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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1780-1791, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416156

RESUMO

Similarities between parents and offspring arise from nature and nurture. Beyond this simple dichotomy, recent genomic studies have uncovered "genetic nurture" effects, whereby parental genotypes influence offspring outcomes via environmental pathways rather than genetic transmission. Such genetic nurture effects also need to be accounted for to accurately estimate "direct" genetic effects (i.e., genetic effects on a trait originating in the offspring). Empirical studies have indicated that genetic nurture effects are particularly relevant to the intergenerational transmission of risk for child educational outcomes, which are, in turn, associated with major psychological and health milestones throughout the life course. These findings have yet to be systematically appraised across contexts. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify genetic nurture effects on educational outcomes. A total of 12 studies comprising 38,654 distinct parent(s)-offspring pairs or trios from 8 cohorts reported 22 estimates of genetic nurture effects. Genetic nurture effects on offspring's educational outcomes (ßgenetic nurture = 0.08, 95% CI [0.07, 0.09]) were smaller than direct genetic effects (ßdirect genetic = 0.17, 95% CI [0.13, 0.20]). Findings were largely consistent across studies. Genetic nurture effects originating from mothers and fathers were of similar magnitude, highlighting the need for a greater inclusion of fathers in educational research. Genetic nurture effects were largely explained by observed parental education and socioeconomic status, pointing to their role in environmental pathways shaping child educational outcomes. Findings provide consistent evidence that environmentally mediated parental genetic influences contribute to the intergenerational transmission of educational outcomes, in addition to effects due to genetic transmission.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Padrões de Herança , Pais , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Fenótipo , Classe Social
2.
Semin Perinatol ; 45(5): 151431, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992443

RESUMO

We discuss the use of tele-mental health in settings serving expectant parents in fetal care centers and parents with children receiving treatment in neonatal intensive care units within a pediatric institution. Our emphasis is on the dramatic rise of tele-mental health service delivery for this population in the wake of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., including relevant practice regulations, challenges and advantages associated with the transition to tele-mental health in these perinatal settings.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/tendências , Saúde Mental/tendências , Assistência Perinatal , Intervenção Psicossocial , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Educação Pré-Natal/tendências , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Intervenção Psicossocial/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Divórcio , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children who become overweight by age 2 have greater risk of long-term obesity and health problems. The study aim was to assess the effectiveness of a primary care-based intervention on the prevalence of overweight at age 24 months. METHODS: In a cluster-randomized trial, sites were randomly assigned to the Greenlight intervention or an attention-control arm. Across 4 pediatric residency clinics, we enrolled infant-caregiver dyads at the 2-month well-child visit. Inclusion criteria included parent English- or Spanish-speaking and birth weight ≥1500 g. Designed with health-literacy principles, the intervention included a parent toolkit at each well-child visit, augmented by provider training in clear-health communication. The primary outcome was proportion of children overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile) at age 24 months. Secondary outcomes included weight status (BMI z score). RESULTS: A total of 459 intervention and 406 control dyads were enrolled. In total, 49% of all children were overweight at 24 months. Adjusted odds for overweight at 24 months (treatment versus control) was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 1.64). Adjusted mean BMI z score differences (treatment minus control) were -0.04 (95% CI: -0.07 to -0.01), -0.09 (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.03), -0.19 (-0.33 to -0.05), -0.20 (-0.36 to -0.03), -0.16 (95% CI: -0.34 to 0.01), and 0.00 (95% CI -0.21 to 0.21) at 4, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention resulted in less weight gain through age 18 months, which was not sustained through 24 months. Clinic-based interventions may be beneficial for early weight gain, but greater intervention intensity may be needed to maintain positive effects.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Ganho de Peso
5.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents of infants having medical problem face challenges of insufficient medical resources at home. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of WeChat-based telehealth services on the preoperative follow-up of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 190 infants with CHD who underwent remote follow-up via WeChat from December 2019 to May 2020 in Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. In addition, the psychological benefits of WeChat on the parents of these infants were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 190 infants were involved in this study, including 72 cases of ventricular septal defects, 42 cases of patent ductus arteriosus, 55 cases of atrial septal defects, 3 cases of tetralogy of Fallot, 2 cases of endocardial cushion defects, 12 cases of pulmonary stenosis, 2 cases of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and 2 cases of aortic arch constriction. During the follow-up period, 48 infants who received surgical indications were hospitalized in time for surgical treatment. It was recommended that 10 infants with respiratory tract infections be treated in local hospitals through the WeChat platform. We provided feeding guidance to 28 infants with dysplasia through the WeChat platform. The psychological evaluation results of parents showed that the median score and range of Self-Rating Depression Scale scores were 42 and 32-58, respectively. Nine parents (4.7%) were clinically depressed, while the majority had mild depression. The median score and range of Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores were 44 and 31-59, respectively. Twenty parents (10.5%) had clinical anxiety, while the rest had mild anxiety. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, follow-up management and health services for infants with CHD prior to surgery through the WeChat platform were useful in identifying the state of an infant's condition as well as in identifying and relieving care pressure, anxiety and depression in the parents.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Consulta Remota , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Mídias Sociais
6.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1315-1318, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769337

