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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260631, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919566

RESUMO

In low-and middle-income countries, many infants and children remain unregistered in both civil registration and healthcare records, limiting their access to essential rights-based services, including healthcare. A novel biometric registration prototype, applying a non-touch platform using smart phones and tablets to capture physical characteristics of infants and children for electronic registration, was tested in rural Mozambique. This study assessed acceptability and perceived barriers and facilitators to the usability of this biometric registration prototype in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique. The study followed a qualitative design consisting of 5 semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers, 7 focus group discussions with caregivers of infants aged between 0 and 5 years old, and 2 focus group discussions with data collectors involved in the implementation of the biometric registration pilot project. Data were thematically analysed. The results of this study show that there is wide acceptability of the biometric registration prototype among healthcare providers and caregivers. Participants were aware of the benefits of the biometric registration prototype. The perceived benefits included that the biometric registration prototype would solve the inefficiency of paper-based registration, and the perception of biometric registration as "healthcare norm". Perceived potential barriers to the implementation of the biometric registration prototype included: myths and taboos, lack of information, lack of time, lack of father's consent, and potential workload among healthcare providers. In conclusion, the biometric prototype was widely accepted due to its perceived usefulness. However, there is a need to address the perceived barriers, and involvement of children's fathers and/or other relevant family members in the process of biometric registration.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Cartões Inteligentes de Saúde/organização & administração , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Cartões Inteligentes de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Moçambique , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Registros , População Rural
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257187, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Parenting is an integral component of obesity treatment in early childhood. However, the link between specific parenting practices and treatment effectiveness remains unclear. This paper introduces and validates a new parenting questionnaire and evaluates mothers' and fathers' parenting practices in relation to child weight status during a 12-month childhood obesity treatment trial. METHODS: First, a merged school/clinical sample (n = 558, 82% mothers) was used for the factorial and construct validation of the new parenting questionnaire. Second, changes in parenting were evaluated using clinical data from the More and Less Study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 174 children (mean age = 5 years, mean Body Mass Index Standard Deviation Score (BMI SDS) = 3.0) comparing a parent support program (with and without booster sessions) and standard treatment. Data were collected at four time points over 12 months. We used linear mixed models and mediation models to investigate associations between changes in parenting practices and treatment effects. FINDINGS: The validation of the questionnaire (9 items; responses on a 5-point Likert scale) revealed two dimensions of parenting (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.7): setting limits to the child and regulating one's own emotions when interacting with the child, both of which correlated with feeding practices and parental self-efficacy. We administered the questionnaire to the RCT participants. Fathers in standard treatment increased their emotional regulation compared to fathers in the parenting program (p = 0.03). Mothers increased their limit-setting regardless of treatment allocation (p = 0.01). No treatment effect was found on child weight status through changes in parenting practices. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the new questionnaire assessing parenting practices proved valid in a 12-month childhood obesity trial. During treatment, paternal and maternal parenting practices followed different trajectories, though they did not mediate treatment effects on child weight status. Future research should address the pathways whereby maternal and paternal parenting practices affect treatment outcomes, such as child eating behaviors and weight status.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444649

RESUMO

Parental stress may influence adolescents' food intake and weight development over time, however, it is largely unknown why this is the case. This study examines whether the link between parental stress and adolescents' snack intake and weight outcome is mediated by food parenting practices (FPPs). Participants included 400 parents and their adolescent children (aged 12-16) who completed questionnaires. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to assess parental general stress levels and the Adolescent Food Parenting Questionnaire (AFPQ) to assess FPPs. Multiple mediation analyses with parallel mediators were performed, with parental general stress as an independent variable and adolescent snack intake and zBMI as dependent variables. FPPs (autonomy support, coercive control, modeling, healthy structure, snack structure) were entered as mediators in the model, adjusted for covariates. Autonomy support mediated the link between parental general stress and adolescent savory snack and sweet snack intake at follow-up. Parents who reported higher stress levels provided less autonomy support, which resulted in more adolescent snacking. None of the other FPPs mediated any link between parental stress and intake or weight outcome, and no significant indirect effects were observed with zBMI as an outcome variable. Further research should replicate this finding and may further examine underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Pai/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Lanches , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(3): 325-343, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366154

