, evidence guiding their use in providing HIV care domestically has been limited. To guide the development of a mobile HIV clinic (MHC) model as a strategy to re-engage and retain PLWH who are out of care, we aimed to explore stakeholder perceptions of barriers and facilitators to MHC implementation and use. From June 2019-July 2020, we conducted 41 in-depth interviews with HIV clinic providers, administrators, staff, legal authorities, and community advisory board members, PLWH, AIDS service organizations and city officials in Atlanta, Georgia, and domestic and international mobile health clinics to explore barriers and facilitators to use of MHCs. Interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed. Barriers raised include potential for: breach of confidentiality with resulting heightened stigmatization, fractured continuity of care, safety concerns, staffing challenges, and low community acceptance of MHC presence in their locality. Participants provided suggestions regarding appropriate exterior design, location, timing, and co-delivery of non-HIV services that could facilitate MHC acceptance and address the concerns. In identifying key barriers and facilitators to MHC use, this study informs design and implementation of an MHC as a novel strategy for re-engaging and retaining PLWH who are out of care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Confidencialidade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Participação dos Interessados , Telemedicina
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: MR000032, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor retention of participants in randomised trials can lead to missing outcome data which can introduce bias and reduce study power, affecting the generalisability, validity and reliability of results. Many strategies are used to improve retention but few have been formally evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of strategies to improve retention of participants in randomised trials and to investigate if the effect varied by trial setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection (SCI-expanded, SSCI, CPSI-S, CPCI-SSH and ESCI) either directly with a specified search strategy or indirectly through the ORRCA database. We also searched the SWAT repository to identify ongoing or recently completed retention trials. We did our most recent searches in January 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included eligible randomised or quasi-randomised trials of evaluations of strategies to increase retention that were embedded in 'host' randomised trials from all disease areas and healthcare settings. We excluded studies aiming to increase treatment compliance. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on: the retention strategy being evaluated; location of study; host trial setting; method of randomisation; numbers and proportions in each intervention and comparator group. We used a risk difference (RD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate the effectiveness of the strategies to improve retention. We assessed heterogeneity between trials. We applied GRADE to determine the certainty of the evidence within each comparison. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 70 eligible papers that reported data from 81 retention trials. We included 69 studies with more than 100,000 participants in the final meta-analyses, of which 67 studies evaluated interventions aimed at trial participants and two evaluated interventions aimed at trial staff involved in retention. All studies were in health care and most aimed to improve postal questionnaire response. Interventions were categorised into broad comparison groups: Data collection; Participants; Sites and site staff; Central study management; and Study design. These intervention groups consisted of 52 comparisons, none of which were supported by high-certainty evidence as determined by GRADE assessment. There were four comparisons presenting moderate-certainty evidence, three supporting retention (self-sampling kits, monetary reward together with reminder or prenotification and giving a pen at recruitment) and one reducing retention (inclusion of a diary with usual follow-up compared to usual follow-up alone). Of the remaining studies, 20 presented GRADE low-certainty evidence and 28 presented very low-certainty evidence. Our findings do provide a priority list for future replication studies, especially with regard to comparisons that currently rely on a single study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most of the interventions we identified aimed to improve retention in the form of postal questionnaire response. There were few evaluations of ways to improve participants returning to trial sites for trial follow-up. None of the comparisons are supported by high-certainty evidence. Comparisons in the review where the evidence certainty could be improved with the addition of well-done studies should be the focus for future evaluations.