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Parental leave for new parents is essential as they adjust to the physical and psychological changes that accompany childbirth and caring for a newborn. This study sought to determine the current state of parental leave policies for medical students at medical schools in the United States. METHOD: From November to December 2019, 2 researchers independently reviewed the websites of 199 U.S. MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools (including in U.S. territories). Online student handbooks and school webpages were searched for the following keywords: "pregnant" OR "pregnancy" OR "maternity" OR "parent" OR "family" OR "child" OR "birth." Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests evaluated differences in proportion by group. RESULTS: Of 199 schools, 65 (32.66%) had parental leave policies available online or in the handbook: 39 of 155 (25.16%) MD-granting and 26 of 44 (59.09%) DO-granting schools. Of those policies, 59 (90.77%) were included in the student handbook. Most policies (28, 43.08%) were included as an option within the school's general leave of absence policy. Both parents were included in 38 (58.46%) policies; 23 (35.38%) policies mentioned only mothers; and 4 (6.15%) were unknown. An option to maintain original graduation date was offered in 21 (32.1%) schools' policies. Three schools (4.62%) included adoption as qualifying for parental leave. When comparing MD and DO programs, DO programs were statistically more likely to have a parental leave policy: 39 (25.16%) vs 26 (59.09%); P < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Balancing medical school with pregnancy and childbirth necessitates administrative support to address the inherent scheduling challenges. Currently, many schools lack parental leave policies for medical students that are easily accessible, are separate from formal leaves of absence, allow for at least 12 weeks, and are tailored to the student academic year to ensure on-time completion of medical education.


Assuntos
Política Organizacional , Licença Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761719

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We compared the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the general public, parents of children with ADHD, and primary school teachers and identified factors associated with ADHD knowledge in each group, separately.Secondary data analysis was made on the pre-lecture data from those (122 from the general public, 64 parents of children with ADHD, and 515 primary school teachers) attending education lectures by the Department of Public Health, New Taipei City Government, Taiwan, 2014.ADHD onset age was least known in these 3 groups. Knowledge of ADHD was significantly better among teachers (test score, 75.3%) than among parents (65.5%) and the general public (59.2%). Among the general public, the test score significantly decreased with age and was worst in those who did not know their friends or relatives with ADHD. Among parents, service workers, and retired/unemployed knew significantly less about ADHD than housewife did. Among teachers, men knew significantly less than women; those who taught children with ADHD knew significantly more than those who did not.Primary school teachers knew more about ADHD than parents and the general public. Factors associated with ADHD knowledge varied among the 3 groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais , Professores Escolares , Percepção Social , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Mellow Babies (MB) in the UK. MB is a 14-week early parenting intervention program that is delivered in groups and is targeted at 'at-risk' parents (both mothers and fathers) and their babies up to 18 months old. METHOD: The study used a pragmatic pre-post intervention design. Outcomes were parental mental health, parenting confidence, quality of life, socio-emotional development of children, and perceived parent-child relationship. Fifteen groups representing n = 91 parent-baby dyads were recruited across the UK between 2017-2018. The sample consisted of 10 Mellow Mums groups (70 mother-baby dyads) and 5 Mellow Dads groups (21 father-baby dyads). Intention-to-treat and 'completer' analyses were performed. RESULTS: Findings suggest short-term positive outcomes for parents attending MB. Completion of the program was associated with significant improvements in anxiety and overall wellbeing, parenting confidence, and perceived closeness of the parent-child relationship. The significance of these improvements, except for parenting confidence, was maintained in the intention-to-treat analysis. MB engaged and retained a high proportion of parents who could be considered 'at-risk' and benefitted fathers and mothers attending the intervention equally. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study to explore MB participation for both mothers and fathers and to indicate engagement and potential benefits specifically for 'at-risk' parents. Findings further demonstrate the effectiveness of MB as an early intervention program for parents experiencing psychosocial difficulties. Replication by studies using a contrast or control group also incorporating follow-up data would further improve the evidence base for MB.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Reino Unido
9.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 24(5): 311-322, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615975