RESUMO

This article provides an overview of the prevalence and cause of postpartum depression in women and postnatal depression among their male partners, as well as a review of related symptoms, risk factors, and effects on children. Evidence-based screening tools, management options, and resources for patients and providers are also presented.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(10): 1339-1349, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376095

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy seriously hinders herd immunity. We explored the determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate children against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China.A population-based self-administered online questionnaire evaluating parental hesitancy in vaccinating their children against COVID-19 was conducted in Taizhou, China. Of the 2463 parents who received the invitation, 1788 (72.6%) responded to the survey.Of the repondents, 52.5% were hesitant. Mothers exhibited a greater proportion of vaccine hesitancy than fathers did (57.5% vs. 41.7%, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that parents with children under 18 years of age (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.90-0.99), lower knowledge scores about COVID-19 vaccination (Q1: OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.37-2.69; Q2: OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.10-2.08), lower awareness of the permission of vaccinating children (OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.36-2.23) and hesitancy to inoculate themselves (OR = 8.18, 95%CI: 6.48-10.33) were associated with parental hesitancy to inoculate their children. Results also revealed the disparity between fathers and mothers regarding associated factors.This study found that a substantial proportion of parents reported being hesitant to vaccinate children against COVID-19, implying the necessity of comprehensive assessment and health education programs for vaccination systems in China.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 43(4): 756-764, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417139

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the psychological implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for father-child bonding and mental health among Italian gay fathers pursuing surrogacy in the USA or Canada? DESIGN: Between 20 March and 29 July 2020, this cross-sectional case-control study collected data on father-child bonding quality, depression, anxiety and somatization in 30 Italian gay fathers (n=15 families) who were having or successfully had a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. These fathers were compared with a sociodemographically similar group of 50 Italian gay fathers (n=25 families) who had children through cross-border surrogacy prior to the pandemic. RESULTS: Although father-child bonding quality and the mental health symptoms of fathers scored below the clinical cut-off points in both groups, fathers who had or were having a child during the COVID-19 pandemic reported poorer father-child bonding (estimate 3.04, SE 1.47, P=0.044) and more depressive (estimate -1.47, SE 0.49, P=0.005), anxious (estimate -1.96, SE 0.55, P<0.001) and somatic symptoms (estimate -2.48, SE 0.52, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings call for the development of international guidelines for cross-border surrogacy and underline the need for tailored and ongoing psychological and legal support for intended gay fathers to ease their strain and anxiety related to having a child through cross-border surrogacy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pai/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Mães Substitutas , Estados Unidos
7.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 176, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the "Impact of Event Scale - Revised" (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of thirty mothers (mean age 43.0 ± 4.2 years) and 25 fathers (mean age 45.6 ± 5.9 years) participated in the survey and completed the questionnaires. 29.1% of parents had a score that allows to define a clinically relevant level of PTSD; ten mothers and 6 fathers had a PTSD clinically relevant score, corresponding, respectively, to 28.4 and 24% of total mothers and fathers. Finally, mothers and fathers, both express PTSD symptoms mainly in the form of intrusion and hyperarousal. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms a high prevalence symptoms related to PTSD in mothers and fathers of children with Type 1 Diabetes. We believe that psychosocial outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic should be taken into account in the planning of the next future assistance for children with T1D.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts. It confers short-term and long-term benefits for both child and mother, including helping to protect children against a variety of acute and chronic disorders. In mothers, breastfeeding (BF) reduces postpartum bleeding, enhances accelerated involution of the uterus, and plays a crucial role in child spacing. Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices. Evidence shows that mothers who have a supportive and encouraging partner are more likely to plan to breastfeed for a longer duration. So, this study was aimed to assess knowledge and associated factors towards breastfeeding practice among fathers. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gurage Zone among 597 fathers. One stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data and it was checked for consistency and completeness and entered into epi data and exported to SPSS for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent predictors. P-value < 0.05 was considered to declare a result as statistically significant. RESULT: In this study, a total of 585 participants were involved making a response rate of 98%. The overall knowledge status of participants was 341 (58.3%). The mean age of participants was 29.5 (SD±4.5). Urban residence, educational status, exposure to media, having more than one baby at home, and accompany his wife during health-seeking were independent predictors of knowledge status. CONCLUSION: This study has shown the level of knowledge of fathers towards breastfeeding in the study area was low (58.3%). Residence, two or more babies at home, accompany during ANC, and indexed infant illness was independent predictors of knowledge status of fathers towards breastfeeding. Policymakers and possible stack holders should better focus on the improvement of knowledge because the knowledge determines the overall condition of the family including the psychological development of the children that affect their life especially in a country like Ethiopia in which most of the decisions are made by them. Other researchers focus on the interaction of parents and the child and feeding disorders.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 463, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, information and support has been focused on mothers, with evidence that healthcare professionals overlook fathers' mental health, and that fathers receive little or no support for themselves during the perinatal period. However, recently, fathers' mental health has become an area of interest. METHODS: This study explored the support fathers receive for their own mental health during the perinatal period. A qualitative questionnaire was distributed on social media networks and completed by twenty-nine fathers. RESULTS: Thematic analysis produced three main themes: Factors Influencing Fathers' Mental Health, Consequences of Poor Mental Health in Fathers and Solutions to Improve Fathers' Mental Health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study highlighted important implications about fathers' mental health and the need to support them more effectively. Fathers' reluctance to seek support and the limited support available need to be addressed. Fathers in this study perceived that perinatal health professionals view 'mothers as the priority'. It is clear that health professionals need more training on how to recognise that fathers are also important and need support for their mental health.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Parto/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Andes Pediatr ; 92(1): 50-58, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the meanings attributed to fatherhood by first-time fathers. PARTICIPANTS AND METHOD: Qualitative research of Hermeneutic-Dialectic design. Data collection was carried out through in-depth interviews with fathers and mothers (10 of each) of children older than 12 months. The analysis of the data was carried out through the participants' discourse analysis and their articu lation with the historical-social context and the theoretical references of the research. RESULTS: The meaning and social participation of men when they became a first-time father were grouped in five categories: meaning of the fatherhood experience; meaning of fatherhood from a gender perspective; meaning of the experience in the father-child relationship; meaning of the parenting experience in the couple relationship; and exercising fatherhood and its relationship with the health system. Con clusions: It is necessary to implement strategies to include the father in the upbringing and care of the children, favoring his participation, and thus, the growth and comprehensive development of the child conceived in the different types of families.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Meio Social , Participação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Chile , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Hermenêutica , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Mães , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 138-160, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077120

