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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764810

RESUMO

Disrupted parental sleep, presenting as post-partum fatigue and perceived as problematic infant sleep, is related to increased symptoms of depression and anxiety among new mothers and fathers. Previous research indicates that UK parents would value an approach that facilitates meeting their infants' needs while supporting their own sleep-related well-being throughout their infant's first year. Six initial stakeholder meetings were held with 15 practitioners and 6 parents with an interest in supporting parent-infant sleep needs, to explore existing service provision and identify gaps. The Possums Sleep Program developed and delivered in Brisbane, Australia in a GP clinic setting, was chosen as an appropriate approach. Working collaboratively with a stakeholder group, we translated the Possums Sleep Program into an intervention that could be universally delivered in the UK via NHS antenatal and postnatal practitioners. Parent and practitioner views of the initial materials were obtained via feedback questionnaires and the tool was revised. The intervention was then field-tested by 164 practitioners who delivered it to at least 535 new parents and babies over 5 UK locations, to capture anonymous parent and practitioner views of the intervention concept, the materials, and their experiences with both. The intervention helps parents recalibrate their expectations of infant sleep development, encourages responsive parenting and experimentation to meet their infant's needs, offers parents strategies for supporting the development of their babies' biological sleep regulators and promote their own well-being, and teaches parents to manage negative thinking and anxiety that can impede sleep using the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The 'Sleep, Baby & You' discussion tool, a 14 page illustrated booklet for parents, was field-tested and evaluated by practitioners and parents who offered enthusiastic feedback. Practitioners reported the 'Sleep, Baby & You' materials were easy for them to explain and for parents to understand, and were a good fit with the responsive parenting approaches they employed in other areas of their work. Parents who received the intervention postnatally understood the material and found the suggestions easy to follow. All parents who provided feedback had implemented one or more of the suggested changes, with the majority of changes (70%) being sustained for at least two weeks. Practitioners recommended development of digital and antenatal versions and offered feedback on circumstances that might challenge effective uptake of the intervention. 'Sleep, Baby & You' is a promising tool for promoting parental attitude and behaviour-change, that aims to adjust parental expectations and reduce negative thinking around infant sleep, promote responsive infant care in the face of infant-related sleep disruption and fatigue, and support parental well-being during the first year of parenthood. Initial field-testing provided insights useful for further development and subsequent testing via a randomised trial. Support exists for incorporating 'Sleep, Baby & You' into an anticipatory, universal intervention to support parents who may experience post-partum fatigue and infant sleep disruption.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pais/educação , Sono
2.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 163-170, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The New Mexico Graduation Reality and Dual-role Skills (GRADS) program provides services for expectant and parenting students at high schools. The GRADS program has operated since 1989, serving more than 17,000 youth. This study summarizes the GRADS program model and program administrators' lessons learned from implementing this comprehensive, large-scale program. DESCRIPTION: The GRADS program is a multicomponent intervention that can include a classroom intervention, case management, linkages to child care and health care, and support for young fathers. The program aims to support expectant and parenting youth in finishing high school, delaying a repeat pregnancy, promoting health outcomes for their children, and preparing for college and career. This study presents program administrators' lessons learned to increase understanding of how to implement a statewide program to support expectant and parenting students. ASSESSMENT: During the 2010-2017 school years, the GRADS program operated in 26-31 sites each year, serving a total of 2691 parenting youth. Program administrators identified lessons learned from implementing the GRADS program during that period of expansion, including allowing variation across sites based on resources and needs, providing centralized implementation support, fostering buy-in from school and district leaders, and collecting consistent data to better understand participant outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Although not based on a rigorous impact or implementation study, this article provides lessons learned from a statewide, school-based program that may be a promising way to serve a large number of expectant and parenting youth and help them overcome challenges for completing high school.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the 2% of US children being raised by their grandparents. We sought to characterize and compare grandparent- and parent-headed households with respect to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), child temperament, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and caregiver aggravation and coping. METHODS: Using a combined data set of children ages 3 to 17 from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we applied survey regression procedures, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders, to compare grandparent- and parent-headed households on composite and single-item outcome measures of ACEs; ADHD; preschool inattention and restlessness; child temperament; and caregiver aggravation, coping, support, and interactions with children. RESULTS: Among 80 646 households (2407 grandparent-headed, 78 239 parent-headed), children in grandparent-headed households experienced more ACEs (ß = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.38). Preschool-aged and school-aged children in grandparent-headed households were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 2.22 to 8.28; adjusted odds ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.20). School-aged children in these households had poorer temperament (ßadj = .25, 95% CI: -0.63 to 1.14), and their caregivers experienced greater aggravation (ßadj = .29, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49). However, these differences were not detected after excluding children with ADHD from the sample. No differences were noted between grandparent- and parent-headed households for caregiver coping, emotional support, or interactions with children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite caring for children with greater developmental problems and poorer temperaments, grandparent caregivers seem to cope with parenting about as well as parents.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Avós/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Avós/educação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Temperamento
4.
Am J Nurs ; 120(8): 32-37, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665509

