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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 22-28, set./dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1121727

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar a eficácia das técnicas de higiene oral, solução de clorexidina com gaze e espátula e da escovação dentária com solução de clorexidina no controle microbiológico oral de pacientes internados em UTI. Metodologia: as bases de dados utilizadas foram PUB MED, MEDLINE, SCIELO e LILACS em março a julho de 2019. Foram incluídos artigos na língua inglesa e portuguesa, disponíveis em livre acesso com o texto completo, com período de publicação entre 2009 a 2019 e que abordassem sobre os métodos de higiene oral na UTI e relacionasse a enfermidades encontradas nesse ambiente. Resultados: foram encontrados 32 artigos, 8 se enquadravam nos critérios de inclusão. Os artigos de revisão evidenciaram a importância da higiene oral em pacientes com ventilação mecânica e relatam o uso da clorexidina como método eficaz na prevenção de PAV. Já nos estudos clínicos randomizados, mostram não haver diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o uso da escova dental e a solução de clorexidina 0,12%. Conclusão: ambos os métodos são eficientes na higienização oral de pacientes internados e que não há diferença significativa nos estudos quando comparam a escova de dentes com o uso da clorexidina com gaze para a higiene oral na UTI. Mas quando se fala em prevenção de PAV, a clorexidina 0,12% é o mais citado(AU)


Objective: to verify the effectiveness of oral hygiene techniques, chlorhexidine solution with gauze and spatula and toothbrushing with chlorhexidine solution in the oral microbiological control of patients admitted to the ICU. Methodology: the databases used were PUB MED, MEDLINE, SCIELO and LILACS in March to July 2019. Articles in English and Portuguese were included, freely available with the full text, with a period of publication between 2009 and 2019 and to address oral hygiene methods in the ICU and relate to diseases found in that environment. Results: 32 articles were found, 8 fit the inclusion criteria. The review articles highlighted the importance of oral hygiene in patients with mechanical ventilation and report the use of chlorhexidine as an effective method in preventing VAP. In randomized clinical studies, however, they show no statistically significant difference between the use of the toothbrush and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution. Conclusion: both methods are efficient in oral hygiene of hospitalized patients and that there is no significant difference in the studies when comparing the toothbrush with the use of chlorhexidine with gauze for oral hygiene in the ICU. But when talking about VAP prevention, 0.12% chlorhexidine is the most cited(AU)


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal , Pacientes Internados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Escovação Dentária , Clorexidina
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e35054, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117622

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar a mobilidade do cliente com dermatose imunobolhosa antes e após aplicação do curativo com gaze vaselinada. Método: estudo quase experimental, interinstitucional, com clientes com dermatoses imunobolhosas hospitalizados em um hospital estadual e um hospital federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e uma instituição do Mato Grosso do Sul. Utilizou-se a lógica fuzzy para classificar a mobilidade dos sujeitos antes, 24 horas após e uma semana após aplicação do curativo. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: Incluídos 14 participantes, sendo nove com pênfigo vulgar, dois com pênfigo foliáceo e três com penfigóide bolhoso, entre 27 e 82 anos, predominando 11 mulheres. Após 24 horas, nenhum participante se considerou com baixa mobilidade, sete passaram a mobilidade média, e sete, alta, o que foi mantido uma semana após aplicação do curativo. Conclusão: constatou-se significativo aumento da mobilidade logo nas primeiras 24 horas após aplicação do curativo.


Objective: to assess the mobility of clients with immunobullous dermatoses, before and after applying vaseline gauze dressings. Method: in this quasi-experimental, interinstitutional study of inpatients with immunobullous dermatoses at a state hospital and a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro State and an institution in Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil), patient mobility before, 24 hours after, and one week after applying the dressing was classified using fuzzy logic. The study was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: 14 participants, nine with pemphigus vulgaris, two with pemphigus foliaceus, and three with bullous pemphigoid, aged between 27 and 82 years old, and predominantly (11) women. After 24 hours, none of the participants considered their mobility to be poor, seven began to be moderately mobile, and seven were highly mobile, and continued so one week after applying the dressing. Conclusion: mobility increased significant in the first 24 hours after applying the dressing.