RESUMO

Purpose: To explore the child- and parent-related effects of home-based bimanual training in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.Methods: Case series of 14 children (2-7 years) who completed goal-oriented task-specific training for 3.5 hours/week for 12 weeks by a program adopting implicit (n = 5) or explicit (n = 9) motor learning. A therapist and remedial educationalist coached parents. Progression on bimanual goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)) and therapy-related parental stress (interviews) were of primary interest. Data were collected at baseline (T0), halfway through and at the end of training (T1 and T2), and after 12 weeks (T3).Results: On the COPM performance scale a clinically relevant change was seen in 50% (7/14), 86% (12/14), and 85% (11/13) of the children, at T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Some parents indicated that they had experienced stress because of the training intensity.Conclusion: The child- and parent-related effects of the home-based bimanual training programs are encouraging.


Assuntos
Braço , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Mãos , Pais/educação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/educação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente
11.
Pediatrics ; 147(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558309

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Children with medical comorbidities are at greater risk for severe influenza and poorer clinical outcomes. Despite recommendations and funding, influenza vaccine coverage remains inadequate in these children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review literature assessing interventions targeting influenza vaccine coverage in children with comorbidities and assess the impact on influenza vaccine coverage. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and Web of Science databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Interventions targeting influenza vaccine coverage in children with medical comorbidities. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracting studies' methods, interventions, settings, populations, and results. Four reviewers independently assessed risk of bias. RESULTS: From 961 screened articles, 35 met inclusion criteria. Published studies revealed that influenza vaccine coverage was significantly improved through vaccination reminders and education directed at either patients' parents or providers, as well as by vaccination-related clinic process changes. Interventions improved influenza vaccine coverage by an average 60%, but no significant differences between intervention types were detected. Significant bias and study heterogeneity were also identified, limiting confidence in this effect estimate. LIMITATIONS: A high risk of bias and overall low quality of evidence limited our capacity to assess intervention types and methods. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions were shown to consistently improve influenza vaccine coverage; however, no significant differences in coverage between different intervention types were observed. Future well-designed studies evaluating the effectiveness of different intervention are required to inform future optimal interventions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Alerta , Cobertura Vacinal , Viés , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pais/educação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1259-1262, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570853

RESUMO

More than 7% of medical students graduate from medical school with at least 1 nonspouse dependent, the majority of whom are likely children. However, there are no national studies on medical students who are parents, and very little is known about what medical schools are doing to support them. A growing literature on the experiences of residents and attending physicians who are parents has neglected to include those of medical students who are parents. It is possible that focusing on research and policy change for residents and attending physicians who are parents without considering medical students may bring about improvements that come too late for many. Further data are needed both on the available policies for students who are parents and on the experiences and needs of these students. Leading national organizations in medical education can help guide medical schools by leveraging their national networks to highlight existing best practices and to foster discussions about how best to support medical students who are parents.


