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4.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(9): 686-693, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530354

RESUMO

Objective: To observe and compare the effects of two standards on the overweight trend in urban Shanghai infants and young children. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 19 communities in two districts of Shanghai, and the subjects (n=15 019) were divided into S-group and W-group by sealed envelope randomization. The subjects were newborns born between November 2013 and December 2014. The 2005 Shanghai growth standard was applied in the S-group and the 2006 WHO growth standard was used in the W-group. At each follow-up time point age of 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months, the outpatient physician assessed the length and weight of the infants according to the standard adopted by each group and provided feeding guidance. The weight-for-age Z scores (WAZ), length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z scores (WLZ) were calculated according to the WHO standard. Weight, length, WAZ, LAZ, WLZ and overweight ratio (WLZ≥2) were compared between the two groups using t test, Wilcoxon test and χ(2) test. Results: A total of 6 509 infants (3 391 were boys, 3 118 were girls) were in the W-group, and 8 510 infants (4 374 were boys, 4 136 were girls) were in the S-group. Among the boys, the weight values at the age of 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 months in the W-group were all lower than those in the S-group ((7.5±0.8) vs. (7.7±0.8) kg, (8.6±0.8) vs. (8.7±0.8) kg, (9.6±0.9) vs. (9.7±0.9) kg, (10.4±1.0) vs. (10.5±1.0) kg, (11.5±1.1) vs.(11.7±1.1) kg; t=4.329, 2.422, 3.739, 2.451, 2.736; P<0.01, 0.015,<0.01, 0.014, 0.009). The length had no significant difference between two groups at all months of age(all P>0.05). The overweight ratio in the W-group was lower than that in the S-group at the age of 9, 12, 18 months(3.3% (71/2 170) vs. 4.9% (143/2 927), 2.5% (51/2 037) vs. 4.5% (126/2 818), 0.8% (7/832) vs. 3.1% (39/1 266); χ(2)=6.520, 14.209, 12.350; P=0.011,<0.01,<0.01).Among the girls, except at the age of 2 months (W-group (5.6±0.6) vs. S-group (5.7±0.6), t=2.935, P=0.003), weight values had no significant difference between the two groups at other age months (all P>0.05).The length in the W-group was higher than that in the S-group at 12 and 18 months of age ((75.6±2.4) vs.(75.5±2.3)cm, (82.4±2.9) vs.(82.2±2.7) cm; t=2.351, 2.197; P=0.019, 0.028). The ratio of overweight in the W-group was lower than that of S-group at the age of 12 and 18 months (1.8% (33/1 871) vs.3.0% (80/2 658), 0.6% (5/790) vs.1.7% (20/1 178); χ(2)=6.764,4.276; P=0.009, 0.039). Conclusions: The application of WHO growth standard can help to reduce the weight gain rate of boys, promote the linear growth of girls, and thus alleviate the overweight trend of infants within 18 months. It suggested that 2006 WHO growth standard should be applied to infants within 1 year of age in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Estatura , Peso Corporal , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Padrões de Referência , População Urbana , Ganho de Peso , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Gene ; 716: 144024, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390541

RESUMO

The young leaves generally accumulate a certain concentration anthocyanins in the dominant species of the subtropical forest, and the changes of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes expression levels had an important effect on the study photoprotection of anthocyanins in the young leaves of subtropical forests. The determination of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme gene sequences and the selection of appropriate reference genes provide a basis for analyzing the functional properties of anthocyanins. In this study, four dominant subtropical forest species (i.e., Schima superba, Castanopsis fissa, Acmena acuminatissima, Cryptocarya concinna) were taken as materials. To obtain the correct nucleotide sequences of anthocyanin-related enzymes, the nucleotide sequences of CHS, DFR and ANS in each dominant species were obtained by sequencing and comparison. Then, to select the most stable reference genes for leaves at different developmental stages and different light conditions, the expression levels of six reference genes, including 18S, Actin, GAPDH, TUB, EF1 and UBQ, were studied by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and reference gene stability was analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that the expression level of Actin was the most stable in S. superba, A. acuminatissima and C. concinna, and the expression level of GAPDH was the most stable in C. fissa. Finally, the expression levels of the anthocyanin synthesis genes CHS, DFR and ANS were analyzed and found to be consistent with the accumulation trend of anthocyanins in leaves. This study has important theoretical and practical significance for future research into the expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related enzyme genes in the dominant tree species in subtropical forests and reveals that anthocyanin has a photoprotective effect for young leaves in high-light environments.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Árvores/genética , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Florestas , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Padrões de Referência , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência , Árvores/enzimologia , Árvores/metabolismo
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1562-1563, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438232

