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1.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(2): 219-221, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597363

RESUMO

Spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas(SSEH)are rare. The causes of SSEH include hematologic disorders, anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, vascular malformations, neoplasms, trauma, or medical interventions, such as epidural catheterization or spinal surgery. However, the cause is usually unclear in most cases. We report a case of SSEH during chemotherapy with paclitaxel and ramucirumab for advanced gastric cancer. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of advanced gastric cancer. After 4 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy containing S-1 plus oxaliplatin, distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperative chemotherapy with paclitaxel and ramucirumab was initiated, with a diagnosis of ypStage Ⅲc(T4aN3bM0). She was later transported by ambulance to our hospital with symptoms of sudden onset posterior neck pain and weakness of the extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)of her cervical spine showed an epidural hematoma from C2 to C5. The symptoms improved gradually after admission, and the epidural hematoma decreased in size on MRI. Hemorrhagic events such as SSEH should be considered during treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors.


Assuntos
Hematoma Epidural Espinal , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): 118-131, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard chemotherapy remains inadequate in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Combining an agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody with chemotherapy induces T-cell-dependent tumour regression in mice and improves survival. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of combining APX005M (sotigalimab) with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with and without nivolumab, in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma to establish the recommended phase 2 dose. METHODS: This non-randomised, open-label, multicentre, four-cohort, phase 1b study was done at seven academic hospitals in the USA. Eligible patients were adults aged 18 years and older with untreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. All patients were treated with 1000 mg/m2 intravenous gemcitabine and 125 mg/m2 intravenous nab-paclitaxel. Patients received 0·1 mg/kg intravenous APX005M in cohorts B1 and C1 and 0·3 mg/kg in cohorts B2 and C2. In cohorts C1 and C2, patients also received 240 mg intravenous nivolumab. Primary endpoints comprised incidence of adverse events in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug, incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in all patients who had a DLT or received at least two doses of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and one dose of APX005M during cycle 1, and establishing the recommended phase 2 dose of intravenous APX005M. Objective response rate in the DLT-evaluable population was a key secondary endpoint. This trial (PRINCE, PICI0002) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03214250 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 22, 2017, and July 10, 2018, of 42 patients screened, 30 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of any study drug; 24 were DLT-evaluable with median follow-up 17·8 months (IQR 16·0-19·4; cohort B1 22·0 months [21·4-22·7], cohort B2 18·2 months [17·0-18·9], cohort C1 17·9 months [14·3-19·7], cohort C2 15·9 months [12·7-16·1]). Two DLTs, both febrile neutropenia, were observed, occurring in one patient each for cohorts B2 (grade 3) and C1 (grade 4). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were lymphocyte count decreased (20 [67%]; five in B1, seven in B2, four in C1, four in C2), anaemia (11 [37%]; two in B1, four in B2, four in C1, one in C2), and neutrophil count decreased (nine [30%]; three in B1, three in B2, one in C1, two in C2). 14 (47%) of 30 patients (four each in B1, B2, C1; two in C2) had a treatment-related serious adverse event. The most common serious adverse event was pyrexia (six [20%] of 30; one in B2, three in C1, two in C2). There were two chemotherapy-related deaths due to adverse events: one sepsis in B1 and one septic shock in C1. The recommended phase 2 dose of APX005M was 0·3 mg/kg. Responses were observed in 14 (58%) of 24 DLT-evaluable patients (four each in B1, C1, C2; two in B2). INTERPRETATION: APX005M and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with or without nivolumab, is tolerable in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and shows clinical activity. If confirmed in later phase trials, this treatment regimen could replace chemotherapy-only standard of care in this population. FUNDING: Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Cancer Research Institute, and Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111172, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360156