Objetivo: evaluar la movilidad de clientes con dermatosis inmunobullosa, antes y después de la aplicación de apósitos de gasa con vaselina. Método: en este estudio cuasi-experimental, interinstitucional de pacientes hospitalizados con dermatosis inmunobullosa en un hospital estatal y un hospital federal en el estado de Río de Janeiro y una institución en Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil), la movilidad del paciente antes, 24 horas después y una semana después la aplicación del apósito se clasificó mediante lógica difusa. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación. Resultados: se incluyeron 14 participantes, nueve con pénfigo vulgar, dos con pénfigo foliáceo y tres con penfigoide ampolloso, con edades comprendidas entre 27 y 82 años, y predominantemente mujeres (n=11). Después de 24 horas, ninguno de los participantes consideró que su movilidad fuera pobre, siete comenzaron a ser moderadamente móviles y siete eran altamente móviles, y así continuaron una semana después de la aplicación del apósito. Conclusión: la movilidad aumentó significativamente en las primeras 24 horas después de la aplicación del apósitoconsideraba con baja movilidad, siete comenzaron a tener movilidad media y siete, alta, que se mantuvo una semana después de aplicar el apósito. Conclusión: hubo un aumento significativo en la movilidad en las primeras 24 horas después de aplicar el apósito.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vaselina/uso terapêutico , Bandagens , Dermatopatias Vesiculobolhosas/terapia , Penfigoide Bolhoso/terapia , Pênfigo/terapia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Brasil , Lógica Fuzzy , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Hospitais Públicos , Pacientes Internados , Cuidados de Enfermagem
3.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 199-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020331

RESUMO

Latar BelakangSebanyak 38.6% kasus kematian pasien COVID-19 di Indonesia terjadi di populasi lansia. Data mengenai profil klinis pasien rawat inap lansia dengan COVID-19 masih tidak ada. Padahal kelompok pasien ini adalah pasien risiko tinggi selama pandemi ini yang memerlukan perhatian lebih.MetodeStudi deskriptif ini menggunakan data lengkap pasien lansia dengan COVID-19 yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo) dari April hingga akhir Agustus 2020. Data termasuk karakteristik klinis, gejala, komorbiditas, multimorbiditas dan luaran mortalitas pasien.HasilDi populasi pasien lansia (n=44), mayoritas berusia di antara 60-69 tahun (68%), berjenis kelamin laki-laki (66%), dan tidak memiliki riwayat kontak erat dengan pasien COVID-19 sebelumnya (86%). Gejala tersering ialah demam, batuk, dan sesak yang merupakan gejala khas COVID-19, sedangkan penyakit kronis tersering adalah diabetes melitus, hipertensi, dan keganasan. Multimorbiditas ditemukan hanya di 14% pasien lansia, dan para pasien tersebut bertahan hidup pasca infeksi virus SARS-CoV-2. Angka kematian pasien lansia rawat inap dengan COVID-19 di studi ini adalah 23%, dan 90% dari kasus kematian berjenis kelamin laki-laki.KesimpulanPasien laki-laki mendominasi kasus terkonfirmasi dan kasus kematian lansia dengan COVID-19. Gejala khas COVID-19 hanya ditemukan di sekitar setengah pasien penelitian. Pasien yang meninggal dunia memiliki persentase gejala khas lebih tinggi. Gejala tidak khas pun mungkin ditemukan di pasien lansia. Immunosenescence dan fungsi imunoregulasi jenis kelamin tertentu dihipotesiskan memiliki peran penting dalam menyebabkan kematian lansia di studi ini.Kata Kunci: Profil Klinis, Lansia, Pasien Geriatri, COVID-19, Indonesia  ABSTRACTBackgroundOlder people contributed to 38.6% of death cases related to COVID-19 in Indonesia. Data regarding clinical profile of hospitalised elderly with COVID-19 in Indonesia were still lacking. Older people are at-risk population in the pandemic, whom we should pay attention to.MethodsThis single centre descriptive study utilised complete data of elderly inpatients with COVID-19 in Indonesia's national general hospital from April to late August 2020. The data consisted of clinical characteristics, symptoms, comorbidities, multimorbidity, and mortality outcome.ResultsAmong elderly patients (n=44), a majority of patients were aged 60-69 years (68%), were male (66%), and had no history of close contact with COVID-19 patient (86%). The most common symptoms were fever, cough and shortness of breath (classic symptoms of COVID-19), whereas the most common chronic diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and malignancy. Multimorbidity was only found in 14% of patients, all of whom remained alive following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The death rate among elderly inpatients with COVID-19 in this study was 23%, and male older adults contributed to 90% of death cases.ConclusionMale patients dominated both confirmed cases and death cases among elderly with COVID-19. Classic symptoms of COVID-19 were only found in about half of the study patients. Non-survivors had higher percentage of the classic symptoms of COVID-19 than survivors. Atypical COVID-19 presentations are possible in older adults. We postulated that immunosenescence and sex-specific immunoregulatory function play an important role in causing death in this study cohort. Keywords: Clinical Profile, Elderly, Geriatric Patient, COVID-19, Indonesia.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020114