RESUMO

Data standardiztion an important aspect to ensure data quality for utilizing large-scale, medical information databases such as the Medical Information Database Network (MID-NET) Project in Japan. We established a governance center to assess the consistency of standard codes across MID-NET-cooperating medical institutions. Moreover, we developed a real-time validation tool and determined its effect in improving data quality in medical institutions by providing a central feedback on the detected differences in standard disease-name codes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Japão , Informática Médica , Padrões de Referência
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1598-1599, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438250

RESUMO

This work describes the design and building of a Chinese clinical terminology (called CCTS). The terminology is similar to an ontology, and will promote the use of Chinese clinical data, such as indexing, retrieval and exchange. The terminology is a TOPL concept framework, which integrates hierarchical structures of Chinese and interenational reference terminology standards for health. Our framework includes 14 subtrees, 2286 classes and 65 relationships.


Assuntos
Vocabulário Controlado , Padrões de Referência
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1878-1879, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438388

RESUMO

To facilitate easy use of health data standards, we collected health data standards and parsed them into more fine-grained knowledge units. Reference and inclusion relations among these standards were constructed into knowledge map. Until now there are 156 standards collected and 4796 reference relations linked within those standards. Besides, an interface was built to enable users to easily get one standard's main information without referring to numerous PDF documents.


Assuntos
Padrões de Referência
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 40, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technical failures and incorrect usage of digital X-ray systems may lead to a decreasing image quality, artefacts and a higher dose exposure of staff and patients. Although there are no regulations regarding constancy testing in veterinary radiology all operators are required to avoid unnecessary exposure. The aim of this study was to develop a reasonably inexpensive zoomorphic 3D-printed test specimen for constancy testing that allows the detection of changing image quality by visual analysis. Primarily, a calibration curve of the attenuation factor of the 3D-printing material (ZP150) was determined. MATLAB converted every pixel value of a thorax X-ray image of a Beagle dog into an equivalent thickness of printing material. The thickness distribution was printed using a 3D-printer. This printed test specimen was additionally provided with five thin aluminium discs to simulate lung nodules. To evaluate the usability for constancy testing 12 X-ray images of the test specimen were made. Two images (reference and control) were taken with the minimum dose in order to obtain images suitable for diagnosis purposes. Eight images were taken with a dose differing 30-140% from the reference dose by varying current-time product (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp). Two images were taken with the same parameters as the reference image but edited with different image processing. Six veterinarians (general practitioners) evaluated ten chosen structures in the X-ray images in a Visual Grading Analysis and scored the image quality of these structures for every image in comparison to the reference image. A Visual Grading Analysis Score was calculated and statistically analysed. RESULTS: A higher current-time product led to a negligibly better evaluation of the X-ray image. The lower the current-time product the worse the X-ray images were scored. Likewise, both increasing and decreasing of the tube voltage led to lower scores. CONCLUSIONS: A zoomorphic test specimen can be used for constancy testing of digital X-ray systems in veterinary medicine. Especially a lower dose can be recognised due to deviation in the image quality when compared to the reference image. The 3D-printed test specimen is less expensive than test equipment used in human medicine.


Assuntos
Radiografia/veterinária , Radiologia/métodos , Radiologia/normas , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Radiografia/normas , Padrões de Referência
11.
Clin Biochem ; 71: 58-66, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Replacements are required for the WHO International Standards (IS) for free PSA, coded 96/668 and total PSA (90:10), coded 96/670, which were established in 1999 to support efforts to harmonise PSA assays and address non-equimolarity. An important consideration is that the introduction of the replacements should have minimal impact on PSA measurements. DESIGN AND METHODS: We report the development of a replacement strategy, informed by field assessment of preparations through an external quality assessment scheme and the subsequent evaluation of the candidate ISs in worldwide collaborative studies. RESULTS: By immunoassay, data from participants confirmed the value assigned to the current standards. Robust geometric mean estimates of the free PSA content of the candidate replacement for 96/668 coded 17/102 was 0.533 µg/ampoule (n = 21). The ratio of the content estimates of 17/102:96/668 was 0.516 (GCV 12.5%, n = 21). Robust geometric mean estimates of the total PSA content of the candidate replacement for 96/670, coded 17/100, was 0.505 µg/ampoule (n = 22). The ratio of the content estimates of 17/100:96/670 was 0.490 (GCV 5.3%, n = 22). Through concomitant measurement of a panel of 15 representative patient samples, the candidate ISs were shown to exhibit commutability with patient samples that was comparable with that of the current ISs. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these results, the preparations coded 17/102 and 17/100 were established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 2nd ISs for free and total PSA (PSA-ACT+free PSA) respectively, with assigned contents of 0.53 µg/ampoule and 0.50 µg/ampoule.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico/normas , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 753-755, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357792