RESUMO

This study aimed at understanding how, when, and under what circumstances interventions succeed (or fail) to improve male involvement in maternal and child healthcare in Uganda. A realist synthesis approach was used to unpack the complexity of these health interventions to explain their theories and applications in specific circumstances. Our review of 19 studies revealed that men were specifically approached as clients, partners or agents for behavioural change. Broadly, mechanisms of education, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, enablement, persuasion, incentivization and coercion were used to involve men in maternal and child healthcare. Education, training, modeling, enablement and environmental restructuring mechanisms were more effective in 'cultivating' a sustained will of men to get involved as couples. However, unintended outcomes were inevitable in circumstances where mechanisms did not match specific contexts. Using coercion, restriction or incentivization is more likely to result in short-term and negative outcomes because of context heterogeneities.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Pai/psicologia , Saúde Materna , Apoio Social , Adulto , Criança , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Entrevista Motivacional , Uganda
14.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 106, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male involvement in maternal healthcare has been widely recognized as essential for positive health outcomes for expectant mothers and their unborn babies. However, few studies have explored men's experiences of maternal health services. The purpose of this paper is to explore men's involvement in antenatal care in urban Ghana and to discuss how men navigate their roles in a space that has been constructed as feminine. The study draws upon theories of space, place, and gender. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study using semistructured interviews, focus group discussion, and observation was conducted in Accra, Ghana. Expectant fathers and health workers were interviewed, and observation was conducted at a selected public hospital in Accra. RESULTS: The findings suggest that the few men who attend antenatal care with their expecting partners become involved to a limited extent in the clinic's activities. Beyond a few who take an active role, most men stay on the outskirts of the hospital grounds and rarely participate in consultations with their partner and midwife. Men still view their presence as necessary to acquire knowledge and as sources of emotional, financial, and physical support for their partners. On the health workers' side, the study found no clear agenda for engaging men at the clinic, and nurses/midwives felt there was a lack of staff who could engage more directly with the men. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that most expecting fathers feel too shy and uncomfortable to locate themselves in the female space that makes up antenatal care/maternity wards. Health workers do not feel they have the necessary resources to involve men fruitfully. Thus, men do not engage in the activity as hoped but rather remain on the outskirts of the maternity clinic. However, if men continue to negotiate their involvement at the clinic and become more assertive in their roles, the maternity clinic as a female space could, with time, be transformed into a space in which both expecting mothers and fathers can actively participate and be engaged to the benefit of all.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel (figurativo) , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1827): 20200031, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938276

