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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133835, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963219

RESUMO

The study aimed to identify umami peptides from Boletus edulis and explore their umami mechanism. 421, 713 and 616 peptides identified by LC-MS/MS from control sample (CS), enzymatically extracted sample (EES) and high-pressure cooking sample (HPCS), respectively. According to molecular docking study, three potential umami peptides (DGF, KCGQ and HHYE) were chemically synthesized for sensory evaluation. DGF/HHYE had the lowest umami recognition threshold values in the absence (0.37 mmol/L for DGF)/presence (0.21 mmol/L for HHYE) of monosodium l-glutamate. KCGQ exhibited the strongest synergistic umami effect. Molecular dynamic simulation revealed that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the major intermolecular interaction forces and the charged amino acid residues (D1, E4 and K1) in umami peptides were dominate in the molecular recognition of umami peptides and the receptor. This study lays the groundwork for the efficient screening of umami peptides from edible fungi and contributes to the umami peptides structure-activity relationship research.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar , Basidiomycota , Cromatografia Líquida , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química
2.
Food Chem ; 398: 133794, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964564

RESUMO

To explore the contribution of different lipid oxidation stages to flavor formation in salted egg yolk, potential pathways of flavor formation were characterized by multi-omics strategy and partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM). 72 lipids, 135 metabolites and 5 volatiles related to lipid oxidation were screened out. The degradation of aldehydes and ketones, and the generation of tryptamine and elaidic acid, etc. were promoted by triglycerides (TG) (10:0 16:0 18:1), triglycerides (TG) (18:0 20:1 22:0), etc. at primary and secondary oxidation stage, respectively. The generation of acetophenone, thianaphthene, etc. through the pathway of 2-phenylacetamide, hexanoylcarnitine, etc. was facilitated by these triglycerides (TG) at primary oxidation stage. Furthermore, amino acid metabolisms, pentose phosphate pathway and linoleic acid metabolism occurred at secondary oxidation stage were key pathways to form distinctive flavor. In conclusion, secondary oxidation stage may be more important for the formation of unique flavor (taste) in salted egg yolk.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Cloreto de Sódio , Gema de Ovo/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Paladar , Triglicerídeos/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 403: 134263, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166927

RESUMO

To comprehensively analyse flavour substance formation in Congou black tea, dynamic changes in non-volatile and volatile compositions and enzymatic activity were analysed. In total, 107 non-volatile and 222 volatile compositions were identified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-exactive mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive/MS) and stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS), and eight metabolic pathways were explored during tea processing. Significant variations in metabolites were observed during processing (P < 0.05), especially in the fermentation stage, including high accumulation of taste and colour substances due to decreased flavonoid synthase activity and elevated oxidase activity. Correlation analysis clarified that the mutual transformation between non-volatile and volatile substances occurs in certain types of processing, including amino acids, amino acid-derived volatiles (AADVs), glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs), and volatile terpenoids (VTs). Our study provides a detailed overview of the dynamic changes of in flavour substrates and key enzyme activities during Congou black tea processing.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Chá/química , Paladar , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
4.
Food Chem ; 403: 134385, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174337

RESUMO

Previous studies acknowledged that tartaric acid-imparted low-pH contributed to the enhancement of astringency, but in-depth studies are lacking and the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. This work introduced new insight into the effect of tartaric acid on astringency perception from the perspectives of complex formation, protein secondary structure, chemical bond type and salivary layer fluidity by establishing models using proteins (α-amylase, salivary proteins) and tannic acid. Results demonstrated that tartaric acid affects wine astringency by two mechanisms: a) Tartaric acid compound directly affects the wine astringency by forming ternary complexes and causing the protein structure to stretch by changing the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic bond between protein-polyphenol complexes. b) pH affected astringency by increasing the fluidity of the salivary layer rather than increasing the consumption of the salivary layer. The findings provide valuable information to the wine industry to regulate wine astringency by the management of tartaric acid.