RESUMO

If undiagnosed and untreated, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) can suddenly and drastically disrupt the lives of previously healthy children and their families. The key to prompt diagnosis of PANDAS and its appropriate treatment is provider awareness that streptococcal infection may present with neuropsychiatric symptoms. The authors discuss the signs and symptoms that characterize PANDAS, as well as its presumed pathogenesis, and illustrate, through a composite case history, a symptom presentation, diagnostic journey, treatment course, and recovery that is representative of many PANDAS cases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Pais/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/fisiopatologia
5.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(9): 819-824, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the views of Malaysian children with asthma and their parents to enhance understanding of early influences on development of self-management skills. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study conducted among children with asthma and their parents. We used purposive sampling and conducted focus groups and interviews using a semi-structured topic guide in the participants' preferred language. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, entered into NVivo and analysed using a grounded theory approach. SETTINGS: We identified children aged 7-12 years with parent-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma from seven suburban primary schools in Malaysia. Focus groups and interviews were conducted either at schools or a health centre. RESULTS: Ninety-nine participants (46 caregivers, 53 children) contributed to 24 focus groups and 6 individual interviews. Children mirrored their parents' management of asthma but, in parallel, learnt and gained confidence to independently self-manage asthma from their own experiences and self-experimentation. Increasing independence was more apparent in children aged 10 years and above. Cultural norms and beliefs influenced children's independence to self-manage asthma either directly or indirectly through their social network. External influences, for example, support from school and healthcare, also played a role in the transition. CONCLUSION: Children learnt the skills to self-manage asthma as early as 7 years old with growing independence from the age of 10 years. Healthcare professionals should use child-centred approach and involve schools to facilitate asthma self-management and support a smooth transition to independent self-management. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR-15-1242-26898).


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Autogestão/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/psicologia , Criança , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autogestão/psicologia
6.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(4): 406-426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This qualitative study examined views of research-supported parenting interventions across three stakeholder groups that have critical roles in child welfare-case managers, clinicians, and judicial representatives in one rural community. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members in each stakeholder group. Two analytic approaches were used. First, views on the selection of research-supported interventions, strengths and weaknesses, and professional collaboration in implementation were examined. Second, several factors in the literature impacting research-supported interventions were used to compare views. RESULTS: All stakeholder groups supported the use of research-supported therapies while agreeing that the overriding importance in selecting any therapy was to ensure the best "fit" with a client. Professional collaboration was considered essential in a variety of forms and combinations by all groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results highlight important considerations in selecting and implementing research-supported parent therapies. Recommendations to continue and expand this line of research are articulated.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Serviço Social/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
7.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 481-498, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443988