RESUMO

Children and mothers' cortisol production in response to family psychosocial conditions, including parenting demands, family resource availability and parental conflict, has been extensively studied in the United States and Europe. Less is known about how such family dynamics relate to family members' cortisol in societies with a strong cultural emphasis on cooperative caregiving. We studied a cumulative indicator of cortisol production, measured from fingernails, among BaYaka forager children (77 samples, n = 48 individuals) and their parents (78 samples, n = 49) in the Congo Basin. Men ranked one another according to locally valued roles for fathers, including providing resources for the family, sharing resources in the community and engaging in less marital conflict. Children had higher cortisol if their parents were ranked as having greater parental conflict, and their fathers were seen as less effective providers and less generous sharers of resources in the community. Children with lower triceps skinfold thickness (an indicator of energetic condition) also had higher cortisol. Parental cortisol was not significantly correlated to men's fathering rankings, including parental conflict. Our results indicate that even in a society in which caregiving is highly cooperative, children's cortisol production was nonetheless correlated to parental conflict as well as variation in locally defined fathering quality. This article is part of the theme issue 'Multidisciplinary perspectives on social support and maternal-child health'.


Assuntos
Relações Pai-Filho , Pai/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Unhas/química , Comportamento Paterno , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
16.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1827): 20200020, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938277

RESUMO

The importance of social support for parental and child health and wellbeing is not yet sufficiently widely recognized. The widespread myth in Western contexts that the male breadwinner-female homemaker nuclear family is the 'traditional' family structure leads to a focus on mothers alone as the individuals with responsibility for child wellbeing. Inaccurate perceptions about the family have the potential to distort academic research and public perceptions, and hamper attempts to improve parental and child health. These perceptions may have arisen partly from academic research in disciplines that focus on the Western middle classes, where this particular family form was idealized in the mid-twentieth century, when many of these disciplines were developing their foundational research. By contrast, evidence from disciplines that take a cross-cultural or historical perspective shows that in most human societies, multiple individuals beyond the mother are typically involved in raising children: in evolutionary anthropology, it is now widely accepted that we have evolved a strategy of cooperative reproduction. Expecting mothers to care for children with little support, while expecting fathers to provide for their families with little support, is, therefore, likely to lead to adverse health consequences for mothers, fathers and children. Incorporating evidence-based evolutionary, and anthropological, perspectives into research on health is vital if we are to ensure the wellbeing of individuals across a wide range of contexts. This article is part of the theme issue 'Multidisciplinary perspectives on social support and maternal-child health'.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares , Pai , Saúde do Homem , Núcleo Familiar , Apoio Social , Pai/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Homem/etnologia , Núcleo Familiar/etnologia
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1827): 20200021, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938279