RESUMO

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic substance that is administered for treatment of an extensive spectrum of human malignancies. In spite of its potent short-term effects against tumor cells, resistance to paclitaxel occurs in a number of patients precluding its long-term application in these patients. Non-coding RNAs have been shown to influence response of cancer cells to this chemotherapeutic agent via different mechanisms. Mechanistically, these transcripts regulate expression of several genes particularly those being involved in the apoptotic processes. Lots of in vivo and in vitro assays have demonstrated the efficacy of oligonucleotide-mediated microRNAs (miRNA)/ long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) silencing in enhancement of response of cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, targeted therapies against non-coding RNAs have been suggested as applicable modalities for combatting resistance to this agent. In the present review, we provide a summary of studies which assessed the role of miRNAs and lncRNAs in conferring resistance to paclitaxel.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Portadores de Fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Edição de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/química , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 277-288, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase 3 trials, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST), and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) has not been reported. We describe RECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS in the ICON8 trial. METHODS: ICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial done across 117 hospitals in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Ireland. The trial included women aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy of more than 12 weeks, and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO; 1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell, or any poorly differentiated or grade 3 histological subtype, or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive intravenous carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6) and intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 by body surface area) on day 1 of every 21-day cycle (control group; group 1); intravenous carboplatin (AUC5 or AUC6) on day 1 and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 2); or intravenous dose-fractionated carboplatin (AUC2) and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 3). The maximum number of cycles of chemotherapy permitted was six. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method, and patients were stratified according to GCIG group, disease stage, and timing and outcome of cytoreductive surgery. Patients and clinicians were not masked to group allocation. The scheduling of surgery and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were determined by local multidisciplinary case review. In this post-hoc exploratory analysis of ICON8, progression-free survival was analysed using the landmark method and defined as the time interval between the date of pre-surgical planning radiological tumour assessment to the date of investigator-assessed clinical or radiological progression or death, whichever occurred first. This definition is different from the intention-to-treat primary progression-free survival analysis of ICON8, which defined progression-free survival as the time from randomisation to the date of first clinical or radiological progression or death, whichever occurred first. We also compared the extent of surgical cytoreduction with RECIST and GCIG CA125 responses. This post-hoc exploratory analysis includes only women recruited to ICON8 who were planned for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS and had RECIST and/or GCIG CA125-evaluable disease. ICON8 is closed for enrolment and follow-up, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01654146. FINDINGS: Between June 6, 2011, and Nov 28, 2014, 1566 women were enrolled in ICON8, of whom 779 (50%) were planned for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS. Median follow-up was 29·5 months (IQR 15·6-54·3) for the neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS population. Of 564 women who had RECIST-evaluable disease at trial entry, 348 (62%) had a complete or partial response. Of 727 women who were evaluable by GCIG CA125 criteria at the time of diagnosis, 610 (84%) had a CA125 response. Median progression-free survival was 14·4 months (95% CI 9·2-28·0; 297 events) for patients with a RECIST complete or partial response and 13·3 months (8·1-20·1; 171 events) for those with RECIST stable disease. Median progression-free survival for women with a GCIG CA125 response was 13·8 months (95% CI 8·8-23·4; 544 events) and 9·7 months (5·8-14·5; 111 events) for those without a GCIG CA125 response. Complete cytoreduction (R0) was achieved in 187 (56%) of 335 women with a RECIST complete or partial response and 73 (42%) of 172 women with RECIST stable disease. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 290 (50%) of 576 women with a GCIG CA125 response and 30 (30%) of 101 women without a GCIG CA125 response. INTERPRETATION: The RECIST-defined radiological response rate was lower than that frequently quoted to patients in the clinic. RECIST and GCIG CA125 responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer should not be used as individual predictive markers to stratify patients who are likely to benefit from DPS, but instead used in conjunction with the patient's clinical capacity to undergo cytoreductive surgery. A patient should not be denied surgery based solely on the lack of a RECIST or GCIG CA125 response. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, Health Research Board in Ireland, Irish Cancer Society, and Cancer Australia.