RESUMO

Child abuse is a public health concern with great costs to children, families, and society. Prevention of child abuse and maltreatment is an important clinical skill. Providers can take advantage of the opportunity to offer prevention interventions in the health care setting. Identification of risk factors and signs and symptoms of abuse, referral to local resources, parenting education, and application of the public health prevention framework should be integrated into clinical encounters. Identification of sentinel injuries enables tertiary interventions to save lives. Primary interventions during early childhood using effective parenting programs has been shown to reduce child maltreatment.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Prevenção Primária , Prevenção Secundária , Prevenção Terciária , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 636, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents are key decision makers and role models in establishing and maintaining healthy behaviours in their children. Interventions involving parents have been shown to be more effective than those that do not, but there are barriers to participation. Efficacy trials have previously been conducted on two such parent-focussed healthy eating and active living interventions with the potential to overcome these barriers - Healthy Habits (telephone-based) and Time2bHealthy (online) with promising results. Further research is now required to determine the effectiveness of these interventions in a real-world context. The Time for Healthy Habits study is a 3-arm partially randomised preference trial which aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two theory-based programs to promote healthy eating and appropriate levels of movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep) for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children (Healthy Habits Plus telephone-based program and Time2bHealthy online program), when compared to a comparison group receiving written materials. METHODS: Participants will be recruited across five Local Health Districts in New South Wales, Australia. The partially randomised preference design initially allows for participants to decide if they wish to be randomised or opt to select their preferred intervention and has been recommended for use to test effectiveness in a real-world setting. Both interventions incorporate multiple behaviour change techniques and support parents to improve their children's healthy eating, and movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep) and run for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-month and 9-month post-baseline follow-up. Participants will also be asked to complete a process evaluation questionnaire at the completion of the intervention (3-months post-baseline). Outcomes include fruit and vegetable intake (primary outcome), non-core food intake, weight status, physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep habits. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first translational research trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a healthy eating and active living intervention in the 2- to 6-years age group. The results will build the evidence base in regard to translation of effective childhood obesity prevention interventions and inform the implementation and delivery of community based childhood obesity prevention programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UTN: U1111-1228-9748, ACTRN: 12619000396123p.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Apoio Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Traduções
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 634, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living in challenged humanitarian settings (including those in rural/underserved areas, the displaced, refugees, in conflict/post conflict situations) are at greater risk of mental health difficulties or behavioural problems, with caregivers acting as their main protective factors. While many family skills programmes exist, very few were developed for, or piloted in, low resource settings (settings with limited infrastructure, typical of humanitarian settings). We therefore designed a brief and light programme; the Strong Families (SF) programme, consisting of 5 h contact time over 3 weeks. We conducted a pilot study with the aim to test the feasibility of implementation, and a preliminary look at the effectiveness of SF, in improving child behaviour and family functioning in families living in Afghanistan. METHODS: We recruited female caregivers and children aged 8-12 years through schools and drug treatment centres in Afghanistan and enrolled them in the SF programme. Demographic data, emotional and behavioural difficulties of children and parental skills and family adjustment measures were collected from caregivers before, 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Outcome was assessed through the SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), assessing children's behavioural, emotional, and social issues, and PAFAS (Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales), measuring parenting practices and family functioning. RESULTS: We enrolled 72 families in the programme with a 93.1% retention rate (n = 67) for data collection 6 weeks post intervention. Mean age of caregivers was 36.1 years, they had 3.8 children on average and 91.7% of them had experienced war/armed conflict in their past. The average total difficulty score of the SDQ (ranging from 0 to 40, with scores above 16 being indicative of high problems) of the 72 children reduced significantly, from 17.8 at pre-test to 12.9 at post-test and 10.6 at second follow-up, with no difference in gender and most noticeably amongst those with the highest scores at baseline. Likewise, PAFAS scores decreased significantly after the programme, again with caregivers with the highest scores at baseline improving most. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a brief family skills programme was seemingly effective and feasible in a resource-limited setting and positively improved child mental health and parenting practices and family adjustment skills. These results suggest the value of such a programme and call for further validation through other methods of impact assessment and outcome evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN76509384. Retrospectively registered on March 9, 2020.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Cuidadores/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Social
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD008552, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Testing the effects of interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, including those focused on specific child-feeding strategies or broader multicomponent interventions targeting the home or childcare environment is required to assess the potential to reduce this disease burden. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 January 2020. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in November 2019. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included trials to identify further potentially relevant trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included trials; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included 80 trials with 218 trial arms and 12,965 participants. Fifty trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child vegetable intake. Fifteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education only in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Fourteen trials examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Two trials examined the effect of a nutrition education intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One trial examined the impact of a child-focused mindfulness intervention in increasing vegetable intake. We judged 23 of the 80 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains. Performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining trials. There is low-quality evidence that child-feeding practices versus no intervention may have a small positive effect on child vegetable consumption, equivalent to an increase of 5.30 grams as-desired consumption of vegetables (SMD 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.71; 19 trials, 2140 participants; mean post-intervention follow-up = 8.3 weeks). Multicomponent interventions versus no intervention has a small effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55; 9 trials, 2961 participants; moderate-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 5.4 weeks), equivalent to an increase of 0.34 cups of fruit and vegetables a day. It is uncertain whether there are any short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.28; 11 trials, 3050 participants; very low-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 13.2 weeks). We were unable to pool child nutrition education interventions in meta-analysis; both trials reported a positive intervention effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (low-quality evidence). Very few trials reported long-term effectiveness (6 trials), cost effectiveness (1 trial) or unintended adverse consequences of interventions (2 trials), limiting our ability to assess these outcomes. Trials reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for four trials reporting industry funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Despite identifying 80 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains limited in terms of quality of evidence and magnitude of effect. Of the types of interventions identified, there was moderate-quality evidence that multicomponent interventions probably lead to, and low-quality evidence that child-feeding practice may lead to, only small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. It is uncertain whether parent nutrition education or child nutrition education interventions alone are effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. Our confidence in effect estimates for all intervention approaches, with the exception of multicomponent interventions, is limited on the basis of the very low to low-quality evidence. Long-term follow-up of at least 12 months is required and future research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field. This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Frutas , Pais , Verduras , Pré-Escolar , Condicionamento Psicológico , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(5): 287-292, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317570

RESUMO

Multisite study participation provides an opportunity for hospitals to gain access to the resources required to facilitate nursing research. The nurse-led Parent Educational Discharge Support Strategies for children newly diagnosed with cancer (PEDSS) multisite study engaged direct care nurses for successful implementation across 16 Magnet-designated hospitals. This article addresses strategies to overcome barriers to nursing research demonstrated through the PEDSS experience.


Assuntos
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Pais/educação , Alta do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tackling the increasing global problem of childhood overweight and obesity requires an integrated approach. Studies increasingly emphasize the importance of the parents' role in interventions designed to prevent overweight in children. The aim of this study was to develop a unified set of recommendations for healthy parenting practices that can be applied by all professionals who work with children age 4-13 years and can contribute to strengthening the integrated approach to childhood overweight. METHODS: A modified Delphi procedure was used to reach consensus regarding what these pedagogical recommendations should encompass. The 30 panelists were professionals and researchers who work with children age 4-13 in the domains of health care, overweight, parenting, education, nutrition, and/or sports. The procedure consisted of: i) extracting existing pedagogical recommendations from national guidelines and professional protocols, ii) appraising and prioritizing these recommendations in terms of relevance through two rounds of questionnaires, and iii) meeting to discuss and approve the set of recommendations. RESULTS: Consensus was reached for one set of eleven pedagogical theme-based recommendations designed to support and instruct parents how to stimulate healthy energy balance‒related behaviors in their child. Each recommendation contained information regarding: i) which behaviors in the child and/or parent are important, ii) why this is important, and iii) how parents can stimulate this behavior by applying parenting skills in daily life. The eleven themes were: modeling, positive parenting, breakfast, varied diet, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, physical activity, playing sports, quantity of screen time, screen time during meals, and sleep. CONCLUSION: We developed a set of recommendations for healthy parenting that can be used by various professionals working with children age 4-13 and can contribute to creating an integrated approach to childhood overweight. We also developed a web-based app called "Recommendations for Healthy Parenting" as a convenient tool for following these recommendations.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnica Delfos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Public Health ; 182: 39-44, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent trends of 'vaccine hesitancy' have resulted in calls for public health campaigns to improve immunisation uptake to World Health Organisation (WHO) targets. One potential strategy to improve uptake is to offer opportunistic vaccination to those hospital in-patients who have missed them. We aimed to evaluate parental and staff attitudes about introducing such a service for hospitalised children. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional questionnaire-based design. METHODS: We developed and distributed a questionnaire for parents/guardians of paediatric inpatients aged 5 years and under, and a questionnaire for frontline paediatric staff (including medical, nursing and allied health professionals). Vaccination rates were assessed through discussion with parents and by reviewing the personal child health record. RESULTS: One-hundred families and 100 paediatric staff participated. Local vaccination rates were significantly below the WHO target (P < 0.001), particularly for the Bacille Calmette-Guerine (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.001). Both parents (89/100, 89%) and staff (87/100, 87%) regarded inpatient opportunistic vaccination acceptable. Parents of children with chronic disease reported a potentially higher rate of missed vaccinations, stating reasons of frequent illness and inpatient stays. The majority of staff (81/95, 85.3%) would be willing to support inpatient vaccination if appropriately trained. A significant minority had reservations. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunistic vaccination is a strategy deemed acceptable by the majority of parents and staff. Children with chronic disease would especially benefit from opportunistic inpatient immunisation. In order to facilitate this, improved digital access to primary care vaccination records and investment in staff training, education and support would be required.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pais/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between parental divorce and adolescents' academic achievement may depend on parental educational levels. However, findings have been inconsistent regarding whether the negative associations between parental divorce and adolescents' academic outcomes are greater or smaller in highly educated families. The present study aimed to investigate the possible heterogeneity in the associations between divorce and adolescents' academic achievement by parental educational levels, within the context of the elaborate Norwegian welfare state. METHODS: The population-based cross-sectional youth@hordaland study of adolescents aged 16-19 years conducted in Norway in 2012, provided information about parental divorce and was linked to national administrative registries (N = 9,166) to obtain high-quality, objective data on the adolescents' grade point average (GPA), and their parents' educational qualifications and income. RESULTS: The negative association between parental divorce and GPA was stronger among adolescents with educated or highly educated parents compared to adolescents with less educated parents. This heterogeneity was driven by maternal educational qualifications, whereby divorce was more strongly and negatively associated with GPA among adolescents with educated mothers compared to those with less educated mothers, independent of paternal educational levels and income measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents whose parents have low educational qualifications, parental divorce is not associated with their academic achievement. Educated divorced mothers appear less likely to transfer their educational advantages onto their children than nondivorced equally educated mothers, perhaps due to a "double-burden" regarding work pressure and child-rearing responsibilities. There is a need for future studies to detail the mechanisms underlying this finding.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Divórcio , Escolaridade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Divórcio/psicologia , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pais/educação , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Can J Surg ; 63(2): E155-E160, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216252

RESUMO

Background: Pages to house staff after hours, especially overnight, lead to interrupted sleep and fatigue the next day. Although some pages are urgent, others may not need an immediate response. In this study we aimed to identify unwarranted pages and to establish ways to reduce them. Methods: Over 2 months, all pages to the Department of Pediatric Urology at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, during call hours were documented, including the assessment of the responding physicians of their medical necessity. After analyzing the reasons for inappropriate pages, we took several steps to try to reduce them without impairing patient care. One year later, pages were tracked again to evaluate the efficacy of our interventions. Results: In the initial measurement period, no calls from parents and approximately 50% of the in-hospital pages (15 of 36 pages from the wards, 27 of 49 pages from the emergency department, 17 of 31 pages requesting consultations, and 8 of 8 pages from the inhouse pharmacy and outside pharmacies) were considered medically urgent. The reasons for unwarranted pages were inconsistent parent teaching, lack of adequate triaging and prioritizing on the ward and lack of awareness of the structure of the on-call provisions among different services in the hospital. Several steps were taken to streamline the teaching of parents and nurses, standardize information, provide alternative means of communication within the hospital and restrict parents' access by phone to the urologist on call. One year later, the number of pages had decreased by 70%. Conclusion: Although physician coverage throughout the day and night is necessary for high-quality and safe patient care, communication with on-call physicians should be only for appropriate reasons. The provision of consistent teaching and alternative communication channels can improve patient care as well as decrease the number of after-hour pages.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico , Eficiência Organizacional , Sistemas de Comunicação no Hospital , Carga de Trabalho , Canadá , Comunicação , Bolsas de Estudo , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Pais/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Urologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023923

RESUMO

Objective: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Victoria, Australia, previously evaluated parent-report outcomes following Confident Body, Confident Child: a program for parents to promote healthful eating patterns and positive body image in pre-schoolers. This exploratory study evaluated data from children of parents in the trial at 18 months follow-up. Method: Participants were 89 children (58 girls, 31 boys) of parents across all RCT arms (group A: Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC) resource + workshop, n = 27; group B: CBCC resource only, n = 26; group C: nutrition booklet, n = 18; group D: wait-list control, n = 18). Children's eating patterns, body image and weight bias were assessed via play-based interview. Results: Children of CBCC parents reported higher body esteem. Children of nutrition booklet parents reported stronger weight bias. Children of CBCC workshop parents reported lower External Eating. Discussion: This exploratory study suggests that CBCC may promote healthy eating patterns and child body image 18 months after parents receive the intervention.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vitória
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011895, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent vaccination has received increased attention since the Global Vaccine Action Plan's call to extend the benefits of immunisation more equitably beyond childhood. In recent years, many programmes have been launched to increase the uptake of different vaccines in adolescent populations; however, vaccination coverage among adolescents remains suboptimal. Therefore, understanding and evaluating the various interventions that can be used to improve adolescent vaccination is crucial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of interventions to improve vaccine uptake among adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: In October 2018, we searched the following databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, and eight other databases. In addition, we searched two clinical trials platforms, electronic databases of grey literature, and reference lists of relevant articles. For related systematic reviews, we searched four databases. Furthermore, in May 2019, we performed a citation search of five other websites. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies of adolescents (girls or boys aged 10 to 19 years) eligible for World Health Organization-recommended vaccines and their parents or healthcare providers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened records, reviewed full-text articles to identify potentially eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias, resolving discrepancies by consensus. For each included study, we calculated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate. We pooled study results using random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies (eight individually randomised trials, four cluster randomised trials, three non-randomised trials, and one controlled before-after study). Twelve studies were conducted in the USA, while there was one study each from: Australia, Sweden, Tanzania, and the UK. Ten studies had unclear or high risk of bias. We categorised interventions as recipient-oriented, provider-oriented, or health systems-oriented. The interventions targeted adolescent boys or girls or both (seven studies), parents (four studies), and providers (two studies). Five studies had mixed participants that included adolescents and parents, adolescents and healthcare providers, and parents and healthcare providers. The outcomes included uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) (11 studies); hepatitis B (three studies); and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular-pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal, HPV, and influenza (three studies) vaccines among adolescents. Health education improves HPV vaccine uptake compared to usual practice (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.76; I² = 0%; 3 studies, 1054 participants; high-certainty evidence). In addition, one large study provided evidence that a complex multi-component health education intervention probably results in little to no difference in hepatitis B vaccine uptake compared to simplified information leaflets on the vaccine (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99; 17,411 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Financial incentives may improve HPV vaccine uptake compared to usual practice (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.99; 1 study, 500 participants; low-certainty evidence). However, we are uncertain whether combining health education and financial incentives has an effect on hepatitis B vaccine uptake, compared to usual practice (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.00; 1 study, 104 participants; very low certainty evidence). Mandatory vaccination probably leads to a large increase in hepatitis B vaccine uptake compared to usual practice (RR 3.92, 95% CI 3.65 to 4.20; 1 study, 6462 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Provider prompts probably make little or no difference compared to usual practice, on completion of Tdap (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.80; 2 studies, 3296 participants), meningococcal (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.79; 2 studies, 3219 participants), HPV (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.81; 2 studies, 859 participants), and influenza (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.34; 2 studies, 1439 participants) vaccination schedules (moderate-certainty evidence). Provider education with performance feedback may increase the proportion of adolescents who are offered and accept HPV vaccination by clinicians, compared to usual practice. Compared to adolescents visiting non-participating clinicians (in the usual practice group), the adolescents visiting clinicians in the intervention group were more likely to receive the first dose of HPV during preventive visits (5.7 percentage points increase) and during acute visits (0.7 percentage points for the first and 5.6 percentage points for the second doses of HPV) (227 clinicians and more than 200,000 children; low-certainty evidence). A class-based school vaccination strategy probably leads to slightly higher HPV vaccine uptake than an age-based school vaccination strategy (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.13; 1 study, 5537 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). A multi-component provider intervention (including an education session, repeated contacts, individualised feedback, and incentives) probably improves uptake of HPV vaccine compared to usual practice (moderate-certainty evidence). A multi-component intervention targeting providers and parents involving social marketing and health education may improve HPV vaccine uptake compared to usual practice (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.59; 1 study, 25,869 participants; low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Various strategies have been evaluated to improve adolescent vaccination including health education, financial incentives, mandatory vaccination, and class-based school vaccine delivery. However, most of the evidence is of low to moderate certainty. This implies that while this research provides some indication of the likely effect of these interventions, the likelihood that the effects will be substantially different is high. Therefore, additional research is needed to further enhance adolescent immunisation strategies, especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are limited adolescent vaccination programmes. In addition, it is critical to understand the factors that influence hesitancy, acceptance, and demand for adolescent vaccination in different settings. This is the topic of an ongoing Cochrane qualitative evidence synthesis, which may help to explain why and how some interventions were more effective than others in increasing adolescent HPV vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Pais/educação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinação/tendências
19.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101419, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927404

RESUMO

Behavioral parenting interventions decrease early childhood behavior problems and increase positive parenting skills. However, few studies have examined the impact of low intensity interventions for infants at risk for behavior problems on changes in parent language. This study examined the effect of a brief parenting intervention, the Infant Behavior Program, on changes in parent linguistic input and its influence on infant language. Participants were 58 mothers and their12- to 15-month-olds, with elevated levels of behavioral problems. Mothers and their infants were from primarily Hispanic and low-income backgrounds. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to receive the Infant Behavior Program or standard pediatric primary care. Mothers receiving the Infant Behavior Program provided more linguistic input, which indirectly influenced infant language, and suggest targeting infants at risk for behavior problems can have a broader impact on language development.


Assuntos
Educação Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Idioma , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 25: 113-119, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a highly variable condition and its clinical features cannot reliably be predicted from the genotype. Counselling of parents of a child with TSC is challenging because of the variability of the condition and the changing outlook due to new treatment options. This study explored current counselling strategies in TSC in the Netherlands, with the aim of developing a recommendation for counselling. METHOD: We performed a nationwide survey using digital questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent to parents of children diagnosed with TSC, and to medical doctors involved in counselling, both no more than ten years prior to the study. Questions focused on general information about the child with TSC, medical doctors involved in counselling, type of information provided, mode of providing information, and recommendations for improvement of counselling. RESULTS: Parents of 34 children diagnosed with TSC (7 prenatally) and 18 medical doctors from different departments responded to the questionnaires. Almost all parents were informed on the neurological and cardiac symptoms of TSC, other symptoms were mentioned less often. Satisfaction on counselling was higher when more information on the variability of TSC was provided, preferentially during a clinical visit, when emotional support was provided, and when parents were notified of the TSC patient society. CONCLUSIONS: Information on the variability in expression and quality of life is highly demanded by (expecting) parents of a child with TSC. Furthermore, reference should be made to institutions such as the support organisation for patients and social services for questions and support.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Pais/educação , Esclerose Tuberosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
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