Assuntos
Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Médicas/psicologia , Gravidez , Apoio Social
13.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 54(2): 566-581, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600614

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder often display deficits in daily living skills. Behavior analysts can use telehealth, such as videoconferencing technology, to deliver interventions to families of these children. Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the common barriers to accessing behavioral interventions, it is imperative to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of delivering behavioral interventions via telehealth. This study evaluated the efficacy of a parent-implemented intervention with coaching via telehealth to improve daily living skills. Children ranging in age from 5 to 9 years participated in the study with 1 or 2 of their parents serving as the primary implementer(s). Parents implemented the intervention with fidelity and the intervention yielded increases in independent daily living skill completion for all 4 participants.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Tutoria/métodos , Pais/educação , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
15.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 139-145, feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychometric properties and initial normative information are provided for the sluggish cognitive tempo, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder, callous-unemotional behavior (limited prosocial emotions specifier), anxiety, depression, social impairment, and academic impairment scales of the Spanish Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. METHOD: Mothers, fathers, and teachers of 2,142 third to sixth grade Spanish children (49.49% girls; ages 8-13) from randomly selected schools on the Balearic Islands completed the Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. RESULTS: Scores from the scales demonstrated reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater), structural validity, and convergent/discriminant validity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder diagnoses for boys and girls separately for each source. Normative information (T-scores) is provided for the nine scales separately for boys and girls, with test information functions supporting use of the symptom scales for screening purposes. CONCLUSIONS: Although more comprehensive Spanish norms are still needed, the initial normative information on the scales should be useful to inform the clinical care of individual Spanish children, with the positive psychometric properties of the scores also supporting the use of the scale for research. Copies of the Spanish Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory and norms are available for free to clinicians and researchers


ANTECEDENTES: en este trabajo se presenta información psicométrica y normativa inicial de la versión española del Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory para las escalas: tempo cognitivo lento, inatención e hiperactividad/impulsividad del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, negativismo desafiante, dureza emocional, ansiedad, depresión, afectación social y deterioro académico. MÉTODO: una muestra de madres, padres y maestros de 2.142 niños españoles de tercer a sexto curso de escuelas seleccionadas al azar en las Islas Baleares completaron el Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. RESULTADOS: las puntuaciones de las escalas demostraron fiabilidad, validez estructural y validez de criterio con diagnósticos de TDAH y de trastornos del aprendizaje para niños y niñas. Se proporciona información normativa para las nueve escalas por separado para niños y niñas, mientras las funciones de información del test han respaldado el uso de las escalas de síntomas para fines de detección inicial. CONCLUSIONES: aunque todavía son necesarios datos normativos más completos en niños de muestras españolas, la información normativa inicial que proporcionamos de las escalas CABI debería ser útil para los informes en el ámbito clínico, además los datos psicométricos positivos de sus puntuaciones también apoyan su uso en investigación


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Pais/educação , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Mães , Emoções , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia
16.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(1): 1-3, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464974

RESUMO

Purpose African American English (AAE) speakers often face mismatches between home language and school language, coupled with negative attitudes toward AAE in the classroom. This forum, Serving African American English Speakers in Schools Through Interprofessional Education & Practice, will help researchers, parents, and school-based practitioners communicate in ways that are synergistic, collaborative, and transparent to improve educational outcomes of AAE speakers. Method The forum includes a tutorial offering readers instructions on how to engage in community-based participatory research (Holt, 2021). Through two clinical focus articles, readers will recognize how AAE develops during the preschool years and is expressed across various linguistic contexts and elicitation tasks (Newkirk-Turner & Green, 2021) and identify markers of developmental language disorder within AAE from language samples analyzed in Computerized Language Analysis (Overton et al., 2021). Seven empirical articles employ such designs as quantitative (Byrd & Brown, 2021; Diehm & Hendricks, 2021; Hendricks & Jimenez, 2021; Maher et al., 2021; Mahurin-Smith et al., 2021), qualitative (Hamilton & DeThorne, 2021), and mixed methods (Mills et al., 2021). These articles will help readers identify ways in which AAE affects how teachers view its speakers' language skills and communicative practices and relates to its speakers' literacy outcomes. Conclusion The goal of the forum is to make a lasting contribution to the discipline with a concentrated focus on how to assess and address communicative variation in the U.S. classroom.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Linguagem Infantil , Educação Interprofissional/métodos , Idioma , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/prevenção & controle , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pesquisadores/educação , Capacitação de Professores/métodos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 130, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516196