Assuntos
Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Austrália , Antígeno Ca-125 , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Proteínas de Membrana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Nova Zelândia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22814, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120804

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although the cancer incidence continues to rise, cancer mortality has declined over the past decade, in large part due to more efficacious chemotherapeutic regimens thus, the ability to use first-line chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of patients with cancer is crucial. Antineoplastic agents can potentially cause toxic and/or hypersensitivity reactions, that can have serious consequences. Anaphylaxis is a big pitfall in oncological patients; the most important aspect in diagnosing anaphylaxis is to precisely identify the offending agent to prevent future events. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is widely used as antitumor medication in the ovarian, breast, non-small-cell lung, and other cancers. Paclitaxel hypersensitivity reactions are frequently described in the literature, but fatalities are rarely reported. Due to the low solubility of paclitaxel, the compound requires dissolution in Cremophor EL, a derivative of castor oil. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 79-year-old man was affected by high-grade non-papillary urothelial carcinoma and underwent a radical cystectomy and prostatectomy with locoregional lymphadenectomy. DIAGNOSIS: Eight months later, relapse was detected, and penis amputation and left nephrostomy were performed. Multiple metastases to lymph nodes were detected. INTERVENTIONS: Palliative chemotherapy was started with Paclitaxel (110 mg) infused at a rate of 50 mL/h. Despite premedication with cetirizine dihydrochloride, dexamethasone, ondansetron, ranitidine, 20 min after Paclitaxel infusion starts, the patient developed general distress, followed by cardiac arrest. OUTCOMES: The mechanism of fatal paclitaxel-associated hypersensitivity reaction is uncertain and its solvent vehicle Cremophor EL may be involved. Several mechanisms have been postulated: an IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation induced by paclitaxel or Cremophor EL, a non-IgE-mediated idiosyncratic mast cell degranulation by paclitaxel or by Cremophor EL, and complement activation. Severe hypersensitivity reactions with fatal outcome are considered rare. LESSONS: The unpredictability and often dramatic reactions of Taxol cause substantial anxiety for doctors and caretakers. They also represent a significant logistic and financial burden on hospitals. Despite premedication, skin testing, and desensitization protocols administration of taxane-based, chemotherapy cannot be considered safe and severe to fatal hypersensitivity reactions cannot be prevented.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/fisiopatologia , Glicerol/efeitos adversos , Glicerol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Triptases/sangue , Neoplasias Urológicas/cirurgia
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1413-1422, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is terminal in most patients with locally advanced stage disease. We aimed to assess the antitumour activity and safety of neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy for resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm phase 2 trial done at 18 hospitals in Spain. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically documented treatment-naive American Joint Committee on Cancer-defined stage IIIA NSCLC that was deemed locally to be surgically resectable by a multidisciplinary clinical team, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received neoadjuvant treatment with intravenous paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under curve 6; 6 mg/mL per min) plus nivolumab (360 mg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for three cycles before surgical resection, followed by adjuvant intravenous nivolumab monotherapy for 1 year (240 mg every 2 weeks for 4 months, followed by 480 mg every 4 weeks for 8 months). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 24 months, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, and in the per-protocol population, which included all patients who had tumour resection and received at least one cycle of adjuvant treatment. Safety was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03081689, and is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. FINDINGS: Between April 26, 2017, and Aug 25, 2018, we screened 51 patients for eligibility, of whom 46 patients were enrolled and received neoadjuvant treatment. At the time of data cutoff (Jan 31, 2020), the median duration of follow-up was 24·0 months (IQR 21·4-28·1) and 35 of 41 patients who had tumour resection were progression free. At 24 months, progression-free survival was 77·1% (95% CI 59·9-87·7). 43 (93%) of 46 patients had treatment-related adverse events during neoadjuvant treatment, and 14 (30%) had treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse; however, none of the adverse events were associated with surgery delays or deaths. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were increased lipase (three [7%]) and febrile neutropenia (three [7%]). INTERPRETATION: Our results support the addition of neoadjuvant nivolumab to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy could change the perception of locally advanced lung cancer as a potentially lethal disease to one that is curable. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Carboplatina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5743-5750, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Angiosarcoma of primary gynecologic origin is an extremely rare and highly malignant tumor of endothelial origin with a 5-year survival rate of less than 35%. To date, only 61 cases have been described in the literature. The aim of this study was to present more cases and discuss potential therapy options. CASE REPORT: The following case series presents three cases of gynecologic angiosarcomas that were under therapy at the Charité - University medicine of Berlin from June 2014 to February 2018. RESULTS: Two of the cases deal with primary angiosarcomas of the uterus whereas the third case was diagnosed after the suspicion of a recurrence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri. In case one a 75-year old patient with initial postmenopausal bleeding and a tumor mass of the uterus is described. After surgery a hemangiosarcoma of the uterus was confirmed. After two months the patient presented with a presacral peritoneal sarcomatosis. Chemotherapy of weekly paclitaxel was administered. Case two deals with a patient presenting with abdominal pain. A uterine sarcoma with infiltration of the parametry and angiosarcomatosis peritonei was diagnosed during an emergency laparotomy because of spontaneous peritoneal bleeding. Moreover, osseous metastasis was found. The patient underwent weekly paclitaxel. Due to tumor progression, chemotherapy was changed to doxorubicin and olaratumab and radiotherapy was induced. The patient died 33 months after initial diagnosis. Case three describes a 34-year old patient with suspected local recurrence of cervical cancer with infiltration of the bladder. During TURB an angiosarcoma was found. Following laparoscopy revealed peritoneal metastasis. The patient underwent weekly paclitaxel followed by a paclitaxel and pazopanib maintainance therapy which showed a regression. Due to progression afterwards, chemotherapy was changed to gemcitabine and docetaxel and gemcitabine monotherapy. The patient died 33 months after initial diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Even though there is no evidence on standard treatment of this extremely rare and aggressive tumor entity of the female genital tract the patients showed the longest stability of disease during chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Hemangiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparotomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos
10.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(10): 1661-1667, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921564