Assuntos
Adstringentes , Vinho , Adstringentes/química , Vinho/análise , Paladar , Tartaratos
5.
Food Chem ; 403: 134215, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179639

RESUMO

The non-volatile compounds in Chinese soy sauce (CSS) and Japanese soy sauce (JSS) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified by amino acid analyser and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry combined with derivatization method (DER-GC-MS). Forty-nine compounds were identified, including 19 amino acids, 8 sugars, 6 sugar alcohols, 8 organic acids and 8 others. Six groups of taste compounds were added to the water at natural concentration in soy sauce were able to reconstitute taste models of CSS and JSS, with no remarkable differences from the soy sauce taste profiles. Through three different rounds of omission tests, it was clear that the recombination models of 10 and 11 key compounds could simulate the typical taste characteristics of CSS and JSS, respectively, with the shared compounds NaCl, glutamate, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, lactic acid, citric acid, and > 500 Da components. This study provided an important theoretical basis for the in-depth research on the soy sauce flavor.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Paladar , Japão , Aminoácidos/análise , China , Recombinação Genética
6.
Food Chem ; 403: 134034, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191422

RESUMO

Cheddar cheese was desirable by consumers worldwide due to its characteristic taste and aroma, but limited information was available about taste contributors. Therefore, sensory profiles of natural Cheddar cheeses were investigated by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Umami, salty, and brothy attributes were the principal differential attributes. Nonvolatile metabolites were analyzed to decipher their taste contributions, of which free amino acids (FAAs) and organic acids recorded the most considerable differences. The key taste compounds were identified by partial least squares regression (PLSR), reconstitution, and omission tests. NaCl and glutamic acid (Glu) were the primary contributors of salty and umami tastes, respectively. Sourness was synergistically affected by organic acids and Glu. Despite their limited taste impacts, the remaining amino acids intensified sourness and saltiness when mixed with Glu. Organic acids (especially in combination) and NaCl exhibited significant taste enhancements. These results provided deep insight into crucial nonvolatile metabolites promoting Cheddar cheese tastes.


Assuntos
Queijo , Cloreto de Sódio , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Paladar , Aminoácidos , Ácido Glutâmico
7.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109008, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274373

RESUMO

This study evaluated whether different colour intensities of ribeye steaks from dark-cutting (B4 grade) beef carcasses (Dark-B4DK/Moderate-B4MD) were similar in appearance and eating quality to steaks from normal (N) carcasses of lower marbling grades (AA or A) as assessed by consumers. The B4MDAAA and B4DK/MDAA had similar raw appearance and eating quality to N carcasses with a one quality downgrade for marbling (P > 0.1), potentially supporting a B4MDAAA and B4DK/MDAA re-class to NAA and NA grades, respectively. Cooked B4DKAAA steaks had greater juiciness and tenderness acceptability (P < 0.01) and similar appearance, flavour and overall acceptability and purchase intent compared to NAA steaks (P > 0.1). However, consumers perceived greater marbling and lower colour acceptability (P < 0.01) in raw B4DKAAA compared to NAA steaks, lowering the purchase intent scores of B4DKAAA steaks (P < 0.01). These results suggest merit for continuing a B4DKAAA segregated grade, unless the superior eating quality of B4DKAAA could offset its poorer raw appearance through consumer education or modified atmosphere packaging.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Canadá , Culinária , Paladar
8.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109012, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274372

RESUMO

This study evaluated the combination of high-power ultrasound (HPU), micronized salt (MS), and low KCl levels as a strategy to produce reduced sodium Bologna-type sausages. Samples with 50% NaCl reduction were produced with regular salt (RS) or MS and 0.5% KCl. The sausages were sonicated for 0 or 27 min in an ultrasonic bath (25 kHz, 60% amplitude, normal mode, 20 °C) immediately after filling. The sodium reformulation strategy was effective in compensating for the defects in the emulsion stability and texture profile caused by the NaCl reduction. Besides, the combination of HPU, MS, and KCl did not cause major impacts on the evolution of pH, Eh, and TBARS values of the sausages during storage (21 days at 4 °C). The use of MS and KCl also allowed a reduction by 50% of the NaCl content (< 42% Na; Na/K ratio: 1.2 to 1.3) of the samples without affecting the salty taste, which was enhanced by the HPU treatment.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Cloreto de Sódio , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Produtos da Carne/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Sódio , Paladar
9.
Meat Sci ; 195: 109006, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274374