RESUMO

Large population-based cohort study is an important resource for population disease prevention and control, the results of which provide scientific basis for individualized treatment and precise prevention, and it is also the key strategic content of precision medicine. The Chinese Preventive Medicine Association coordinated experienced researchers from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and other professional institutes to write up the group standard entitled Technical specification of management for field investigation in large population-based cohort study (T/CPMA 001-2019). Based on the research of large population-based cohort study in China and the principle of scientific, normative, applicable, and feasible, the standard proposed six aspects of management requirements including institutional arrangement, personnel composition, equipment, materials, documents and finance, as well as the basic requirements of the on-site investigation, the requirements of each position and the overall quality control requirements, etc.. The standard aims to guide the large population-based cohorts that have been or intended to be established in China, including national cohorts, regional population cohorts, and special population cohorts, hence to improve scientific research level, accelerate scientific research output and provide localization basis for disease prevention and control in China.


Assuntos
Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , China , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 756-758, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357793

RESUMO

Long-term follow-up for end point is an extremely important and arduous task in large population-based cohort studies, which is also the key to the success of large cohort studies. Thus, the fundamental question of the achievements above is how to construct a large population- based cohort in a standardized way. The Chinese Preventive Medicine Association coordinated experienced researchers from Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other professional institutes to write up the group standard entitled Technical specification of long-term follow-up for end point in large population-based cohort study (T/CPMA 002-2019). The standard is drafted with principles of emphasizing the scientific, normative, applicability, and feasible nature. This group standard recommended the follow-up target population, time, content, methods, quality control, and indicators assessment. The standard aims to guide the large population-based cohorts that have been or intended to be established in China, including national cohorts, regional population cohorts, and special population cohorts, hence, to improve domestic scientific research level and the international influence, and to support decision-making and practice of disease prevention and control.


Assuntos
Seguimentos , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Padrões de Referência
15.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4615, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare qualitatively and quantitatively, in terms of image quality, a new biexponential diffusion sequence protocol with the standard monoexponential diffusion protocol on multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: This study had a prospective data collection and cross-sectional analysis. Between August and November 2017, a total of 70 patients who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging due to clinical suspicion of prostatic neoplasia were recruited. The images obtained were evaluated by two independent readers regarding subjective/qualitative criteria (six criteria) and objective/quantitative criteria (three criteria), always comparing the monoexponential to biexponential acquisition protocols. The results were compared by statistical analysis (interobserver agreement - Gwet coefficient; analysis of the qualitative variables - Stuart-Maxwell test; and analysis of the quantitative variables - Wilcoxon test). RESULTS: After exclusion of four patients, the final sample consisted of 66 patients. A good/excellent inter observer agreement was stablished for subjective criteria (except in one criteria). For the qualitative analysis the amount of good or excellent evaluations was higher for the monoexponential protocol (except in one category), with evidence of significant differences for three criteria (diffusion weighted imaging global quality; diffusion weighted imaging signal-to-noise ratio; and apparent diffusion coefficient signal-to-noise ratio). For the quantitative data analysis, the monoexponential protocol showed less variability of the anteroposterior diameters, meaning less distortion of the images, and better estimated signal-to-noise ratio. CONCLUSION: In our data, the quality of the images of the monoexponential standard diffusion sequence was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of the biexponential diffusion weighted imaging sequence.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 761-766, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CT perfusion (CTP) is an imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the changes in the microcirculation of tumor tissues. Our study aimed to investigate the role of CTP in predicting mediastinal lymph node metastasis. METHODS: Clinical data of 58 patients who received surgical resection of lung cancer and lymph node dissection in our hospital from June 2012 to December 2014 were collected. Patients were divided into a positive lymph node metastasis group and a negative lymph node metastasis group. Parameters of CTP, including peak enhancement intensity (PEI), perfusion value (PV), as well as blood volume (BV), were compared between the two groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to predict mediastinal lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: The PV of the positive lymph node metastasis group was significantly higher than that of the negative group (p < 0.001). The ROC curve analysis showed that PV can be used as an index to predict mediastinal lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of a PV greater than 7.5ml·min-1·ml-1 in predicting lymph node metastasis of lung cancer were 78.3 % and 91.4 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: The PV of low dose CT perfusion can be used as an index for predicting mediastinal lymph node metastasis of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Mediastino/secundário , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1602: 386-396, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285057