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using the Rotarex catheter combined with drug-coated balloon (DCB) in treatment of femoropopliteal artery occlusive disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2016 and February 2018, 81 patients with acute or subacute femoropopliteal artery occlusions were treated with the Rotarex catheter combined with DCB. Lesions were classified according to the onset of symptoms as acutely (< 14 d) or subacutely (14 d to 3 mo) occluded. The mean lesion length was 12.1 cm ± 6.7. The primary endpoint was target lesion patency at 1 year as evaluated by duplex ultrasound (peak systolic velocity ratio < 2.4) and freedom from clinically indicated target lesion revascularization. Amputation rate, major adverse events, and ankle-brachial index at 12 months were evaluated. RESULTS: Technical success rate was 100% (n = 81). Bailout stents were necessary in 14 patients owing to residual stenosis or flow-limiting dissection. Additional thrombolysis was applied in 10 interventions. No major adverse events occurred during hospital stay. There were 9 restenosis cases during the 12-month follow-up period. Primary patency rate was 87.3% (62/71), and freedom from target lesion revascularization rate was 90.1% (64/71). Ankle-brachial index significantly increased from 0.46 ± 0.15 to 0.77 ± 0.14 during follow-up. The amputation rate was 1.4% at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: These initial data from 2 centers suggest that the combination of the Rotarex catheter and DCB may be safe and effective for treatment of acute or subacute thrombotic femoropopliteal occlusion with superior immediate and midterm results achieved.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Artéria Femoral , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Artéria Poplítea , Trombectomia , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Pequim , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Poplítea/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941465

