Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.780
Filtrar
1.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(9): 473-480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011752

RESUMO

The practical training in dental schools in the Netherlands is largely organised within the walls of the educational institution, while many other medical educational programmes provide practical training to a large extent in the professional environment. The external practical internship is a form of practical learning with which positive experience has been gained in foreign dental schools, both by students and dentist-supervisors. The Dutch dental schools have a joint plan to set up practical internships in dental practices for master's students in the final year of their education. The aim of such an internship is that students in the last phase of their programme learn to apply the acquired knowledge and skills in an actual professional environment. This includes both clinical and dental treatment and the ability to organise oral health care for patients and everything that comes with it. This article describes the outline of this programme.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Currículo , Educação em Odontologia , Educação Continuada em Odontologia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Paladar
2.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34(3): 217-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870950

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the effect of geographic tongue (GT) on taste, salivary flow, and pain characteristics in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) to determine whether GT is a contributing factor to BMS and whether BMS and GT represent similar patient populations. METHODS: A retrospective chart study was conducted. Patients with a diagnosis of BMS or BMS/GT were included. Data regarding smell testing, spatial taste-testing, salivary flow, oral pH, and subjective pain rating on a generalized labeled magnitude scale (gLMS) were collected. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, gender, oral pH, smell, or pain were found between groups. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow were significantly lower in BMS/GT. Taste responses to all taste stimuli and to ethanol were significantly lower in BMS, with the exception of sour at the fungiform papillae. CONCLUSION: BMS and BMS/GT present with similar clinical pain phenotype and demographics; however, taste was more intact in BMS/GT, suggesting that GT may be a contributing factor in the development of BMS through a mechanism that does not involve taste.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal , Glossite Migratória Benigna , Humanos , Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Paladar
3.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 18-21, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988482

RESUMO

Compared with other sensory modalities, age-related alterations in taste and smell are less known and less investigated in clinical practice. In fact, the elderly with a loss of smell or taste may not always report it or be aware of it. In addition, the clinical evaluation of taste and smell by specific tests is rarely performed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease and questions rise about the coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) effect on nervous system. This involvement could help explaining the pathogenesis of this condition and lead to novel therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients during the Italian pandemic outbreak, as reported by physicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the early days of pandemic emergence we developed an online survey open to all Italian clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients. The survey was structured in three sections, with nine different items concerning the presence of different specific clinical abnormalities. Each item was graded from "absent" to "severe" in a 4-point Likert's scale. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Likert's scale data were analyzed by studying the distribution of responses by using medians and bar charts-relative frequencies. Also, in order to analyze differences in symptoms findings depending on the group of specialty, Likert's scale data were combined into two nominal categories ("absent"/"low" and "moderate"/"high"/") and a contingency table chi-square test was used. RESULTS: 126 physicians of 9 different medical specialties, from 10 regions of Italy, filled the online survey. The results show that 87.3% of practitioners reported neurological symptoms. In most cases these were mild and non-specific, but they were severe in a minority of patients. The most common symptoms observed were headache, myalgia and taste and smell abnormalities. Whilst there was no difference between neurologists and non-neurologists, we found that experienced clinicians (defined as clinicians that evaluated more than 30 patients) reported neurological symptoms more frequently than non-expert. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological symptoms have frequently been ported during the Italian COVID-19 pandemic, and thus should be monitored for all affected patients. Whilst some of the disturbances reported may be non-specific and common to other infectious diseases, smell and taste abnormalities might indicate nervous system as entry door for SARS-CoV-2 virus. This interpretation should promote research trials to avoid nervous system involvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Olfato , Paladar
5.
6.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(3): 338-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769263