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking causes inflammation of the lung epithelium by releasing cytokines and impairing mucociliary clearance. Some studies have linked smoking with severity of illness of COVID-19 whereas others have found no such association. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all adults hospitalised with COVID-19 from 9 March to 18 May 2020. RESULTS: 1173 patients met the study criteria. 837 patients never smoked whereas 336 patients were either current smokers or past smoker and were grouped together in smokers group. Patients in smokers group were more likely to be male and had higher incidence of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (19% vs 6%, p<0.001), HIV infection (11% vs 5%,p<0.001), cancer (11% vs 6%, p=0.005), congestive heart failure (15% vs 8%, p<0.001), coronary artery disease (15% vs 9%, p=0.3), chronic kidney disease (11% vs 8%, p=0.037) and end-stage renal disease (10% vs 6%, p=0.009) compared with non-smokers. Outcome analysis showed that smokers were more likely to develop critical illness requiring mechanical ventilation (47% vs 37% p=0.005). Univariate Cox model for survival analysis by smoking status showed that among smokers only current smokers had higher risk of death compared with never smokers (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.12, p<0.001). In the multivariate approach, Cox model for the survival, female sex, young age, low serum lactate dehydrogenase and systemic steroid use were associated with overall improved survival. CONCLUSION: In our large single-centre retrospective database of patients hospitalised with COVID-19, smoking was associated with development of critical illness and higher likelihood of death.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2138387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029494

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide since December 2019. This retrospective study determined the characteristics and prognostic factors of COVID-19 patients, focusing on inpatients who died or were discharged between 30 December 2019 and 29 February 2020 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Patients' medical histories, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, computed tomography (CT) findings, and clinical management were recorded. All 293 patients were divided into the nonsurviving (n = 116) and surviving (n = 177) groups. The median age was older in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group; most patients were older than 65 years in the nonsurviving group. The incidence rates of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and leukocytosis were significantly higher in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. More patients in the nonsurviving group had increased levels of nonspecific infection markers, abnormal liver and kidney function, cardiac injury, and blood coagulation abnormalities on admission. Immune and inflammatory responses were more severely disturbed in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. The incidence rates of complications during hospitalization were higher in the nonsurviving group than in the surviving group. Cox regression results also showed that older age, symptoms of dyspnea, comorbidities, and complications were all predictors of death. Close monitoring and timely treatment are needed for high-risk COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 260, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036610