RESUMO

Paclitaxel is a representative anticancer drug that induces chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a common side effect that limits many anticancer chemotherapies. Although PINK1, a key mediator of mitochondrial quality control, has been shown to protect neuronal cells from various toxic treatments, the role of PINK1 in CIPN has not been investigated. Here, we examined the effect of PINK1 expression on CIPN using a recently established paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy model in Drosophila larvae. We found that the class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) sensory neuron-specific expression of PINK1 significantly ameliorated the paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of PINK1 resulted in an increase in thermal hypersensitivity, suggesting a critical role for PINK1 in sensory neuron-mediated thermal nociceptive sensitivity. Interestingly, analysis of the C4da neuron morphology suggests that PINK1 expression alleviates paclitaxel-induced thermal hypersensitivity by means other than preventing alterations in sensory dendrites in C4da neurons. We found that paclitaxel induces mitochondrial dysfunction in C4da neurons and that PINK1 expression suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in mitophagy in C4da neurons. These results suggest that PINK1 mitigates paclitaxel-induced sensory dendrite alterations and restores mitochondrial homeostasis in C4da neurons and that improvement in mitochondrial quality control could be a promising strategy for the treatment of CIPN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperestesia/induzido quimicamente , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hiperalgesia/genética , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Hiperestesia/genética , Hiperestesia/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 83, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the use of nab-paclitaxel in older patients with breast cancer. A weekly schedule is recommended, but there is a paucity of evidence regarding the optimal dose. We evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of weekly nab-paclitaxel, with a specific focus on their corresponding impact on patient function, in order to address the lack of data specifically relating to the older population. METHODS: EFFECT is an open-label, phase II trial wherein 160 women with advanced breast cancer aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled from 15 institutions within Italy. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 (arm A) or 125 mg/m2 (arm B) on days 1, 8, and 15 on a 28-day cycle, as first-line treatment for advanced disease. The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), wherein an event was defined as disease progression (PD), functional decline (FD), or death. In each arm, the null hypothesis that the median EFS would be ≤ 7 months was tested against a one-sided alternative according to the Brookmeyer Crowley test. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 32.6 months, 140 events were observed in 158 evaluable patients. Median EFS was 8.2 months (90% CI, 5.9-8.9; p = 0.188) in arm A vs 8.3 months (90% CI, 6.2-9.7, p = 0.078) in arm B. Progression-free survival, overall survival, and response rates were similar in both groups. A higher percentage of dose reductions and discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs) was noted in arm B. The most frequently reported non-haematological AEs were fatigue (grade [G] 2-3 toxicity occurrence in arm A vs B, 43% and 51%, respectively) and peripheral neuropathy (G2-3 arm A vs B, 19% and 38%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pre-specified outcomes were similar in both treatment arms. However, 100 mg/m2 was significantly better tolerated with fewer neurotoxicity-related events, representing a more feasible dose to be recommended for older patients with advanced disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT, 2012-002707-18 . Registered on June 4, 2012. NIH ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02783222 . Retrospectively registered on May 26, 2016.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 733-742, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the current recommended treatment for dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas, yet long-term outcomes of this treatment are poor. Drug-coated balloons delivering the antirestenotic agent paclitaxel may improve outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective, single-blinded, 1:1 randomized trial, we enrolled 330 participants at 29 international sites. Patients with new or restenotic lesions in native upper-extremity arteriovenous fistulas were eligible for participation. After successful high-pressure percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, participants were randomly assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon or a standard balloon. The primary effectiveness end point was target-lesion primary patency, defined as freedom from clinically driven target-lesion revascularization or access-circuit thrombosis during the 6 months after the index procedure. The primary safety end point, serious adverse events involving the arteriovenous access circuit within 30 days, was assessed in a noninferiority analysis (margin of noninferiority, 7.5 percentage points). The primary analyses included all participants with available end-point data. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of missing data. RESULTS: A total of 330 participants underwent randomization; 170 were assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon, and 160 were assigned to receive treatment with a standard balloon. During the 6 months after the index procedure, target-lesion primary patency was maintained more often in participants who had been treated with a drug-coated balloon than in those who had been treated with a standard balloon (82.2% [125 of 152] vs. 59.5% [88 of 148]; difference in risk, 22.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 32.8; P<0.001). Drug-coated balloons were noninferior to standard balloons with respect to the primary safety end point (4.2% [7 of 166] and 4.4% [7 of 158], respectively; difference in risk, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.5 to 5.0; P = 0.002 for noninferiority). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the results of the primary analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Drug-coated balloon angioplasty was superior to standard angioplasty for the treatment of stenotic lesions in dysfunctional hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas during the 6 months after the procedure and was noninferior with respect to access circuit-related serious adverse events within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic; IN.PACT AV Access Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03041467.).