RESUMO

Cultured meat is introduced as a valuable traditional meat equivalent. However, before marketable end products are available, several hurdles need to be overcome. Among others, these issues comprise obtaining an optimal nutritional profile and approaching the texture, the colour and the unique flavour and taste of conventional meat. Furthermore, the impact of processing on these matters is also still subject of future research. Moreover, more profound knowledge on food-safety aspects, like microbial contamination, prions, possible genetically engineered starting material, etc., and ways to reduce such risks will determine the future success of cultured meat products. Undoubtedly, correct terminology and adequate definitions also require further attention, as these form the starting point of legislative/regulatory aspects. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview on nutritional, technofunctional and sensorial properties, and food-safety and legislative/regulatory aspects on cultured meat production. Additionally, the various challenges and future steps of these aspects of cultured meat are highlighted.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Paladar
10.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134696, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323036

RESUMO

In the context of the olive oil flavoured with chili peppers, the aim of this study was to compare co-milling of sound olives and fresh chili peppers at mill scale to infusion of dried chili peppers in oil, using the same batch of olives for all oils. Capsaicinoids by HPLC-DAD, volatile profile by HS-SPME-GC-MS and HS-GC-IMS and sensory profile were characterized. Capsaicinoids were statistically higher in oils prepared with green (52.0-68.0 mg/kg) than red (48.0-60.2 mg/kg) chili peppers. Oils flavoured by infusion showed higher contents of volatile compounds linked to defects such as acetic acid, with winey/vinegary sensory defect (median, 1.72-2.02) and no fresh pepper flavour. Oils prepared by co-milling resulted rich in the typical esters of chili pepper (6.175 and 4.156 mg/kg with green and red chili peppers, respectively), with pleasant hotness sensation and fresh pepper flavour. Overall, the co-milling approach allowed obtaining flavoured samples with improved sensory quality.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Olea , Piper nigrum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Azeite de Oliva , Aromatizantes , Paladar
11.
Int J Oncol ; 62(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382671

RESUMO

Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G protein­coupled receptors originally detected in the gustatory system. More recently, T2Rs have been shown to be expressed in extra­oral cells eliciting non­gustatory functions. Emerging evidence has suggested a potential role for T2R signaling in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. -The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of T2R14 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to assess its involvement in the anticancer effects induced by apigenin, a natural ligand of T2R14. For this purpose, T2R14 expression was explored in PDAC tumor tissue and tumor­derived cell lines. Using the cell lines expressing the highest levels of T2R14, its effects on chemoresponsiveness and migration upon activation with apigenin were investigated in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to confirm the expression of the T2R family member T2R14 in PDAC. Patients with relatively high levels of T2R14 expression exhibited significantly prolonged overall survival compared with that of patients with low T2R14 expression. Furthermore, novel functions for apigenin were revealed; notably, apigenin was shown to elicit cytotoxic, anti­migratory and chemosensitizing effects to 5­fluoruracil (5­FU) and to 5­FU, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin in pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study extended the evidence for the anticancer effects of apigenin and strongly indicated the functional relevance of T2R14 in PDAC, even though their respective underlying pathways appear to be independent of each other.