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The pathogenesis and the complications of the disease are not fully elucidated, and increasing evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 causes a systemic inflammatory disease rather than a pulmonary disease. The management of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 dedicated units is advisable for segregation purpose as well as for infection control. In this article we present the standard operating procedures of our COVID-19 high dependency unit of the Policlinico Hospital, in Milan. Our high dependency unit is based on a multidisciplinary approach. We think that the multidisciplinary involvement of several figures can better identify treatable traits of COVID-19 disease, early identify patients who can quickly deteriorate, particularly patients with multiple comorbidities, and better manage complications related to off-label treatments. Although no generalizable to other hospitals and different healthcare settings, we think that our experience and our point of view can be helpful for countries and hospitals that are now starting to face the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 339, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024072

RESUMO

There were several studies about the psychiatric and mental health issues related to the severe adult respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, however, the association between SARS and the overall risk of psychiatric disorders and suicides has, as yet, to be studied in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to examine as to whether SARS is associated with the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide. A total of 285 patients with SARS and 2850 controls without SARS (1:10) matched for sex, age, insurance premium, comorbidities, residential regions, level of medical care, and index date were selected between February 25 and June 15, 2003 from the Inpatient Database Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 12-year follow-up, in which 79 in the SARS cohort and 340 in the control group developed psychiatric disorders or suicide (4047.41 vs. 1535.32 per 100,000 person-years). Fine and Gray's survival analysis revealed that the SARS cohort was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide, and the adjusted subdistribution HR (sHR) was 2.805 (95% CI: 2.182-3.605, p < 0.001) for psychiatric disorders and suicide. The SARS cohort was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder/acute stress disorder (PTSD/ASD), and suicide. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the SARS group was associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, PTSD/ASD, and suicide after the individuals with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and suicide were excluded within the first year, and with anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders, while those in the first five years were excluded. In conclusion, SARS was associated with the increased risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/psicologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21609, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has been widely used as an effective treatment for cervical degenerative disc diseases in recent years. However, the cost of this procedure is very high and may bring a great economic burden to patients and the health care system. It is reported that outpatient procedures can reduce nearly 30% of the costs associated with hospitalization compared with inpatient procedures. However, the safety profile surrounding outpatient CDR remains poorly resolved. This study aims to evaluate the current evidence on the safety of outpatient CDR METHODS:: Four English databases were searched. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed according to the PICOS principle. The titles and abstracts of the records will be screened by 2 authors independently. Records that meet the eligibility criteria will be screened for a second time by reading the full text. An extraction form will be established for data extraction. Risk of bias assessment will be performed by 2 authors independently using Cochrane risk of bias tool or Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Data synthesis will be conducted using Stata software. Heterogeneity among studies will be assessed using I test. The funnel plot, Egger regression test, and Begg rank correlation test will be used to examine the publication bias. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be published in a peer-review journal. CONCLUSION: This will be the first meta-analysis that compares the safety of outpatient CDR with inpatient CDR. Our study will help surgeons fully understand the complications and safety profile surrounding outpatient CDR. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER:: doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/3597Z.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Substituição Total de Disco/métodos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Viés de Publicação , Segurança , Substituição Total de Disco/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960917

RESUMO

Worldwide, testing capacity for SARS-CoV-2 is limited and bottlenecks in the scale up of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based testing exist. Our aim was to develop and evaluate a machine learning algorithm to diagnose COVID-19 in the inpatient setting. The algorithm was based on basic demographic and laboratory features to serve as a screening tool at hospitals where testing is scarce or unavailable. We used retrospectively collected data from the UCLA Health System in Los Angeles, California. We included all emergency room or inpatient cases receiving SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing who also had a set of ancillary laboratory features (n = 1,455) between 1 March 2020 and 24 May 2020. We tested seven machine learning models and used a combination of those models for the final diagnostic classification. In the test set (n = 392), our combined model had an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.87-0.96). The model achieved a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.85-0.98), specificity of 0.64 (95% CI 0.58-0.69). We found that our machine learning algorithm had excellent diagnostic metrics compared to SARS-CoV-2 PCR. This ensemble machine learning algorithm to diagnose COVID-19 has the potential to be used as a screening tool in hospital settings where PCR testing is scarce or unavailable.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pacientes Internados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Humanos , Los Angeles , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 252(1): 73-84, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908083