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular/efeitos adversos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Constrição Patológica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea
15.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 549-558, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular revascularisation has become a standard approach for below knee lesions and paclitaxel coated devices have been widely used in patients with chronic limb threatening ischaemia. A recent meta-analysis reported higher mortality in paclitaxel coated devices compared with uncoated devices in femoropopliteal lesions. This study aimed to determine long term outcomes in below the knee interventions using paclitaxel coated devices in routine vascular care using a large and contemporary cohort. METHODS: A large cohort was created using all inclusive health insurance claims data of patients covered by the second largest insurance fund in Germany. The cohort included patients with index revascularisation of arteries below the knee performed from 1 January 2010, to 31 December 2018. Only patients with first paclitaxel coated device exposure were included. The study cohort was stratified into balloon vs. stent treatment and patients with paclitaxel coated devices were matched with uncoated devices using propensity score. Outcomes were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression. RESULTS: There were 14 738 patients (mean age 77.6 years, 43.6% female) and 6 568 matched patients included in the study. Increasing use of paclitaxel coated devices was observed during the study period (6% in 2010 vs. 31% in 2018, p < .001), and a total of 2 611 (39.8%) deaths occurred within five years of follow up. In the propensity score matched Cox model, a paclitaxel related reduction of five year mortality (hazards ratio, HR 0.84, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.78-0.91), amputation or death (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), and cardiovascular event or death (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.92) were observed. CONCLUSION: In this propensity score matched cohort, reduced long term all cause mortality, reduced rates of amputation or death and cardiovascular event or death were observed at five years after the use of paclitaxel coated devices when compared with uncoated devices for the treatment of chronic limb threatening ischaemia.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Stents Farmacológicos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Isquemia/terapia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609449

RESUMO

Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an uncommon skin condition that can be inherited or may occur sporadically with multiple red-brown, thin plaques in a photodistribution. The condition more often affects middle-aged women and is often recalcitrant to therapy. In rare literature reports, systemic medications can trigger exacerbation or promote inflammation in pre-existing lesions of DSAP. We present a novel case of chemotherapy-associated DSAP inflammation in a 66-year-old woman after triple therapy with durvalumab (PD-L1 inhibitor), olaparib (PARP inhibitor) and paclitaxel, showing similarities to primary lichen planus-like eruption from immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Erupções Liquenoides/diagnóstico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Poroceratose/patologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erupção por Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Poroceratose/complicações , Pele/patologia
18.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(10): 1793-1799, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with modified dose reduction criteria by which the doses were manipulated earlier. METHODS: Gastric cancer patients who developed progression during the fluoropyrimidine-containing first-line chemotherapy were assigned to receive nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m2) by triweekly administration. Dose reduction was regulated according to predefined toxicity criteria which included neutropenia less than 1000/mm3 and/or peripheral sensory neuropathy of grade 2 or more. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were enrolled, 47 of whom were eligible for efficacy analyses. The median number of treatment cycles and relative dose intensity given per patient was four (range 1-25), and 90% (range 60-100). Of total administration throughout the trial of 280 cycles, dose reduction was required in 50 cycles. The median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.4) that met the primary endpoint. The median overall survival was 9.0 months (95% confidence interval 6.8-11.8), overall response rate was 16% (95% confidence interval 2-30), and disease control rate was 72% (95% confidence interval 54-90). The median time to treatment failure was 3.5 months (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.4). Adverse events of grade 3 or worse included neutropenia in 49%, and peripheral sensory neuropathy in 11%. Febrile neutropenia occurred only in one patient (2%). CONCLUSION: The modified dose reduction criteria for triweekly administration of nab-paclitaxel resulted in decreased incidence of severe peripheral sensory neuropathy without decline in efficacy.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Falha de Tratamento
19.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(5): 693-705, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583749