Assuntos
Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração de Caso , Correspondência como Assunto , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Fertil Steril ; 116(1): 114-122, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the dropout rate between the first and second in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in a controlled population derived from a funded and actively managed system of care in New Zealand, including the reason for dropout and associated cumulative live birth rate. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Multicenter IVF practice. PATIENT(S): Couples qualifying for publicly funded IVF treatment under New Zealand's Clinical Priority Assessment Criteria. Couples (n = 974) started treatment between July 2011 and June 2013, used their own gametes, and were eligible for up to 2 IVF packages of funded care (including the transfer of surplus embryos). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): IVF dropout rate, reason for dropout, and cumulative live birth rate. RESULT(S): A low IVF dropout rate between the first and second IVF cycle was reported within this controlled IVF population, with 10% of couples discontinuing treatment for reasons related to stress. The cumulative live birth rate in this "low dropout" population was 59% at the end of treatment, ranging from 72% (≤30 years) to 42% (38-39 years) according to female age. Most patients who discontinued for stress had a good prognosis, and a third of patients still had embryos in cryostorage. Only 30% of those who discontinued used the funded counseling services. CONCLUSION(S): A low dropout rate (10%) can be achieved within an actively managed IVF population. This was lower than previously reported, suggesting that prognosis, cost, and treatment management are the significant causes of dropout within the general IVF population. Couples with many embryos also require psychological support because of treatment fatigue or repeated transfers.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Fertilização In Vitro , Infertilidade/terapia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Fertilização In Vitro/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico , Infertilidade/economia , Infertilidade/fisiopatologia , Nascido Vivo , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e25186, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726008

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to ascertain changes in symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder undergoing psychodynamic day treatment with a duration of 9 months and the factors that predict clinical outcome or dropouts from the program.In an observational study, demographic characteristics (age, number of psychiatric hospitalizations, number of suicide attempts, current involvement in work or study activities), day doses of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication, psychiatric symptoms, and social functioning (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales), and symptoms of dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) were assessed in patients at the beginning of treatment (N = 105). Further, psychiatric symptoms and social functioning were assessed at 3 stages: beginning of the program, end of the program, and 1-year follow-up. To study the differences between baseline values and values at the end of the treatment and follow-up values, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. To discover baseline factors related to the effect of the treatment, Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. To evaluate the differences between patients who completed the program (N = 67) and patients who dropped out (N = 38), differences in baseline factors between both groups were compared, using the Mann-Whitney test for independent samples.Improvement in symptoms (Health of the Nation Outcome Scales - version for external evaluators) at the end of the therapy (N = 67, P < .001) and at the 1-year follow-up (N = 46, P < .001) was found. Experience of an intimate relationship was positively related to clinical improvement at follow-up examinations (P < .001). Predictors of dropout included a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .004), suicide attempts (P = .004), more severe pretreatment symptoms (P = .002), and symptoms of dissociation (P = .046).The results indicate that a psychodynamic day treatment is feasible for the treatment of less clinically disturbed patients with a history of intimate relationships. Patients with a higher number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, more suicide attempts in the past, more severe pretreatment symptoms, and symptoms of dissociation are more likely not to complete the program.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Hospital Dia/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(4): 439-444, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682603

RESUMO

Introduction: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are useful to study the role of individual and contextual factors in which therapies vs placebos are administered and to provide an important perspective for understanding the phenomenon of nocebo-related risks.Areas covered: The results of nocebo effects in RCT placebo groups, measured in terms of adverse events (AEs) and dropouts, will be presented as an explicative framework for the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are the only RCTs routinely conducted during the pandemic. Information about efficacy and safety of different vaccines represents a fertile ground for nocebo phenomena. Individual and contextual factors will be emphasized in order to understand the presence of a refusal of immunization associated with a specific vaccine considered less effective and safe. Critical aspects and some guidelines will be presented in order to counteract the nocebo effects and to improve adherence to drug treatments and the vaccination campaign.Expert opinion: The nocebo effect could explain the presence of strong resistance in European countries to immunization with a vaccine perceived as less effective, compared to others. Increased awareness of the nocebo effect would be relevant as it could lead to a greater participation in the vaccination campaign and in protecting individuals against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Efeito Nocebo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Minerva Surg ; 76(1): 57-61, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in order to reduce COVID-19 related comorbidities in obese population a continuation of obesity treatment is needed. However, bariatric procedures were postponed because of COVID-19 restrictions, delaying treatment for obese patients seeking for surgery. This study aimed to test the feasibility of a telematics pre-operative psychological and nutritional assessment as an alternative tool during COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were contacted. The pre-operative assessment consisted in 3-weekly one-to-one online sessions and a final in-person multidisciplinary session. The protocol feasibility has been evaluated on the following outcome: rejection rate (%), dropout rate (%), compliance and satisfaction's degree. RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed the whole protocol and 10% dropped-out. Seventy-two percent of participants obtained an excess weight loss ≥5%. All participants were satisfied of the telematics assessment. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 emergency has changed standard hospital procedures and this study could represent a landmark for an online pre-operative assessment method to adopt in case of new restrictions.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Perda de Peso
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013560, 2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common morbidities of the postnatal period. It has been associated with adverse outcomes for women, children, the wider family and society as a whole. Treatment is with psychosocial interventions or antidepressant medication, or both. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of different antidepressants and to compare their effectiveness with placebo, treatment as usual or other forms of treatment. This is an update of a review last published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antidepressant drugs in comparison with any other treatment (psychological, psychosocial, or pharmacological), placebo, or treatment as usual for postnatal depression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Common Mental Disorders's Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO in May 2020. We also searched international trials registries and contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of women with depression during the first 12 months postpartum that compared antidepressant treatment (alone or in combination with another treatment) with any other treatment, placebo or treatment as usual. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from the study reports. We requested missing information from study authors wherever possible. We sought data to allow an intention-to-treat analysis. Where we identified sufficient comparable studies we pooled data and conducted random-effects meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 11 RCTs (1016 women), the majority of which were from English-speaking, high-income countries; two were from middle-income countries. Women were recruited from a mix of community-based, primary care, maternity and outpatient settings. Most studies used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), with treatment duration ranging from 4 to 12 weeks. Meta-analysis showed that there may be a benefit of SSRIs over placebo in response (55% versus 43%; pooled risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.66); remission (42% versus 27%; RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.41); and reduced depressive symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.05; 4 studies, 251 women), at 5 to 12 weeks' follow-up. We were unable to conduct meta-analysis for adverse events due to variation in the reporting of this between studies. There was no evidence of a difference between acceptability of SSRI and placebo (27% versus 27%; RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.64; 4 studies; 233 women). The certainty of all the evidence for SSRIs was low or very low due to the small number of included studies and a number of potential sources of bias, including high rates of attrition. There was insufficient evidence to assess the efficacy of SSRIs compared with other classes of antidepressants and of antidepressants compared with other pharmacological interventions, complementary medicines, psychological and psychosocial interventions or treatment as usual. A substantial proportion of women experienced adverse effects but there was no evidence of differences in the number of adverse effects between treatment groups in any of the studies. Data on effects on children, including breastfed infants, parenting, and the wider family were limited, although no adverse effects were noted. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There remains limited evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in the management of postnatal depression, particularly for those with more severe depression. We found low-certainty evidence that SSRI antidepressants may be more effective in treating postnatal depression than placebo as measured by response and remission rates. However, the low certainty of the evidence suggests that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our effect estimate. There is a continued imperative to better understand whether, and for whom, antidepressants or other treatments are more effective for postnatal depression, and whether some antidepressants are more effective or better tolerated than others. In clinical practice, the findings of this review need to be contextualised by the extensive broader literature on antidepressants in the general population and perinatal clinical guidance, to inform an individualised risk-benefit clinical decision. Future RCTs should focus on larger samples, longer follow-up, comparisons with alternative treatment modalities and inclusion of child and parenting outcomes.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013457, 2021 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated, in part, with the dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses and glutamate abnormalities. Medications related to glutamatergic neurotransmission, such as D-cycloserine - which is a partial agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor - are potential treatment options for the core features of ASD. However, the potential effect of D-cycloserine on the social and communication skills deficits of individuals with ASD has not been thoroughly explored and no systematic reviews of the evidence have been conducted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of D-cycloserine compared with placebo for social and communication skills in individuals with ASD. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2020, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases and two trials registers. We also searched the reference lists of relevant publications and contacted the authors of the included study, Minshawi 2016, to identify any additional studies. In addition, we contacted pharmaceutical companies, searched manufacturers' websites and sources of reports of adverse events.  SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any duration and dose of D-cycloserine, with or without adjunct treatment, compared to placebo in individuals with ASD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted relevant data, assessed the risk of bias, graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach, and analysed and evaluated the data. We provide a narrative report of the findings as only one study is included in this review. MAIN RESULTS: We included a single RCT (Minshawi 2016) funded by the United States Department of Defense. It was conducted at two sites in the USA: Indiana University School of Medicine and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centre. In the included study, 67 children with ASD aged between 5 and 11 years were randomised to receive either 10 weeks (10 doses) of (50 mg) D-cycloserine plus social skills training, or placebo plus social skills training. Randomisation was carried out 1:1 between D-cycloserine and placebo arms, and outcome measures were recorded at one-week post-treatment. The 'risk of bias' assessment for the included study was low for five domains and unclear for two domains. The study (67 participants) reported low certainty evidence of little to no difference between the two groups for all outcomes measured at one week post-treatment: social interaction impairment (mean difference (MD) 3.61 (assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale), 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.60 to 12.82); social communication impairment (MD -1.08 (measured using the inappropriate speech subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC)), 95% CI -2.34 to 0.18); restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behaviour (MD 0.12 (measured by the ABC stereotypy subscale), 95% CI -1.71 to 1.95); serious adverse events (risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31); non-core symptoms of ASD (RR 0.97 (measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale), 95% CI 0.49 to 1.93); and tolerability of D-cycloserine (RR 0.32 (assessed by the number of dropouts), 95% CI 0.01 to 7.68).  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are unable to conclude with certainty whether D-cycloserine is effective for individuals with ASD. This review included low certainty data from only one study with methodological issues and imprecision. The added value of this review compared to the included study is we assessed the risk of bias and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Moreover, if we find new trials in future updates of this review, we could potentially pool the data, which may either strengthen or decrease the evidence for our findings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação , Ciclosserina/uso terapêutico , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclosserina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Indiana , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ohio , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013281, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increased in individuals with mental disorders. Much of the burden of disease falls on the populations of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological, behaviour change, and organisational interventions versus active and non-active comparators in the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes among people with mental illness in LMICs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and six other databases, as well as three international trials registries. We also searched conference proceedings and checked the reference lists of relevant systematic reviews. Searches are current up to 20 February 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological, behavioural or organisational interventions targeting the prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes in adults with mental disorders in LMICs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors working independently performed data extraction and risk of bias assessments. We conducted meta-analyses using random-effects models. MAIN RESULTS: One hospital-based RCT with 150 participants (99 participants with schizophrenia) addressed our review's primary outcome of prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes onset. Low-certainty evidence from this study did not show a difference between atypical and typical antipsychotics in the development of diabetes at six weeks (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03 to 7.05) (among a total 99 participants with schizophrenia, 68 were in atypical and 31 were in typical antipsychotic groups; 55 participants without mental illness were not considered in the analysis). An additional 29 RCTs with 2481 participants assessed one or more of the review's secondary outcomes. All studies were conducted in hospital settings and reported on pharmacological interventions. One study, which we could not include in our meta-analysis, included an intervention with pharmacological and behaviour change components. We identified no studies of organisational interventions. Low- to moderate-certainty evidence suggests there may be no difference between the use of atypical and typical antipsychotics for the outcomes of drop-outs from care (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.69; two studies with 144 participants), and fasting blood glucose levels (mean difference (MD) 0.05 lower, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.00; two studies with 211 participants). Participants who receive typical antipsychotics may have a lower body mass index (BMI) at follow-up than participants who receive atypical antipsychotics (MD 0.57, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.81; two studies with 141 participants; moderate certainty of evidence), and may have lower total cholesterol levels eight weeks after starting treatment (MD 0.35, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.43; one study with 112 participants). There was moderate certainty evidence suggesting no difference between the use of metformin and placebo for the outcomes