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed many people worldwide since December 2019, and Iran has been among the most affected countries. In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the prognostic factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients by analyzing 396 survived and 63 non-survived patients in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from January 30th until April 5th, 2020. As the results, the BMI > 35 (p = 0.0003), lung cancer (p = 0.007), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.002), Immunocompromised condition (p = 0.003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) were more frequently observed in the expired group. The history of statins use was more common in the discharged group (p = 0.002), while there was no significant difference in the drug history of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, and/or steroids, and in the past-year influenza vaccination. Multivariable regression demonstrated rising odds of in-hospital death related with age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.055, p = 0.002), levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 2.915, p < 0.001), creatinine (OR = 1.740, p = 0.023), lymphocyte count (OR = 0.999, p = 0.008), and magnesium level (OR = 0.032, p < 0.001) on admission. In conclusion, the patients with older age and higher BMI with lymphopenia, hypomagnesemia, elevated CRP and/or raised creatinine on admission are at higher risk of mortality due to the COVID-19 infection, which requires the physicians to use timely and strong therapeutic measures for such patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Prognóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e211, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900409

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. The current study aims to explore whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 13 February 2020 to 14 March 2020 in a hospital in Wuhan designated for treating COVID-19 were enrolled in the current study. These 131 patients had a median age of 64 years old (interquartile range: 56-71 years old). Furthermore, among these patients, 111 (91.8%) patients were discharged and 12 (9.2%) patients died in the hospital. The pooled analysis revealed that the NLR at admission was significantly elevated for non-survivors, when compared to survivors (P < 0.001). The NLR of 3.338 was associated with all-cause mortality, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 84.0% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.963, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911-1.000; P < 0.001). In view of the small number of deaths (n = 12) in the current study, NLR of 2.306 might have potential value for helping clinicians to identify patients with severe COVID-19, with a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 56.7% (AUC: 0.729, 95% CI 0.563-0.892; P = 0.063). The NLR was significantly associated with the development of death in patients with COVID-19. Hence, NLR is a useful biomarker to predict the all-cause mortality of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Plaquetas , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 519-524, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common, serious, underdiagnosed condition in medical and surgical inpatients with acute conditions. It is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Data of geriatric cohorts are largely limited to developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of delirium among general medical patients admitted to two hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with acute conditions admitted to a general medical inpatient service in secondary- and tertiary-level public hospitals in the Metro West area of Cape Town. Patients ≥18 years of age were recruited daily from all acute medical admissions. Patients were excluded if they were aphasic or their Glasgow coma scale was <8/15. Delirium was diagnosed using the validated confusion assessment method (CAM) tool and performed by trained neuropsychologists. Demographic data were collected by a clinical team and short- and long-term mortality data were obtained using linkage analysis of hospitalised patients and routinely collected provincial death certification records. RESULTS: The median age of inpatients was 51 (interquartile range 36 - 65) years, 29% were HIV-infected and the overall prevalence of delirium was 12.3%. Multivariate predictors of delirium included the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter (odds ratio (OR) 4.47; confidence interval (CI) 2.43 - 8.23), admission with a central nervous system disease (OR 4.34; CI 2.79 - 7.90), pre-existing cognitive impairment (OR 3.02; CI 1.22 - 7.43) and immobility (OR 1.88; CI 1.01 - 3.51). HIV infection was not associated with increased risk of delirium. Delirium was associated with an increased risk of inhospital (delirium v. no delirium: 29% v. 12%; p<0.01) and 12-month (30% v. 20%; p<0.01) mortality, as well as increased length of hospital stay (7 days v. 5 days; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of medical inpatients (relatively young and with a high HIV prevalence) 1 of 8 (12.3%) patients was delirious. Delirium was associated with adverse outcomes. Delirium risk factors in this young cohort were similar to those in geriatric cohorts in developed countries, and neither HIV nor opportunistic infections increased risk.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Adulto , Idoso , Delírio/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Pflege ; 33(5): 289-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996862