RESUMO

Introduction: The foundation for healthy permanent teeth in children and teenagers is laid during the first years of life. Poor diet, poor habits of food intake, and inadequate toothbrushing habits during the first 2 years of life have been shown in several studies to be related to tooth decay in children. The development of caries in primary teeth further increases the risk of developing caries in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted with 787 school children aged between 5 years and 12 years in Chennai city on their perspective of toothpaste color, smell, and flavor. Results: Of 787 children, 222 chose red as the color they want in their toothpaste whereas only 61 children preferred white as their toothpaste color. The survey showed that 50% of the children wanted their toothpaste to taste sweet, followed by minty (20%), sour (14%), and spicy (11%). When asked about what they would like their toothpaste to smell like, majority (41%) of children opted for fruity, followed by sweet (23%), minty (18%), and fragrant (16%). Conclusion: Based on the responses made by 787 children aged between 5 and 12 years, it can be concluded that children prefer red color, fruity smell, and sweet flavor.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Cremes Dentais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fluoretos , Humanos , Índia , Olfato , Paladar , Escovação Dentária
7.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(6): 467-473, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection, isolation and management of COVID-19 are crucial to contain the current pandemic. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently included 'sudden loss of taste (dysgeusia/ageusia) and smell (anosmia/hyposmia)' as symptoms of COVID-19. If indeed these symptoms are reliable and specific forerunner symptoms of COVID-19, then it may facilitate detection and containment of the disease. Hence, we systematically evaluated the contemporary evidence on dysgeusia and anosmia as trigger prodromal symptoms, and their prevalence in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host and Web of Science databases were searched between 25 December 2019 and 30 May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 13 identified records, eight studies, totalling 11,054 COVID-19 patients, were included, as per the selection criteria. Eligible articles reflected research conducted mostly in the European community, as well as China, the US and Iran. In total, anosmia and dysgeusia symptoms were present in 74.9% and 81.3% ambulatory as well as hospitalized, mild-to-severe cases of COVID-19 patients, respectively. The European, US and Iran data indicate olfactory and gustatory symptoms appear prior to general COVID-19 symptoms in 64.5% and 54.0% of the patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review analysing the meager data based on the prevalence of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19. Critical analysis of such macro-data, as and when available, is essential to evaluate their utility as harbingers of COVID-19 onset, and to establish clinical practice guidelines both in dentistry and medicine.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato , Paladar
8.
Dan Med J ; 67(9)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical symptoms, including affection of sense of smell and taste, among participants in a party held in Copenhagen after which many participants reported symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A 37-item questionnaire was sent electronically to all 95 participants seven weeks after the party. The questionnaire included questions about the type, timing and duration of COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 65 of 95 (68%) participants responded, among whom 51/65 (78%) had symptoms compatible with COVID-19; 53% (27/51) had affection of their sense of smell and taste; 70% (19/27) reported a total loss of taste. These symptoms continued for 1-3 weeks for 78% and 3-6 weeks for 22% (6/27). Interestingly, 11/27 (41%) reported that they had not fully regained their sense of taste and 3/27(11%) were still very affected by this symptom. Moreover, 44% of the respondents who had lost their sense of taste perceived this symptom as moderate to severe. Eighty-one percent (22/27) reported a total loss of smell. This symptom continued for 1-3 and > 3 weeks in 74% and 26%, respectively. At the time of the investigation, 48% had not fully regained their sense of smell and 7% were still very affected. More than half of the respondents who lost their sense of smell perceived this symptom as moderate to severe. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 report an affected sense of smell and taste. The duration of these symptoms currently remains unknown. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2774-2781, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786309