Assuntos
Apigenina , Paladar , Humanos , Paladar/fisiologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fluoruracila
12.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134505, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223671

RESUMO

This study aims to report the chemical changes, specifically the nucleotides and free amino acids (FAAs) during refrigerated storage of live sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (7 °C) and packed gonads (2 °C) and respective contributions to overall taste. Results showed that the adenylate energy charge (AEC) is an adequate indicator for live sea urchin through storage, while K-value does not distinguish freshness. Changes of both indexes were not clear in packed gonads. The FAAs profile were related with maturation stage where amino acids associated to sweet (Gly, Ala), umami (Glu) and bitter (Arg, Lys, His, Val) had significant contribution to overall taste. In general, the storage did not significantly affect the FAAs content nor its contribution to overall taste in contrast to nucleotides that seemed to induce potential changes after day 5. The findings provide insights that will complement a full study on quality index scheme development of the products.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos , Paracentrotus , Animais , Paladar , Aminoácidos , Gônadas
13.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134414, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240553

RESUMO

By combining python script invocation, the batch processing of molecular docking was achieved to screen 20 potential umami peptides out of the 208 peptides identified in chicken soup. Nine peptides were dominated by umami taste according to sensory analysis, among which PPQEAAQF (2.56) has the highest umami intensity, followed by AEEHVEAVN (2.43) and NEFGYSNR (2.19). The threshold of nine peptides ranged from 0.08 mM to 0.58 mM. In 0.35 % MSG, the effective threshold of umami-enhancing effect of LPLQD was 0.24 mM. In addition, the molecular docking results indicated that His71, Ser107, and Asp147 of taste receptor type 1 member 1, and Asn68, Asp216, His387, and Ala302 of taste receptor type 1 member 3 play critical roles in the binding with umami peptides by forming hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force. Thus, the combination of molecular docking and python script invocation was effective and economical for umami peptides screening.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Peptídeos , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Galinhas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Paladar , Aromatizantes/química
14.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134524, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242961

RESUMO

Dried edible mushrooms have a unique flavor which is worth exploring to preserve and improve their flavor.Light can improve flavor for dried edible mushrooms, but there are few reports about monochromatic light. In this study, effects of red-light, yellow-light, green-light, blue-light and white-light on the umami taste and aroma of dried Suillus granulatus were investigated. The results showed that contents of umami amino acids and 5-nucleotides, equivalent umami concentration (EUC) and electronic tongue umami scores were higher under blue-light treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) of volatiles showed that comprehensive scores under blue-light treatment were higher. The flavor was better under five light treatments at 6 and 9 days. Partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) further revealed the detailed differences between various light treatments, which were mainly caused by umami amino acids, alcohols, ketones and pyrazines. Collectively,blue-light treatment can be used as a processing technology to improve the flavor quality of dried edible mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Odorantes , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Nariz Eletrônico , Agaricales/química , Aminoácidos/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134527, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242962

RESUMO

Casein hydrolysates are important additives to foods for elderly and sports nutrition. However, due to the enzymatic generation of so-called bitter peptides, their application is limited. Therefore, the procedure needs to be optimized in order to restrict their occurrence. For this, extensive sensory evaluations are necessary. By combining two separation techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography, we present a novel method for estimating the bitter taste of hydrolysate samples on the basis of their elution pattern. Using a size exclusion column in the first and a reversed phase column in the second dimension allows for a detailed sample evaluation regarding peptide size and relative hydrophobicity. The results obtained for different casein hydrolysates were correlated with the sensory evaluation. We found that hydrolysates with increasing bitterness contain a higher amount of peptides of high hydrophobicity and a molecular weight less than 6.5 kDa.


Assuntos
Caseínas , Paladar , Humanos , Idoso , Caseínas/química , Peptídeos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrolisados de Proteína/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134562, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244067

RESUMO

Umami peptides have been the focus of umami studies in recent years because of their high nutritional value and flavor activity. However, the existing screening methods of umami peptides were cumbersome, complex, time-consuming and laborious, and it was difficult to achieve high-throughput screening. In this study, a novel umami peptide rapid screening model was designed and by using lamb bone aqueous extract as raw material, through the step-by-step screening of peptidomics, machine learning methods, and molecular docking technology. Results showed that six novel peptides about lamb bones were obtained, which verified the feasibility of the model and could be used for high-throughput screening of umami peptides. Results of molecular docking between umami peptide and T1R3 subunit revealed that the main interaction forces were hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction, and the key binding sites were GLU277 and SER146. It provides the basis for studying the binding mechanism of umami peptide.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Paladar , Ovinos , Animais , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Aprendizado de Máquina
17.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134545, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252376

RESUMO

There is an increasing interest in the use of automation in plant production settings. Here, we employed a robotic platform to induce controlled mechanical stimuli (CMS) aiming to improve basil quality. Semi-targeted UHPLC-qToF-MS analysis of organic acids, amino acids, phenolic acids, and phenylpropanoids revealed changes in basil secondary metabolism under CMS, which appear to be associated with changes in taste, as revealed by different means of sensory evaluation (overall liking, check-all-that-apply, and just-about-right analysis). Further network analysis combining metabolomics and sensory data revealed novel links between plant metabolism and sensory quality. Amino acids and organic acids including maleic acid were negatively associated with basil quality, while increased levels of secondary metabolites, particularly linalool glucoside, were associated with improved basil taste. In summary, by combining metabolomics and sensory analysis we reveal the potential of automated CMS on crop production, while also providing new associations between plant metabolism and sensory quality.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Ocimum basilicum/química , Metabolômica , Produção Agrícola , Paladar , Metabolismo Secundário
18.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134402, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257265

RESUMO

Sweetened condensed milk (SCM) is a value-added milk product with extended shelf life and high levels of nutrition. The high level of sucrose may lead to health problems. Many studies have focused on the reduction of sucrose but seldomly on different combination of sugar substitutes. This study aims to find an ideal sucrose substitution through physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of SCM under different storage times. The results demonstrated that substitution with 20% trehalose, 5% lactulose and 15% erythritol resulted in similar sensory and color as control group. The volatile flavor analysis showed that substitution with 30% trehalose, 5% lactulose and 5% polyols was the most similar and hexanoic acid was the symbolistic flavor. Sucrose replacement increased the antibacterial effect and Staphylococcus, Penicillium, Apiotrichum and Candida were widely present. Substitution with 30% trehalose, 5% lactulose and 5% polyols resulted in the most similar water activity, texture, aroma and microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Leite , Sacarose , Animais , Sacarose/análise , Leite/química , Paladar , Trealose/análise , Lactulose/análise
19.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134583, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257274

RESUMO

Umami peptides are an important taste substance in fermented foods. However, in the absence of known microbiota-derived umami peptides, the understanding of the umami mechanism remains unclear. Tetragenococcus halophilus, a dominant fermentation bacteria, may be an important source of umami peptides. Accordingly, T. halophilus fermentation broth was fractioned by ethanol precipitation, gel chromatography, and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated peptide fraction with the most intense umami taste was screened by amino acid composition and sensory analyses. Finally, three novel microbiota-derived peptides (DFE, LAGE, and QLQ) were identified, synthesized, and characterized for taste. Among them, only DFE had umami and umami-enhancing abilities improving multiple tastes. Molecular docking studies indicated that DEF binds to T1R1/T1R3 receptors through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions involving receptor residues Ser332, Ser256, ASN41, His125, etc. This study highlights the critical role of microbiota-derived peptides in the umami taste of fermented foods.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Paladar , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Aminoácidos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134306, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283315

RESUMO

Honeys produced by stingless bees Cephalotrigona capitata and Scutellaris Latrelle in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes were characterized in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phenolic, volatile and sensory profile. 'Mombucão' honey showed higher water activity, acidity, % sucrose and % organic acids, while 'uruçu' honey showed the highest % fructose and glucose. Nineteen phenolic compounds and flavonoids were quantified, with emphasis on epicatechin gallate, myricetin, quercetin and procyanidin A2. 'Mombucão' honey stood out with the highest to antioxidant activity. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in honeys, with emphasis on terpenes (41) and esters (26). 'Mombucão' honey presented a differentiated sensory profile and was characterized by the prevalence of acid and citrus aroma and flavor, while 'uruçu' honey presented a more characteristic sweet and woody aroma and flavor. The variability in the composition of honeys probably resulted from bee species, floral species and geographic origins.


Assuntos
Mel , Abelhas , Animais , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes , Brasil , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Fenóis/análise
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