of drop-outs from care (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.09 to 16.35; three studies with 158 participants). There was moderate-to-high certainty evidence of no difference between metformin and placebo for fasting blood glucose levels (endpoint data: MD -0.35, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.11; change from baseline data: MD 0.01, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.22; five studies with 264 participants). There was high certainty evidence that BMI was lower for participants receiving metformin compared with those receiving a placebo (MD -1.37, 95% CI -2.04 to -0.70; five studies with 264 participants; high certainty of evidence). There was no difference between metformin and placebo for the outcomes of waist circumference, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Low-certainty evidence from one study (48 participants) suggests there may be no difference between the use of melatonin and placebo for the outcome of drop-outs from care (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.38 to 2.66). Fasting blood glucose is probably reduced more in participants treated with melatonin compared with placebo (endpoint data: MD -0.17, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.01; change from baseline data: MD -0.24, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.09; three studies with 202 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). There was no difference between melatonin and placebo for the outcomes of waist circumference, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Very low-certainty evidence from one study (25 participants) suggests that drop-outs may be higher in participants treated with a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) compared with those receiving a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.01). It is uncertain if there is no difference in fasting blood glucose levels between these groups (MD -0.39, 95% CI -0.88 to 0.10; three studies with 141 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if there is no difference in BMI and depression between the TCA and SSRI antidepressant groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Only one study reported data on our primary outcome of interest, providing low-certainty evidence that there may be no difference in risk between atypical and typical antipsychotics for the outcome of developing type 2 diabetes. We are therefore not able to draw conclusions on the prevention of type 2 diabetes in people with mental disorders in LMICs. For studies reporting on secondary outcomes, there was evidence of risk of bias in the results. There is a need for further studies with participants from LMICs with mental disorders, particularly on behaviour change and on organisational interventions targeting prevention of type 2 diabetes in these populations.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
19.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 15(2): 157-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attrition in pediatric weight management programs is notoriously high. Greater understanding of its determinants is needed to inform retention strategies. We identified determinants of attrition in CIRCUIT, a healthy lifestyle intervention program for youth at risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A one-arm intervention study of children aged 4-18 years who initiated the CIRCUIT program in the first five years of its existence (N = 403). We defined attrition as attending the baseline visit but ceasing attendance prior to the 1-year follow-up. Potential determinants of dropout included the child's age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) z-score, family socio-demographic characteristics, and estimated driving time to the program, all measured at baseline. Associations were estimated bivariately, using chi-squared- and t-tests, and simultaneously in a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 403 participants who started the program, 198 (49%) dropped out within 12 months of enrollment. Youth who dropped out were older (mean age 12.8y vs. 11.3y; p < 0.01), were less likely to live with both parents (62% vs. 71%; p = 0.05), and to have mothers who had completed high school (79% vs. 88%; p = 0.01). No group differences were observed for sex, ethnicity, baseline BMI z-score, fathers' education, or driving time to the program. In multivariate models, only older age at initiation of the intervention (OR: 1.2; CI: 1.1,1.3) and lower maternal education (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.0,3.8) were associated with dropout. CONCLUSION: Improved tailoring of interventions to older pediatric participants and to families of lower maternal education may help reduce attrition in CIRCUIT and similar lifestyle intervention programs.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(8): 1519-1532, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576383

RESUMO

Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with the option to start treatment on the day of diagnosis (same-day ART). However, the effect of same-day ART remains unknown in realistic public sector settings. We established a cohort of ≥16-year-old patients who initiated first-line ART under a treat-all policy in Nhlangano (Eswatini) during 2014-2016, either on the day of HIV care enrollment (same-day ART) or 1-14 days thereafter (early ART). Directed acyclic graphs, flexible parametric survival analysis, and targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) were used to estimate the effect of same-day-ART initiation on a composite unfavorable treatment outcome (loss to follow-up, death, viral failure, treatment switch). Of 1,328 patients, 839 (63.2%) initiated same-day ART. The adjusted hazard ratio of the unfavorable outcome was higher, 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.89), for same-day ART compared with early ART. TMLE suggested that after 1 year, 28.9% of patients would experience the unfavorable outcome under same-day ART compared with 21.2% under early ART (difference: 7.7%; 1.3%-14.1%). This estimate was driven by loss to follow-up and varied over time, with a higher hazard during the first year after HIV care enrollment and a similar hazard thereafter. We found an increased risk with same-day ART. A limitation was that possible silent transfers that were not captured.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Políticas , Setor Público , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
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