RESUMO

The COVID-19-pandemic in acute inpatient setting from nursing managers' and hygiene specialists' perspective - A qualitative study Abstract. Background: The COVID-19-pandemic is an unprecedented, exceptional situation and necessitates numerous adaptations of structures and processes in the acute inpatient setting. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how acute inpatient care was influenced by the pandemic and which implications may result for the future from nursing managers' and hygiene specialists' point of view. METHODS: Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with five nursing managers and three hygiene specialists in four German acute care hospitals. Interviews were interpreted by using content analysis. RESULTS: Interviewees described how everyday routines in their hospitals were adapted to the prioritized care for COVID-19 patients. Main challenges were uncertainty and anxiety among staff, relative scarcity of equipment and workforce resources and rapid implementation of new requirements for treatment capacities. This was addressed by targeted communication and information, large efforts to ensure resources and coordinated control of all processes by cross-department, interprofessional task forces. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations made to the structures and procedures of care delivery during the pandemic hold potential for future improvements of routine care, e. g. new workplace and skill mix models. To identify detailed practical implications, a renewed and deepened data analysis is needed at a later point of time, with a larger distance to the period of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Alemanha , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recursos Humanos
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 58-63, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present retrospective study investigated clinical correlates of the revolving door (RD) phenomenon in a population of subjects affected by Bipolar Disorders (BDs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Medical records of subjects with BDs admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit over a 5-year period of time were retrospectively reviewed and clinical data were extracted into an electronic dataset. "Revolving Door Subjects" (RDS) were defined as those who presented three or more "Revolving Door Hospitalizations" (RDH) during twelve months. Features of RDH were compared with non-RDH in order to identify characteristics associated with RD phenomenon and possible risk factors for readmission. To explore predictors of RDH, a stepwise backword logistic regression model was built, including the variables that were significantly associated with RDH in the bivariate analyses. RESULTS: In our sample of 176 subjects affected by BDs, 53 (19.9%) RDH were identified. In the RDH group, a higher prevalence of mixed episodes (p=0.029) and medical co-morbidities (p=0.004) was detected. Subjects with repeated hospitalizations were more often committed to psychiatric residential facilities at discharge (p=0.002). Treatment features related to RDH were represented by a higher prescription rate of atypical antipsychotics (p=0.030), benzodiazepines (p=0.001) and antidepressants (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that the early identification and treatment of medical comorbidities and specific clinical features of BDs may help reducing the RD phenomenon in this population of subjects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 194-199, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890389

RESUMO

G.B., 21-year-old patient of Albanian origin suffering from acute psychotic burning on schizotypal personality disorder induced by substance abuse, was admitted to the Psychiatric Service at Perugia' General Hospital, Italy. On admission, antipsychotic therapy was set up which had the role to reduced delusional and hallucinatory symptoms but the suspiciousness, the presence of magical thought and the closure towards surrounding world that characterize it, combined with the presence of intrusive images, consequently increased the anxiety experiences and negatively affects the establishment of a therapeutic relationship with the operators. During the hospitalization, daily support interviews were carried out: G.B. showed clear difficulty in expressing his own thought contents in presence of more than two operators emerged jointly with the tendency to project different emotional experiences based on the gender of the operator. Following these observations, with the aim to carrying out an intervention that could integrate a psychological approach to the pharmacological therapy in place, a specific personalized support setting was set up, consisting of a female and a male operator. This setting was structured coherently with the therapeutic goals to be achieved: creation of a therapeutic alliance, the integration of the patient's emotional experiences and containing the splitting through the transference analysis. By means of this setting, the patient has obtained a substantial improvement of the splitting framework allowing a better integration of his emotional experiences. At the end of the sessions, G.B. showed more confidence with the medical staff and showed himself to be more aware of his pathological and non-pathological mental states and consequently more adherent to taking drug therapy and to the continuation of post-discharge psychological therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Itália , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/terapia , Adulto Jovem
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