RESUMO

Purpose: To report the 36-month outcomes from the prospective, multicenter, single-arm IN.PACT Global Study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01609296) evaluating the performance of the IN.PACT Admiral drug-coated balloon (DCB) in real-world patients with femoropopliteal occlusive disease. Materials and Methods: The IN.PACT Global Study was conducted at 64 international sites and enrolled 1535 patients with complex lesions, which included bilateral disease, multiple lesions, de novo in-stent restenosis, long lesions, and chronic total occlusions. The predefined full clinical cohort included 1406 patients (mean age 68.6 years; 67.8% men) with claudication or rest pain treated with the study DCB. Mean lesion length was 12.09±9.54 cm; 18.0% had in-stent restenosis, 35.5% were totally occluded, and 68.7% were calcified. Freedom from clinically-driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) was evaluated through 36 months. The safety composite endpoint was freedom from device- and procedure-related death through 30 days and freedom from major target limb amputation and clinically-driven target vessel revascularization within 36 months. All safety and revascularization events were reviewed by an independent clinical events committee. Results: The Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months was 76.9%. The composite safety endpoint was achieved in 75.6% of patients. The 36-month all-cause mortality rate was 11.6%, and the major target limb amputation rate was 1.0%. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months was significantly lower in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) compared with claudicants (67.6% vs 78.0%; p=0.003). Lesions affecting both the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and popliteal artery had lower Kaplan-Meier freedom from CD-TLR through 36 months (69.2%) than either isolated SFA (79.7%) or popliteal artery lesions (76.5%; log- rank p<0.001). Predictors of CD-TLR through 36 months included increased lesion length, reference vessel diameter ≤4.5 mm, in-stent restenosis, bilateral disease, CLTI, and hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: DCB angioplasty with the IN.PACT Admiral DCB for femoropopliteal disease in a diverse and complex real-world population is associated with sustained clinical efficacy and low rates of reinterventions at 3 years after the initial procedure.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Artéria Femoral , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Isquemia/terapia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Artéria Poplítea , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Salvamento de Membro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Poplítea/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
20.
Life Sci ; 256: 117984, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593707

RESUMO

Dealing with cancer is of importance due to enhanced incidence rate of this life-threatening disorder. Chemotherapy is an ideal candidate in overcoming and eradication of cancer. To date, various chemotherapeutic agents have been applied in cancer therapy and paclitaxel (PTX) is one of them. PTX is a key member of taxane family with potential anti-tumor activity against different cancers. Notably, PTX has demonstrated excellent proficiency in elimination of cancer in clinical trials. This chemotherapeutic agent is isolated from Taxus brevifolia, and is a tricyclic diterpenoid. However, resistance of cancer cells into PTX chemotherapy has endangered its efficacy. Besides, administration of PTX is associated with a number of side effects such as neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and so on, demanding novel strategies in obviating PTX issues. Curcumin is a pharmacological compound with diverse therapeutic effects including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and so on. In the current review, we demonstrate that curcumin, a naturally occurring nutraceutical compound is able to enhance anti-tumor activity of PTX against different cancers. Besides, curcumin administration reduces adverse effects of PTX due to its excellent pharmacological activities. These topics are discussed with an emphasis on molecular pathways to provide direction for further studies in revealing other signaling networks.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Curcumina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos
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