RESUMO

The rapid recovery of smell and taste functions in COVID-19 patients could be attributed to a decrease in interleukin-6 levels rather than central nervous system ischemic injury or viral damage to neuronal cells. To correlate interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients with olfactory or gustatory dysfunctions and to investigate the role of IL-6 in the onset of these disorders, this observational study investigated 67 COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disorders or both, who did not require intensive care admission, admitted at COVID Hospital of Policlinico of Bari from March to May 2020. Interleukin-6 was assayed in COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disturbances at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. At the same time, patients have been given a specific survey to evaluate the severity of taste and smell disturbances. Of 125 patients with smell or taste dysfunctions at onset of disease, 67 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, while 58 were excluded because 35 of them required intensive care admission, 5 were unable to answer, 5 died, 7 had finished chemotherapy recently, and 5 refused to participate. The evaluation of taste and smell disorders was carried out using a survey performed at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. Sinonasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was used as a reference for olfactory function assessment, and Taste and Smell Questionnaire Section of the US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol (CDC 2013b) was used as reference for gustatory function assessment. A venous blood sample was taken for each patient to measure IL-6 levels upon entry and at swab negativization. Interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients in relation to olfactory or gustatory disorders were correlated from the time of their admission to the time of swab negativization. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the decrease of interleukin-6 levels and the improvement of smell (p value < 0.05) and taste (p = 0.047) functions at swab negativization. The acquired results demonstrate the key role of interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of chemosensitive disorders in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Transtornos do Olfato/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Distúrbios do Paladar/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Paladar/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 703-709, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate of chemosensitive functions in coronavirus disease 2019 patients has not yet been determined. METHOD: A multicentre prospective study on 138 coronavirus disease 2019 patients was conducted. Olfactory and gustatory functions were prospectively evaluated for 60 days. RESULTS: Within the first 4 days of coronavirus disease 2019, 84.8 per cent of patients had chemosensitive dysfunction that gradually improved over the observation period. The most significant increase in chemosensitive scores occurred in the first 10 days for taste and between 10 and 20 days for smell. At the end of the observation period (60 days after symptom onset), 7.2 per cent of the patients still had severe dysfunctions. The risk of developing a long-lasting disorder becomes significant at 10 days for taste (odds ratio = 40.2, 95 per cent confidence interval = 2.204-733.2, p = 0.013) and 20 days for smell (odds ratio = 58.5, 95 per cent confidence interval = 3.278-1043.5, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Chemosensitive disturbances persisted in 7.2 per cent of patients 60 days after clinical onset. Specific therapies should be initiated in patients with severe olfactory and gustatory disturbances 20 days after disease onset.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925813, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that spread from China is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The head and neck region can be variably affected in adult patients, and taste and smell disorders are typical manifestations. However, pediatric clinical signs are less severe, making the onset diagnosis challenging to interpret. The variability of nasal olfactory symptoms in children and adolescents is intertwined with possible warning signs, including gastrointestinal, ocular, or dermatological symptoms. We present a case involving a 15-year-old boy with clinically confirmed COVID-19 who had late-onset rash and transient taste and smell disorders. CASE REPORT The boy's clinical history revealed that a family member was positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the preceding 3 days, the boy's eating habits had changed; he perceived a metallic taste while eating and had a loss of appetite. He also had erythematous skin lesions on the lower limbs for the 2 previous days. A sore throat, nasal congestion, and a runny nose were reported on head and neck examination. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test was positive, confirming the initial diagnostic hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in children and adolescents can be asymptomatic, but it can also occur with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Due to the unique immune characteristics of pediatric and adolescent patients, the correct interpretation of the gustatory and skin symptoms associated with specific laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the most appropriate management and supportive care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Disgeusia/etiologia , Exantema/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/fisiopatologia , Exantema/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008925, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790785

RESUMO

Taste receptor cells use multiple signaling pathways to detect chemicals in potential food items. These cells are functionally grouped into different types: Type I cells act as support cells and have glial-like properties; Type II cells detect bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli; and Type III cells detect sour and salty stimuli. We have identified a new population of taste cells that are broadly tuned to multiple taste stimuli including bitter, sweet, sour, and umami. The goal of this study was to characterize these broadly responsive (BR) taste cells. We used an IP3R3-KO mouse (does not release calcium (Ca2+) from internal stores in Type II cells when stimulated with bitter, sweet, or umami stimuli) to characterize the BR cells without any potentially confounding input from Type II cells. Using live cell Ca2+ imaging in isolated taste cells from the IP3R3-KO mouse, we found that BR cells are a subset of Type III cells that respond to sour stimuli but also use a PLCß signaling pathway to respond to bitter, sweet, and umami stimuli. Unlike Type II cells, individual BR cells are broadly tuned and respond to multiple stimuli across different taste modalities. Live cell imaging in a PLCß3-KO mouse confirmed that BR cells use this signaling pathway to respond to bitter, sweet, and umami stimuli. Short term behavioral assays revealed that BR cells make significant contributions to taste driven behaviors and found that loss of either PLCß3 in BR cells or IP3R3 in Type II cells caused similar behavioral deficits to bitter, sweet, and umami stimuli. Analysis of c-Fos activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) also demonstrated that functional Type II and BR cells are required for normal stimulus induced expression.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas/citologia , Paladar , Vias Aferentes/citologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfolipase C beta/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/citologia , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória
13.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e270-e272, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658093

RESUMO

Among individuals who tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019, smell and taste sensations were significantly less impaired among children than among adults, in a stepwise manner. Sensory impairment was correlated with recent data of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression in the corresponding age groups. This is the first report to compare sensory impairment in children and adults testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Hipestesia/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipestesia/enzimologia , Hipestesia/fisiopatologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000712, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663220