RESUMO

Knowledge among the rural parents about the vaccinations and vaccination coverage of children in the first year of life in Papua New Guinea - analysis of data provided by Christian Health Services. BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to assess rural parents' knowledge about the diseases prevented by vaccinations and establish vaccination coverage in PNG. METHODS: Knowledge of vaccinations was checked through a standard questionnaire (five closed questions). We analyzed data on vaccination coverage from 2016 to 2018 from all Catholic health facilities. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. Coverage was calculated based on the number of vaccines used compared to the number of eligible children. Analyzed vaccinations were the pentavalent vaccine (DTaP-HiB-HepB) and measles vaccine given in the first year of life. RESULTS: Fifty-six parents, including 52 mothers and four fathers, participated in the interview. Many parents (46%) understood that the vaccine prevents diseases. During the analyzed period, 25,502 doses of measles vaccine were given, 31,428 children were vaccinated with the pentavalent vaccine. In 2016, the measles vaccine coverage rate was 26.6 and 33.4% for the pentavalent vaccine. In 2017, measles and pentavalent vaccines' coverage rate was 12.5 and 16.6%, respectively. There were significant differences in immunization coverage between provinces. A decreasing trend in the number of administered vaccinations was observed. CONCLUSION: The results of this analysis demonstrate that in PNG, the majority of children are not fully immunized. There are significant differences in the vaccination coverage between provinces. As protection from diseases is low, there is a very high risk of an outbreak of the vaccine-preventable disease in the community. Delivery of vaccinations in PNG encounters many barriers, from access to healthcare services to natural disasters and inter-tribial conflicts.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Pais , População Rural , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação , Adulto , Redes Comunitárias , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/psicologia , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/uso terapêutico , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Combinadas/uso terapêutico
18.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 50: 101884, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine parents' knowledge of skin cancer and skin self-examination (SSE) and their efforts to protect their school aged children from the sun. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2018 and November 2019 in Turkey with 1004 parents of middle school students. RESULTS: Of the parents, 53.7% did not have knowledge about skin cancer or SSE, and 76% did not conduct SSEs with their 9-14 years old children. A total of 61.3% of the participants prevented their children from standing in the sun, but 56.1% did not apply sunscreen to their children. The total mean score on the Skin Cancer and Sun Knowledge Scale (SCSKS) was 13.16 ± 3.03. There were significant differences in the total SCSKS scores by parental gender, number of children, education level, economic status, use of sunscreen, frequency of application of sunscreen, use of light-colored clothing, prevention of exposure to sunlight, use of sunglasses outside, knowledge about skin cancer and SSE and knowledge about early diagnosis of skin cancer (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that parents' behaviors related to sun protection and their skin cancer and SSE knowledge levels were not sufficient. In schools, both students and parents should receive health education regarding skin cancer and prevention methods.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/educação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roupa de Proteção , Autoexame , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Turquia
19.
Nurs Womens Health ; 25(1): 63-70, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To implement an organization-wide evidence-based practice change to parent-performed, delayed immersion newborn bathing across nine facilities at a military health care system. DESIGN: Organization-wide evidence-based practice initiative using preimplementation and postimplementation data. SETTING: A military health system consisting of four medical centers and five community hospitals that averages 4,000 births each year. PARTICIPANTS: Term newborns (≥37 weeks gestation) born within the nine facilities. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENTS: Champions were identified at each facility to change bathing practice. Baths for newborns were delayed until 24 hours of age, unless otherwise requested. Parents were instructed how to tub bathe their newborn and encouraged to complete the bath in less than 5 minutes. The team reviewed 100 records from each hospital and compared pre- and postimplementation temperature data. RESULTS: The organization-wide practice change showed a statistically significant association between time point (i.e., before vs. after implementation) and postbathing hypothermia (χ2 = 30.91, p < .001). In addition, data also showed fewer hypothermic temperature readings (i.e., <97.7 °F [<36.5 °C]) from the onset of birth until 8 hours of life with the new bathing process. Although this difference was not statistically significant (p = .11), it holds clinical significance if it can be replicated; newborn hypothermia requires provider notification and can lead to additional testing to rule out infection and other concerns. CONCLUSION: Delaying newborns' first bath was associated with a significant decrease in the number of newborns who had hypothermic temperature readings immediately after the bath. The intervention involved minimal cost with multiple benefits. Delayed immersion bathing is a family-friendly process that can be implemented across an organization.


Assuntos
Banhos/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Pais/educação , Adulto , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Hipotermia/prevenção & controle , Imersão , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
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