RESUMO

A comprehensive Collision Cross Section (CCS) library was obtained via Travelling Wave Ion Guide mobility measurements through direct infusion (DI). The library consists of CCS and Mass Spectral (MS) data in negative and positive ElectroSpray Ionisation (ESI) mode for 463 and 479 endogenous metabolites, respectively. For both ionisation modes combined, TWCCSN2 data were obtained for 542 non-redundant metabolites. These data were acquired on two different ion mobility enabled orthogonal acceleration QToF MS systems in two different laboratories, with the majority of the resulting TWCCSN2 values (from detected compounds) found to be within 1% of one another. Validation of these results against two independent, external TWCCSN2 data sources and predicted TWCCSN2 values indicated to be within 1-2% of these other values. The same metabolites were then analysed using a rapid reversed-phase ultra (high) performance liquid chromatographic (U(H)PLC) separation combined with IM and MS (IM-MS) thus providing retention time (tr), m/z and TWCCSN2 values (with the latter compared with the DI-IM-MS data). Analytes for which TWCCSN2 values were obtained by U(H)PLC-IM-MS showed good agreement with the results obtained from DI-IM-MS. The repeatability of the TWCCSN2 values obtained for these metabolites on the different ion mobility QToF systems, using either DI or LC, encouraged the further evaluation of the U(H)PLC-IM-MS approach via the analysis of samples of rat urine, from control and methotrexate-treated animals, in order to assess the potential of the approach for metabolite identification and profiling in metabolic phenotyping studies. Based on the database derived from the standards 63 metabolites were identified in rat urine, using positive ESI, based on the combination of tr, TWCCSN2 and MS data.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Urina/química , Aminas/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ratos , Padrões de Referência
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2742-2747, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359685

RESUMO

The processing of Mongolian medicine,which is called " mort harl" in Mongolian language,refers to a traditional processing technology to " tame" some toxic,aggressive,ineffective or inconvenient Mongolian medicines,so as to make it " compliant" to clinical needs. It is the summary of long-term experience in drug preparation by Mongolian medicine experts,one of the bridges for the dialectical unity of Mongolian medicine,the essential content in evaluation of the clinical efficacy of Mongolian medicine and the study of Mongolian medicine modernization,and also the important soft power carrier of " intangible cultural heritage" and " grassland culture" in Inner Mongolia autonomous region. In this study,the processing history,purpose,crafts,mechanism,processing standards and quality standards of Mongolian medicine were explained,and some suggestions were proposed for the problems of the Mongolian medicine processing and development: focus on the basic theory of Mongolian medicine and the clinical experience of Mongolian medicine in the development of traditional Mongolian medicine processing; strengthen the literature research on the processing method of Mongolian medicine; establish comprehensive and systematic Mongolian medicine concocts standards and quality standards; enhance the research and development of special processing equipment and process quality control instruments for Mongolian medicine; and strengthen the training of professional technicians,the protection of copyright in Mongolian medicine processing,and scientific research on Mongolian medicine processing. In the inheritance of the tradition,the latest achievements of modern scientific development can be also absorbed to provide reference for the further development of traditional Mongolian medicine processing technology.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , China , Controle de Qualidade , Padrões de Referência
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 125052, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261003

RESUMO

Scotch Whisky has been analysed as a complex mixture in its raw form using high resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and previously developed water and ethanol suppression techniques. This has allowed for the positive identification of 25 compounds in Scotch Whisky by means of comparison to reference standards, spike-in experiments, and advanced 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Quantification of compounds was hindered by signal overlap, though peak alignment strategies were largely successful. Statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) yielded information on signals arising from the same compound or compounds of similar origin. Statistical analysis of the spectra was performed using Independent and Principal Components Analysis (ICA, PCA) as well as Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). Several whisky production parameters were successfully modelled, including blend or malt status, use of peated malt, alcohol strength, generic authentication and maturation wood type, whilst age and geographical origin could not be modelled.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/normas , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Padrões de Referência
20.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 38: 126-131, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276971

RESUMO

Simulation is used with greater frequency by nursing programs to strengthen the learning process of student nurses. Best practices suggest active learning with the addition of standardized patients engages the student in realistic lifelike scenario. Therefore, the aim of the research study was to have nursing student's self-evaluate classroom learned communication skills through practical application on a standardized mental health patient simulated scenario. Undergraduate nursing students registered for three successive mental health nursing courses during one academic year were recruited. A self-reported pre/post survey measured the nursing student's level of confidence of learned therapeutic communication skills, preparation to engage their skills in clinical experience, and satisfaction with the standardized patient simulated experience. The self-reported online pre/post questionnaire return rate was 72.5% (N-116). The pre/post results suggest the standardized simulated experience enhanced nursing student confidence  p < .001; the nursing students felt prepared for clinical as noted by the mean score of 7.78 of 10 and overall were satisfied with the simulation process with a mean score of 8.04 of 10. The addition of the standardized patient in a mental health simulated experience promoted an active learning environment that highlighted individualized confidence in therapeutic communication skills through a realistic application process.


Assuntos
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Padrões de Referência , Treinamento por Simulação/tendências , Adulto , Comunicação , Currículo/tendências , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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