RESUMO

Tools enabling closed-loop experiments are crucial to delineate causal relationships between the activity of genetically labeled neurons and specific behaviors. We developed the Raspberry Pi Virtual Reality (PiVR) system to conduct closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of neural functions in unrestrained animals. PiVR is an experimental platform that operates at high temporal resolution (70 Hz) with low latencies (<30 milliseconds), while being affordable (

Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Optogenética , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Larva/fisiologia , Luz , Locomoção , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes , Sensação/fisiologia , Software , Paladar/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2552-2559, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627488

RESUMO

Scutellariae Radix(Huangqin) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) used for the treatment of clearing heat in clinical application. It is bitter-cold by using directly, but the bitter-cold property can be relieved after wine-frying. The study of taste changes before and after wine-frying of Scutellariae Radix is of great significance in identifying Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix and clarifying the traditional theory of wine-processing. In this experiment, 10 batches of Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix were prepared. The contents of 5 flavonoids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and principal component analysis(PCA) was performed with 5 flavonoids as variables. As a result, the contents were different in different batches of Scutellariae Radix, but Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix could not be distinguished. Five sensory attributes(sour, salty, fresh, sweet, and bitter) were evaluated by artificial tasting, and the response values of 7 sensors(AHS, AHS, PKS, CTS, NMS, CPS, ANS, SCS) representing the taste of pieces were detected by electronic tongue. The correlation between sensory evaluation and response values of the electronic tongue were analyzed, and the results showed that the sensory evaluation of sour, salty, fresh, sweet, bitter and AHS, CTS, NMS, ANS, SCS sensors had different degrees of correlation, indicating that the electronic tongue technology can be used as an alternative to artificial taste and can serve as a means for quantifying the taste, and it can be used to evaluate the taste of TCM pieces. The taste method was used to analyze the response values of the electronic tongue, and the results showed that the bitterness of wine-processed Scutellariae Radix decreased and the salty taste increased. PCA was used to analyze taste changes before and after wine-processed Scutellariae Radix, and the results showed that taste differences between 2 pieces were divided into 2 categories. PCA loading scattering plots showed that response of saltiness and bitterness were the major factors to affect overall taste in Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix. Based on electronic tongue response values, the Fisher discriminant model for Scutellariae Radix and wine-processed Scutellariae Radix was established, which showed that it could effectively discriminate them with a recognition rate of 100%. The experimental results showed that the electronic tongue combined with multivariate statistical analysis can be used to evaluate taste of TCM, at the same time, it could provide a fast and simple method for identifying different processed products.


Assuntos
Scutellaria baicalensis , Vinho/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Paladar
16.
Food Chem ; 332: 127364, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645672

RESUMO

Suan zuo yu is a traditional Chinese fermented product. We explored the microbial diversity, the dynamic changes of texture and flavor compounds at different fermentation times (up to 24 d). Results showed that Weissella and Lactobacillus may play a vital role in fermentation especially for the flavor. At the end of fermentation, the taste activity value of Asp, Glu, and His were 21.61, 17.29 and 7.73, respectively. The bound water increased gradually indicated by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, and the hardness was also increased. During the whole fermentation process, the myosin heavy chain protein and actin decreased obviously. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that a total of 80 volatile compounds were detected, and 6 alcohols, 6 aldehydes and 6 esters increased significantly, which mainly contributed to the flavor of Suan zuo yu. This study provides a theoretical basis for the industrial production of fermented fish.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Microbiota , Paladar , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3128-3135, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726021