RESUMO

Male partners/fathers are key support persons for many childbearing women and their involvement in pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum/postnatal period has beneficial effects on a wide range of outcomes related to maternal and child health and family wellbeing. Social support is implicated in the relevant causal pathway, but has received largely tangential attention in the public health literature. This discussion paper aims to reframe men's participation in maternity care as an opportunity to enhance their readiness and ability to provide social support to women, contributing to the debate on the definition and rationale for male partner involvement, and paving the way for further empirical work. I begin by presenting a theory of change illustrating the causal pathway leading from male partner participation, through the key intermediate step of social support, to improved health and wellbeing for women and children. I proceed by arguing that many people desire male partner participation in maternity care; however, in practice, this is often limited owing to cultural, social and institutional barriers. I use examples from the intervention literature to demonstrate how participation in care can boost men's motivation to support women and enhance their ability to do so by increasing their knowledge and skills. Finally, I draw up general implications for further male partner involvement programmes, suggesting that in order to achieve meaningful and sustainable gains, attention to design is crucial in order to avoid reinforcing patriarchal gender norms. Programmes should be implemented alongside other efforts to improve quality and promote woman-centred care. This article is part of the theme issue 'Multidisciplinary perspectives on social support and maternal-child health'.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Pai , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Pai/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(5): 888-899, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated associations between mothers' and fathers' distress reported in early childhood (at ages 9 months and 3 years) and childhood adiposity trajectories from ages 5 to 14 years. METHODS: Linear mixed-effects models were undertaken in the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported maternal and paternal distress was measured at ages 9 months and 3 years. BMI and fat mass index (FMI) were modeled from ages 5 to 14 years, adjusting for socioeconomic and child characteristics and stratifying by child sex. RESULTS: Maternal distress reported at 9 months was associated with steeper increases in BMI and FMI trajectories for girls (BMI: ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.11; FMI: ß = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.08). Paternal distress reported at 9 months was associated with steeper increases in BMI and FMI for both girls (BMI: ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.12, FMI: ß = 0.05; 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.10) and boys (BMI: ß = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.15, FMI: ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10). Maternal "moderate" distress at 3 years was associated with steeper BMI and FMI trajectories for girls only (BMI: ß = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, FMI; ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and paternal distress experienced in early childhood, particularly during infancy, was associated with steeper adiposity trajectories for children from ages 5 to 14 years.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(2): 15579883211005617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845678

RESUMO

Black Americans remain disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that employment in certain occupations (e.g., essential; frontline) may place individuals at higher-risk for contracting COVID-19. The current investigation examined how Black American fathers' COVID-19 perceived work risk was associated with their individual well-being (COVID-19 diagnosis; depressive and anxiety symptoms; sleep disturbance; sleep quality) as well as spillover into family contexts. Participants were 466 Black American fathers (M = 36.63; SD = 11.00) who completed online surveys in June-July 2020. Adjusted binomial logistic and multiple regressions were estimated to examine how fathers' work context was associated with COVID-19 health outcomes, psychological functioning, sleep health, and family stress. Descriptive analyses revealed that 32% of fathers reported a personal diagnosis of COVID-19 and 21% indicated that an immediate family member had been diagnosed. Adjusted binomial logistic regression analyses revealed that fathers working in higher-risk contexts for contracting COVID-19 had a greater odds ratio for both a personal (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.68) and an immediate family member diagnosis (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.52, 4.36). Working in a higher-risk context for contracting COVID-19 was associated with poorer psychological functioning, greater sleep disturbance, and higher levels of family discord. Findings suggest that Black fathers working in higher risk contexts may be at risk for COVID-19 exposure and infection. Further, this study indicates that these effects extend to their own well-being, including mental and sleep health as well as increased family stress.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Pai/psicologia , Ocupações , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250661, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930023

RESUMO

In countries of sub-Saharan Africa, many children are admitted to hospital with severe forms of anaemia. The late hospital admissions of anaemic children contribute significantly to child morbidity and mortality in these countries. This qualitative study explores local health beliefs and traditional treatment practices that may hinder timely seeking of hospital care for anaemic children. In January of 2019, nine focus group discussions were conducted with 90 participants in rural communities of Malawi. The participants represented four groups of caregivers; mothers, fathers, grandmothers and grandfathers of children under the age of five. The Malawian medical landscape is comprised of formal and informal therapeutic alternatives-and this myriad of modalities is likely to complicate the healthcare choices of caregivers. When dealing with child illness, many participants reported how they would follow a step-by-step, 'multi-try' therapeutic pathway where a combination of biomedical and traditional treatment options were sought at varying time points depending on the perceived cause and severity of symptoms. The participants linked anaemia to naturalistic (malaria, poor nutrition and the local illnesses kakozi and kapamba), societal (the local illness msempho) and supernatural or personalistic (witchcraft and Satanism) causes. Most participants agreed that anaemia due to malaria and poor nutrition should be treated at hospital. As for local illnesses, many grandparents suggested herbal treatment offered by traditional healers, while the majority of parents would opt for hospital care. However, participants across all age groups claimed that anaemia caused by witchcraft and Satanism could only be dealt with by traditional healers or prayer, respectively. The multiple theories of anaemia causality combined with extensive use of and trust in traditional and complementary medicine may explain the frequent delay in admittance of anaemic children to hospital.


Assuntos
Anemia/patologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Bruxaria , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malária/patologia , Malaui , Masculino , Desnutrição/patologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Inquéritos e Questionários
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