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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(5): 89-98, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978770

RESUMO

Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high incidence rate of delirium, which leads to poor prognoses. This case study describes a nursing experience of implementing ABCDEF bundle care to reduce delirium in a patient with TBI. The period of nursing care was April 23 to April 30, 2019. A comprehensive assessment of this patient's physical, psychological, familial, social, and spiritual dimensions was conducted via consultation, observation, and physical assessment. The assessment results showed that the patient suffered from acute delirium and cerebral perfusion impairment. In addition, the results showed that the patient's wife suffered from caregiver role strain that was further exacerbated by family difficulties. Multiple, individualized patient-tailored nursing interventions were developed under ABCDEF bundle care to alleviate delirium during the period of nursing care. These interventions included spontaneous awakening trials, spontaneous breathing trials, coordination, delirium assessment, early mobilization, and family engagement. Furthermore, family involvement and interprofessional cooperation with social workers were conducted concurrently to alleviate economic and care burdens and mitigate caregiver role strain in the patient's wife. It is hoped that this nursing care experience helps promote increased attention towards delirium, helps improve early detection of delirium in patients with TBI, and promotes the provision of individualized bundle care that draws on different perspectives in order to achieve holistic health care.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/enfermagem , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/enfermagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Humanos
2.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a leading cause of health care-associated infection. Catheter insertion bundles (IBs) and maintenance bundles (MBs) have been developed to prevent CAUTIs but have not been extensively validated for use in pediatric populations. We report the CAUTI prevention efforts of a large network of children's hospitals. METHODS: Children's hospitals joined the Children's Hospitals' Solutions for Patient Safety engagement network from 2011 to 2017, using an open start time engagement approach, and elected to participate in CAUTI prevention efforts, with 26 submitting data initially and 128 at the end. CAUTI prevention recommendations were first released in May 2012, and IBs and MBs were released in May 2014. Hospitals reported on CAUTIs, patient-days, and urinary catheter-line days and tracked reliability to each bundle. For the network, run charts or control charts were used to plot CAUTI rates, urinary catheter use, and reliability to each bundle component. RESULTS: After the introduction of the pediatric CAUTI IBs and MBs, CAUTI rates across the network decreased 61.6%, from 2.55 to 0.98 infections per 1000 catheter-line days. Centerline shifts occurred both before and after the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CAUTI definition change. Urinary catheter use rates did not decline during the intervention period. Network reliability to the IBs and MBs increased to 95.4% and 86.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IBs and MBs aimed at preventing CAUTIs were introduced across a large network of children's hospitals. Across the network, the rate of urinary tract infections among hospitalized children with indwelling urinary catheters decreased 61.6%.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateteres de Demora/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the use of Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to establish if, and in what ways, the AMBER care bundle can be successfully normalised into acute hospital practice, and to identify necessary modifications to optimise its implementation. METHOD: Multi-method process evaluation embedded within a mixed-method feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial in two district general hospitals in England. Data were collected using (i) focus groups with health professionals (HPs), (ii) semi-structured interviews with patients and/or carers, (iii) non-participant observations of multi-disciplinary team meetings and (iv) patient clinical note review. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics, with interpretation guided by NPT components (coherence; cognitive participation; collective action; reflexive monitoring). Data triangulated across sources. RESULTS: Two focus groups (26 HPs), nine non-participant observations, 12 interviews (two patients, 10 relatives), 29 clinical note reviews were conducted. While coherence was evident, with HPs recognising the value of the AMBER care bundle, cognitive participation and collective action presented challenges. Specifically: (1) HPs were unable and unwilling to operationalise the concept of 'risk of dying' intervention eligibility criteria (2) integration relied on a 'champion' to drive participation and ensure sustainability; and (3) differing skills and confidence led to variable engagement with difficult conversations with patients and families about, for example, nearness to end of life. Opportunities for reflexive monitoring were not routinely embedded within the intervention. Reflections on the use of the AMBER care bundle from HPs and patients and families, including recommended modifications became evident through this NPT-driven analysis. CONCLUSION: To be successfully normalised, new clinical practices, such as the AMBER care bundle, must be studied within the wider context in which they operate. NPT can be used to the aid identification of practical strategies to assist in normalisation of complex interventions where the focus of care is on clinical uncertainty in acute hospital settings.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Inglaterra , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1076-1079, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970557

RESUMO

The current global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has magnified the risk to healthcare providers when inititiating airway management, and safe tracheal intubation has become of paramount importance. Mitigation of risk to frontline providers requires airway management to be an orchestrated exercise based on training and purposeful simulation. Role allocation and closed-loop communication form the foundation of this exercise. We describe a methodical, 10-step approach from decision-making and meticulous drug and equipment choices to donning of personal protective equipment, and procedural concerns. This bundled approach will help reduce unplanned actions, which in turn may reduce the risk of aerosol transmission during airway management in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Aerossóis , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Pandemias , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/instrumentação , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
5.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 312, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) created a new reimbursement model "Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI)" which reimburses providers a predetermined payment in advance to cover all possible services rendered within a certain time window. Chordoma and Chondrosarcoma are locally aggressive malignant primary bony tumors. Treatment includes surgical resection and radiotherapy with substantial risk for recurrence which necessitates monitoring and further treatment. We assessed the feasibility of the BPCI model in these neurosurgical diseases. METHODS: We selected patients with chordoma/chondrosarcoma from inpatient admission table using the International Classification of Disease, 9th (ICD-9), and 10th (ICD-10) revision codes. We collected the patients' demographics and insurance type at the index hospitalization. We recorded the following outcomes length of stay, total payment, discharge disposition, and complications for the index hospitalization. For post-discharge, we collected the 30 days and 3/6/12 months inpatient admission, outpatient service, and medication refills. Continuous variables were summarized by means with standard deviations, median with interquartile and full ranges (minimum-maximum); Continuous outcomes were compared by nonparametric Wilcoxson rank-sum test. All tests were 2-sided with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical data analysis was performed in SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC). RESULTS: The population size was 2041 patients which included 1412 patients with cranial (group1), 343 patients with a mobile spine (group 2), and 286 patients with sacrococcygeal (group 3) chordoma and chondrosarcoma. For index hospitalization, the median length of stay (days) was 4, 6, and 7 for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P<.001). The mean payments were ($58,130), ($84,854), and ($82,440), for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P=.02). The complication rates were 30%, 35%, and 43% for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P<.001). Twelve months post-discharge, the hospital readmission rates were 44%, 53%, and 65% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). The median payments for this period were ($72,294), ($76,827), and ($101,474), for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P <.001). CONCLUSION: The management of craniospinal chordoma and chondrosarcoma is costly and may extend over a prolonged period. The success of BPCI requires a joint effort between insurers and hospitals. Also, it should consider patients' comorbidities, the complexity of the disease. Finally, the adoptionof quality improvement programs by hospitals can help with cost reduction.


Assuntos
Condrossarcoma/terapia , Cordoma/terapia , Medicare/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Condrossarcoma/economia , Cordoma/economia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade/economia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(8): 1302-1307.e1, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess and quantify the financial effect of unbundling newly unbundled moderate sedation codes across major payors at an academic radiology practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Billing and reimbursement data for 23 months of unbundled moderate sedation codes were analyzed for reimbursement rates and trends. This included 10,481 and 28,189 units billed and $443,257 and $226,444 total receipts for codes 99152 (initial 15 minutes of moderate sedation) and 99153 (each subsequent 15 minute increment of moderate sedation), respectively. Five index procedures-(i) central venous port placement, (ii) endovascular tumor embolization, (iii) tunneled central venous catheter placement, (iv) percutaneous gastrostomy placement, and (v) percutaneous nephrostomy placement-were identified, and moderate sedation reimbursements for Medicare and the dominant private payor were calculated and compared to pre-bundled reimbursements. Revenue variation models across different patient insurance mixes were then created using averages from 4 common practice settings among radiologists (independent practices, all hospitals, safety-net hospitals, and non-safety-net hospitals). RESULTS: Departmental reimbursement for unbundled moderate sedation in FY2018 and FY2019 totaled $669,701.34, with high per-unit variability across payors, especially for code 99153. Across the 5 index procedures, moderate sedation reimbursement decreased 1.3% after unbundling and accounted for 3.9% of procedural revenue from Medicare and increased 11.9% and accounted for 5.5% of procedural revenue from the dominant private payor. Between different patient insurance mix models, estimated reimbursement from moderate sedation varied by as much as 29.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Departmental reimbursement from billing the new unbundled moderate sedation codes was sizable and heterogeneous, highlighting the need for consistent and accurate reporting of moderate sedation. Total collections vary by case mix, patient insurance mix, and negotiated reimbursement rates.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Radiografia Intervencionista/economia , Terminologia como Assunto , Sedação Consciente/classificação , Sedação Consciente/tendências , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/tendências , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Medicare/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/classificação , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Prática Privada/economia , Radiografia Intervencionista/classificação , Radiografia Intervencionista/tendências , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/economia , Estados Unidos
7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(4): 785-789, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the volume of and payments for dialysis arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft maintenance procedures among Medicare beneficiaries from 2010 to 2018 and analyze trends by physician specialty and practice setting after the introduction of bundled Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes in 2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Claims from the Medicare Part B Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master File for the years 2010 through 2018 were extracted by use of the CPT codes for arteriovenous fistula and arteriovenous graft maintenance procedures. Total volumes, payment amounts (professional component), and trends were analyzed by physician specialty and practice setting. RESULTS. From 2010 to 2018, the volume of dialysis circuit maintenance procedures increased 25%, from 308,140 to 385,440 procedures. This increase was driven by increased volumes among nephrologists (30.0%) and surgeons (30.5%) with only a modest increase for interventional radiologists (1.5%). Total physician payments increased 20%, from $333.8 million to $399.5 million. After the introduction of bundled CPT codes in 2017, per-procedure physician payment decreased from $1073 in 2016 to $1025 in 2017 (4.5%). The true decrease in per-procedure payment was underestimated owing to inclusion of higher-cost stenting and embolization procedures in the dialysis-specific codes beginning in 2017. CONCLUSION. The volume of dialysis access maintenance procedures and total physician payments increased from 2010 to 2018 in keeping with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative. Introduction of bundled CPT codes in 2017, designed to reduce redundant payments, correlated with a decrease in average per-procedure physician payment.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/economia , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Medicare Part B/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Diálise Renal/economia , Current Procedural Terminology , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Nefrologia , Radiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 33(4): 274-277, ago. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192950

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Changes in Public Health recommendations may have changed the number of emergency visits and COVID-19 diagnosed cases in an Emergency Department in Madrid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective case series study included all consecutive patients in a tertiary and urban ED in Madrid from 1st to 31st March. The sample was divided: NonCOVID-19, Non-investigated COVID-19, Possible COVID-19, Probable COVID-19, Confirmed COVID-19. Differences between public health periods were tested by ANOVA for each cohort, and by ANCOVA including the number of PCR tests (%) as covariate. RESULTS: A total of 7,163 (4,071 Non-COVID-19, 563 Non-investigated COVID-19, 870 Possible, 648 Probable and 1,011 Confirmed COVID-19) cases were included. Public Health measurements applied during each period showed a clear effect on the case proportion for the five cohorts. CONCLUSION: The variability of case definitions and diagnostic test criteria may have impact on the number of emergency visits and COVID-19 diagnosed cases in Emergency Department


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los cambios en las recomendaciones de Salud Pública pueden haber modificado la cantidad de visitas y los casos diagnosticados por COVID-19 en un servicio de urgencias de Madrid. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo de series de casos que incluyó a todos los pacientes atendidos de manera consecutiva en un servicio de urgencias terciario y urbano en Madrid, del 1 al 31 de marzo. La muestra se dividió: no COVID-19, COVID-19 no investigado, COVID-19 posible, COVID-19 probable, COVID-19 confirmado. Las diferencias entre los diferentes periodos establecidos por Salud Pública se evaluaron por el test de ANOVA para cada cohorte, incluyendo el número porcentual de test de PCR como covariable. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un total de 7.163 casos (4.071 no COVID-19, 563 COVID-19 no investigados, 870 posibles, 648 probables y 1.011 confirmados COVID-19). Las medidas de Salud Pública aplicadas durante cada período mostraron un claro efecto en la proporción de casos para las cinco cohortes. CONCLUSIÓN: La variabilidad de las definiciones de casos y los criterios de las pruebas de diagnóstico pueden tener un impacto en la cantidad de visitas a urgencias y en los casos diagnosticados de COVID-19 en el servicio de Urgencias


Assuntos
Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 603, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is divided in two distinct groups, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and non-ventilator-associated HAP (nvHAP). Although nvHAP occurs more frequently than VAP and results in similar mortality and costs, prevention guidelines and prevention focus almost exclusively on VAP. Scientific evidence about nvHAP prevention and its implementation is scarce. Therefore, we designed a mixed-methods hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation study to investigate both the effectiveness and implementation of a newly developed nvHAP prevention bundle. METHODS: This single-centre project at the 950-bed University Hospital Zurich (UHZ) will engage the wards of nine departments with substantial nvHAP rates. The nvHAP bundle consists of five primary prevention measures: 1) oral care, 2) prevention of dysphagia-related aspiration, 3) mobilization, 4) stopping unnecessary proton pump inhibitors, and, 5) respiratory therapy. Implementation includes the engagement of department-level implementation teams, who sustain the 'core' intervention components of education, training, and environmental restructuring and tailor the implementation strategy to local needs. Both effectiveness and implementation outcomes will be assessed using mixed-methods. As a primary outcome, nvHAP incidence rates will be analysed by Poisson regression models to compare incidence rates before, during, and after the implementation phases (on the hospital and department level). Additionally, the association between process indicators and nvHAP incidence rates will be analysed using longitudinal Poisson regression models. A longitudinal, qualitative study and formative evaluation based on interviews, focus groups, and observations identifies supporting or hindering factors for implementation success in participating departments dynamically over time. This accumulating implementation experience will be constantly fed back to the implementation teams and thus, represents an active implementation element. DISCUSSION: This comprehensive hybrid mixed-methods study is designed to both, measure the effectiveness of a new nvHAP prevention bundle and multifaceted implementation strategy, while also providing insights into how and why it worked or failed. The results of this study may contribute substantially to advancing knowledge and patient safety in the area of a rediscovered healthcare-associated infection - nvHAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03361085 . Registered December 2017.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pneumonia Associada a Assistência à Saúde/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(4): 98-105, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: Poor sleep quality during hospitalization may lead to post-hospital symptoms and increase readmission rates and mortality. Patients in our intensive care unit (ICU) reported low mean scores on the Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ) during their third and fifth days of hospitalization (49.7 mm and 51.7 mm, respectively). Therefore, a project to improve sleep quality in the ICU was established. PURPOSE: To increase the mean RCSQ score from 51.7 mm to 76.0 mm on the fifth day. The fifth day timeframe was chosen because of the disease conditions of the patients and related clinical-medical factors. RESOLUTIONS: The project team proposed an evidence-based, sleep care bundle that included non-medication pain control, environmental regulation, improvement of the care process, and individualized sleep care. RESULTS: After implementing the bundled intervention, the mean RCSQ score of patients in our ICU increased from 49.7 mm to 55.9 mm on the third day and from 51.7 mm to 80.9 mm on the fifth day. CONCLUSIONS: This application of a sleep care bundle effectively improved the factors affecting sleep disturbance and improved quality of sleep in the patients in our intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/enfermagem , Sono , Humanos , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 35(5): 792-799, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786117

RESUMO

Worldwide, as of July 2020, >13.2 million people have been infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from mild illness to critical illness in 5% of cases. The population infected with SARS-CoV-2 requiring an intensive care unit admission often requires nutrition therapy as part of supportive care. Although the various societal guidelines for critical care nutrition meet most needs for the patient with COVID-19, numerous factors, which impact the application of those guideline recommendations, need to be considered. Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious, several key principles should be considered when caring for all patients with COVID-19 to ensure the safety of all healthcare personnel involved. Management strategies should cluster care, making all attempts to bundle patient care to limit exposure. Healthcare providers should be protected, and the spread of SARS-CoV-2 should be limited by minimizing procedures and other interventions that lead to aerosolization, avoiding droplet exposure through hand hygiene and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE should be preserved by decreasing the number of individuals providing direct patient care and by limiting the number of patient interactions. Enteral nutrition (EN) is tolerated by the majority of patients with COVID-19, but a relatively low threshold for conversion to parenteral nutrition should be maintained if increased exposure to the virus is required to continue EN. This article offers relevant and practical recommendations on how to optimize nutrition therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/normas , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Pandemias
12.
Med Care ; 58(10): 895-902, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of medical conditions in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative did not show reductions in Medicare payments for the majority of conditions, but this could mask heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether earlier enrollment and/or longer participation in BPCI were associated with performance. DESIGN: We divided BPCI hospitals into wave 1 (joined 10/1/13, 1/1/14, or 4/1/14), wave 2 (joined 7/1/14, 10/1/14, 1/1/15, or 4/1/15), and wave 3 (joined 7/1/15, 10/1/15, or 1/1/16) and compared changes in Medicare payments for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia, sepsis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between BPCI and matched controls in 6-month increments. SUBJECTS: US hospitals. MEASURES: Medicare payments. RESULTS: There were 120 hospital-condition pairs in wave 1, 264 in wave 2, and 300 in wave 3. Wave 1 hospitals had similar savings to controls early in the program (0-6 mo difference in differences -$10, P=0.976; 6-12 mo +$295, P=0.441; 12-18 mo -$540, P=0.218; 18-24 mo -$485, P=0.259) but had greater savings than controls at 24-30 months (difference in differences -$663, P=0.035). Wave 2 (0-6 mo +$193, P=0.524; 6-12 mo -$183, P=0.489; 12-18 mo -$162, P=0.618) and wave 3 hospitals (0-6 mo +$79, P=0.753; 6-12 mo -$32, P=0.876) did not achieve significant savings at any time interval. There were no differential changes in patient outcomes over time. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals that joined BPCI earliest began to achieve savings at roughly 2 years of participation. These findings have implications for this and other alternative payment models.


Assuntos
Economia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
14.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 959-964, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600143

RESUMO

AIMS: Currently, the US Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) has been testing bundled payments for revision total joint arthroplasty (TJA) through the Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) programme. Under the BPCI, bundled payments for revision TJAs are defined on the basis of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). However, these DRG-based bundled payment models may not be adequate to account appropriately for the varying case-complexity seen in revision TJAs. METHODS: The 2008-2014 Medicare 5% Standard Analytical Files (SAF5) were used to identify patients undergoing revision TJA under DRG codes 466, 467, or 468. Generalized linear regression models were built to assess the independent marginal cost-impact of patient, procedural, and geographic characteristics on 90-day costs. RESULTS: A total of 9,263 patients (DRG-466 = 838, DRG-467 = 4,573, and DRG-468 = 3,842) undergoing revision TJA from 2008 to 2014 were included in the study. Undergoing revision for a dislocation (+$1,221), periprosthetic fracture (+$4,454), and prosthetic joint infection (+$5,268) were associated with higher 90-day costs. Among comorbidities, malnutrition (+$10,927), chronic liver disease (+$3,894), congestive heart failure (+$3,292), anaemia (+$3,149), and coagulopathy (+$2,997) had the highest marginal cost-increase. The five US states with the highest 90-day costs were Alaska (+$14,751), Maryland (+$13,343), New York (+$7,428), Nevada (+$6,775), and California (+$6,731). CONCLUSION: Under the proposed DRG-based bundled payment methodology, surgeons would be reimbursed the same amount of money for revision TJAs, regardless of the indication (periprosthetic fracture, prosthetic joint infection, mechanical loosening) and/or patient complexity. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):959-964.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição/economia , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Medicare/economia , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Reoperação/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 848-855, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Colorectal care bundles for surgical site infections (CRCB-SSIs) have been shown to reduce SSIs following elective colorectal surgery (CRS). There are limited data evaluating the effect of CRCB-SSI at Academic Disproportionate Share Hospitals (ADSH) with significant rates of urgent and emergent cases. METHODS: A CRCB-SSI was implemented in April 2016. We reviewed medical records of all patients undergoing colon resections between August 2015 and December 2017. Patients were divided into preimplementation and postimplementation groups. The primary endpoint was the SSI rate, and the secondary endpoint included types of SSI (superficial, deep, organ space). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. A subset analysis was performed in elective cases. RESULTS: We analyzed a total of 417 patients. Of these, 116 (28%) and 301 (72%) patients were in the preimplementation and postimplementation groups, respectively. The rate of SSI decreased from 30.1% to 15.9% in the postimplementation group (P = .0012); however, it was not statistically significant after adjusting for baseline differences (relative risk [RR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.41-1.02).The elective subset included 219 patients. The rate of SSI in this cohort decreased from 25% to 10.5% in the postimplementation group (P = .0012) and remained significant following multivariable analysis (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19- 0.88). There were no differences in the subtypes of SSI. DISCUSSION: While the CRCB-SSI was effective in decreasing the postoperative SSI rate for elective cases, its effect on the overall patient population was limited. CRCB-SSIs are not enough to bring SSI rates to accepted rates in high-risk patients such as those seen at ADSH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Custos Hospitalares , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Cirurgia Colorretal/economia , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Estados Unidos
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(4): 538-542.e1, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531215

RESUMO

Ineffective healthcare delivery and expenditures associated with the traditional fee for service in-person models have turned attention toward alternative payment models as a means of enhancing healthcare quality in the United States. Bundled care payment models are a form of alternate payment models that provide a single reimbursement for all services rendered for an episode of care and have been developed extensively in primary care settings with limited literature in urogynecology. We describe the process used to create a bundled care payment model for women seeking care in a subspecialty clinic for pelvic floor disorders in partnership with our safety net insurer. The process included estimation of prior average spend, the design of an integrated practice unit, creation of pelvic floor pathways, approximation of utilization rates, and estimation of reimbursement and expenses.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Obstétrico e Ginecológico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Urológico , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Visita a Consultório Médico , Distúrbios do Assoalho Pélvico/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos
20.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1056-1061, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During an ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, unsuspected cases may be housed outside of dedicated isolation wards. AIM: At a Singaporean tertiary hospital, individuals with clinical syndromes compatible with COVID-19 but no epidemiologic risk were placed in cohorted general wards for COVID-19 testing. To mitigate risk, an infection control bundle was implemented comprising infrastructural enhancements, improved personal protective equipment, and social distancing. We assessed the impact on environmental contamination and transmission. METHODS: Upon detection of a case of COVID-19 in the dedicated general ward, patients and health care workers (HCWs) contacts were identified. All patient and staff close-contacts were placed on 14-day phone surveillance and followed up for 28 days; symptomatic contacts were tested. Environmental samples were also obtained. FINDINGS: Over a 3-month period, 28 unsuspected cases of COVID-19 were contained in the dedicated general ward. In 5 of the 28 cases, sampling of the patient's environment yielded SARS-CoV-2; index cases who required supplemental oxygen had higher odds of environmental contamination (P = .01). A total of 253 staff close-contacts and 45 patient close-contacts were identified; only 3 HCWs (1.2%, 3/253) required quarantine. On 28-day follow-up, no patient-to-HCW transmission was documented; only 1 symptomatic patient close-contact tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully implemented an intervention bundle to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a multibedded cohorted general ward setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Quartos de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Singapura/epidemiologia
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