RESUMO

Inhibition of bitterness is a significant measure to improve the compliance and clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction. According to the characteristics of TCM decoction, such as high dispersion of bitterness components, multi-component bitterness superposition and strong instantaneous stimulation, the research group put forward a new strategy to inhibit bitterness in the early stage based on the self-assembly characteristics of amphiphilic substances in aqueous solution, in order to reduce the distribution of bitterness components in real solution and achieve the purpose of bitter-masking. It was found that the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic substances was different on the bitter compounds of various structures. Therefore, it was speculated that there might be a certain relationship between the bitter inhibition effect and the substrate structure. In this paper, the interaction between mPEG-PLLA and five bitter alkaloids(bamatine, jatrorrhizine, berberine, epiberberine and coptisine) in Coptidis Rhizoma was studied to explore the effect of substrate structure on the inhibition of bitterness. The sensory test of volunteers was used to determine the bitter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and its main bitter alkaloids. The molecular docking and molecular force field were applied to locate the bitter groups and the bitter-masking parts. The relationship between the bitter strength and the structure was analyzed by the surface electrostatic potential of the bitter alkaloids, and the correlation between the bitter-masking effect and the structural parameters of the bitter components was explored by factor analysis, so as to clarify the structure-activity relationship of mPEG-PLLA in masking the bitterness of coptis alkaloids. It was found that mPEG-PLLA had significant taste masking effect on the decoction of Coptidis Rhizoma and five alkaloids. The masking effect was obviously related to the structure of different alkaloids: the effect increased with the increase of the number of hydrogen donors, rotatable bonds, molecular weight, and hydrophobicity, and decreased with the increase of surface electrostatic potential, electrophilicity and binding energy with bitter receptors. In this study, the influence of alkaloid structure of Coptidis Rhizoma on the butter-masking effect of mPEG-PLLA was preliminarily elucidated, providing a scientific basis for better exerting the bitter-masking effect of amphiphilic block copolymers.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Coptis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Paladar
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673349

RESUMO

In mammals, inter- and intraspecies differences in consumption of sweeteners largely depend on allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene (locus Sac) encoding the T1R3 protein, a sweet taste receptor subunit. To assess the influence of Tas1r3 polymorphisms on feeding behavior and metabolism, we examined the phenotype of F1 male hybrids obtained from crosses between the following inbred mouse strains: females from 129SvPasCrl (129S2) bearing the recessive Tas1r3 allele and males from either C57BL/6J (B6), carrying the dominant allele, or the Tas1r3-gene knockout strain C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm (B6-Tas1r3-/-). The hybrids 129S2B6F1 and 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 had identical background genotypes and different sets of Tas1r3 alleles. The effect of Tas1r3 hemizygosity was analyzed by comparing the parental strain B6 (Tas1r3 homozygote) and hemizygous F1 hybrids B6 × B6-Tas1r3-/-. Data showed that, in 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 hybrids, the reduction of glucose tolerance, along with lower consumption of and lower preference for sweeteners during the initial licking responses, is due to expression of the recessive Tas1r3 allele. Hemizygosity of Tas1r3 did not influence these behavioral and metabolic traits. However, the loss of the functional Tas1r3 allele was associated with a small decline in the long-term intake and preference for sweeteners and reduction of plasma insulin and body, liver, and fat mass.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Genótipo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemizigoto , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência
19.
Neuron ; 107(2): 219-233, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640192

RESUMO

The main neurological manifestation of COVID-19 is loss of smell or taste. The high incidence of smell loss without significant rhinorrhea or nasal congestion suggests that SARS-CoV-2 targets the chemical senses through mechanisms distinct from those used by endemic coronaviruses or other common cold-causing agents. Here we review recently developed hypotheses about how SARS-CoV-2 might alter the cells and circuits involved in chemosensory processing and thereby change perception. Given our limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we propose future experiments to elucidate disease mechanisms and highlight the relevance of this ongoing work to understanding how the virus might alter brain function more broadly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
20.
Food Chem ; 333: 127549, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683266

RESUMO

Enzymatic tenderization is extensively applied in the meat industry, whereas its influence on meat flavor has seldom been evaluated. Proteinase K, papain, bromelain and Flavourzyme® were used to treat beef muscle, and the changes in volatile compounds and odors were subsequently analyzed. Proteolysis by proteinase K was found to elevate the average bitterness of the identified peptides by generating peptides with high Q values, whereas proteolysis by papain generated the highest level of amino acids. Enzymatic treatment by Flavourzyme and bromelain significantly elevated the levels of ketones and odors, whereas excessive proteolysis by papain and proteinase K largely reduced the levels of esters and aldehydes. The level of amino acids and degree of hydrolysis were found to be predominant factors that regulated the level of volatiles and odors. These results highlighted the huge influence of enzymatic tenderization on meat flavor, depending on degree of hydrolysis and cleavage pattern of applied proteases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Odorantes , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteólise , Carne Vermelha/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Hidrólise , Paladar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA