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1.
Talanta ; 235: 122793, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517651

RESUMO

The flavour analysis of volatile compounds remains challenging not only because of their diversity in properties and dynamic range, but also due to the high background noise from food matrix constituents. To improve sensitivity and specificity for a multiclass range of compounds, a combination of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) devices and low energy electron ionisation (LE-EI) was proposed for the analysis of 36 volatile compounds, using coffee as a model matrix. From a pre-evaluation of devices and extraction modes, the combined use of direct immersion-stir bar sorptive extraction and headspace-thin-film SPME (SBSE-TFSPME) was selected to increase compound recovery, and further optimised for extraction temperature (88 °C) and time (110 min). Furthermore, to complement sample preparation by improving method specificity, a LE-EI technique was developed by evaluating the effect of ionisation energy, source temperature, and emission current on the formation of the diagnostic molecular ions and their preservation. This LE-EI method (15 eV, 150 °C, 0.3 µA) was validated with SBSE-TFSPME as a complete workflow in coffee matrices, and was found to possess good repeatability (intra-day RSD: 1.6-7.3 %), intermediate precision (inter-day RSD: 4.1-12.2 %), and linearity (R2 > 0.98). Even for complex coffee samples, the method detection limit reached the pg/mL range (e.g. 2,4,5-trimethylthiazole was detected at 15 pg/mL). In conclusion, this study provided insights on the potential of SPME and LE-EI to improve the sensitivity and specificity of analysis for a range of volatile compounds from food and other complex matrices.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Paladar
2.
Stomatologija ; 23(2): 48-50, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out how the use of new acrylic full upper removable dentures changes the perception of four basic tastes: sweetness, sourness, saltiness and bitterness, and to evaluate the influence of age and gender. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed in LSMU MA Faculty of Odontology Department of Prosthodontics during 2017-09-01 - 2018-02-01. All the patients for whom new acrylic upper removable dentures were made were invited to take part. 30 patients have taken part. Sixteen solutions for basic tastes: sweetness, sourness, saltiness and bitterness; were made. The patients were examined without and with their new dentures. The patients were told to rinse an unknown solution starting from the lowest concentration and to identify the taste. Data analysis was performed using SPSS® (IBM®, Armonk, USA) version 23. RESULTS: Patients with full upper removable dentures felt sweet (p=0.002) and sour (p=0.000) taste weaker than without them, the same tendency was observed with bitter (p=0.063) and salty (p=0.059) taste. The time required to identify the taste was longer with removable dentures than without them (p<0.05). Identification of saltiness became weaker both with and without removable dentures as the age of the patients increased (p<0.05). Bitterness was identified better by women than men both with and without removable dentures (p<0.05). Age and gender had no influence on other basic tastes (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study confirm the presumption that acrylic full upper removable dentures weaken the taste perception of the patients.


Assuntos
Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Dentaduras , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital ; 41(4): 336-347, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533537

RESUMO

Objectives: Clinical experience and daily life indicate that the importance of smell, taste and flavour is variable among individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to investigate the importance attributed to smell, taste and flavour and socio-cultural differences among individuals. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was executed by two professional translators and one bilingual investigator and pre-tested on a pilot group of 25 subjects with normal smell and taste abilities. The final version of the questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 850 healthy subjects. The Google form consisted of three parts: "The importance of olfaction" developed by Croy et al. in 2010, "The importance of taste and flavour" developed by our team and a section to collect demographic data. The questions were classified into "association", "application", "consequence" and "aggravation". Statistical differences were assessed using t-test with p ≤ 0.05. Correlations were calculated using Spearman's test. Internal consistency was assessed using the Cronbach's Alpha, while test-retest reliability was analysed by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2k). Results: The questionnaire received a non-response rate of 10.7%. Calculation of Cronbach's alpha showed good internal reliability (a = 0.87). Test-retest evaluation was satisfactory for all subscales, with an overall ICC2k = 0.84 (CI 0.79-0.89). Statistical analysis showed that smell, taste and flavour appeared to be more important for women when compared to men (p < 0.001). No statistical differences were seen between individuals with various educational background (p > 0.05), and the importance of smell (r = 0.16; p < 0.01), taste and flavour (r = 0.08; p < 0.05) did not decline with age. Conclusions: The development of this original test provides an overview into the importance of smell, taste and flavour among individuals. Although further research is needed, it can help in the evaluation and investigation of aspects that influence people to seek medical attention in the presence of sensory alterations.


Assuntos
Olfato , Paladar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361713

RESUMO

The textural properties of butter are influenced by its fat content and implicitly by the fatty acids composition. The impact of butter's chemical composition variation was studied in accordance with texture and color properties. From 37 fatty acids examined, only 18 were quantified in the analyzed butter fat samples, and approximately 69.120% were saturated, 25.482% were monounsaturated, and 5.301% were polyunsaturated. The butter samples' viscosity ranged between 0.24 and 2.12 N, while the adhesiveness ranged between 0.286 to 18.19 N·mm. The principal component analysis (PCA) separated the butter samples based on texture parameters, fatty acids concentration, and fat content, which were in contrast with water content. Of the measured color parameters, the yellowness b* color parameter is a relevant indicator that differentiated the analyzed sample into seven statistical groups; the ANOVA statistics highlighted this difference at a level of p < 0.001.


Assuntos
Manteiga/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Água/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/classificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Paladar/fisiologia , Viscosidade
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361794

RESUMO

Wheat bread, produced by the single-phase method, is a common food consumed all over the world. Due to changes in lifestyle and nutritional trends, alternative raw materials are sought to increase the nutritional value and improve the taste of daily consumed products. Additionally, customers seek a wide variety of foods, especially when it comes to basic foods. Nuts, such as coconuts or chestnuts, might provide an attractive flavour with benefits to the nutritional quality. In this study, the effect of substituting wheat flour with coconut or chestnut flour (flour contribution level: 5, 10, 15, 30, 50% w/w), was evaluated in terms of the breads specific volume, texture, colour, nutritional composition, and dietary fibre fraction contents. Moreover, a sensory evaluation was conducted to assess potential consumer acceptance. Based on the consumer's perception, the overall acceptance of bread with 15% w/w of coconut and chestnut flour was in privilege compared to the control sample. As a result, taking all of the tested parameters into account, the breads with 5, 10, and 15% supplementation of chestnut or coconut flour were still of good quality compared to the wheat bread and their fibre content was significantly higher.


Assuntos
Aesculus/química , Pão/análise , Cocos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Culinária/métodos , Análise Fatorial , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444741

RESUMO

Gut microbiota has emerged as a major metabolically active organ with critical functions in both health and disease. The trillions of microorganisms hosted by the gastrointestinal tract are involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes including modulation of appetite and regulation of energy in the host spanning from periphery to the brain. Indeed, bacteria and their metabolic byproducts are working in concert with the host chemosensory signaling pathways to affect both short- and long-term ingestive behavior. Sensing of nutrients and taste by specialized G protein-coupled receptor cells is important in transmitting food-related signals, optimizing nutrition as well as in prevention and treatment of several diseases, notably obesity, diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. Further, bacteria metabolites interact with specialized receptors cells expressed by gut epithelium leading to taste and appetite response changes to nutrients. This review describes recent advances on the role of gut bacteria in taste perception and functions. It further discusses how intestinal dysbiosis characteristic of several pathological conditions may alter and modulate taste preference and food consumption via changes in taste receptor expression.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Percepção Gustatória , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Paladar , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444909

RESUMO

Glucosinolates (GLS) and their derivatives are secondary plant metabolites abundant in Brassicaceae. Due to the enzymatic reaction between GLS and myrosinase enzyme, characteristic compounds with a pungent taste are formed, used by plants to defend themselves against insect herbivores. These GLS derivatives have an important impact on human health, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, GLS derivatives' formation needs previous enzymatic reactions catalyzed by myrosinase enzyme. Many of the brassica-based foods are processed at a high temperature that inactivates enzymes, hindering its bioavailability. In the last decade, several studies showed that the human gut microbiome can provide myrosinase activity that potentially can raise the beneficial effects of consumption of vegetables rich in GLS. The variability of the human gut microbiome (HGM) in human populations and the diverse intake of GLS through the diet may lead to greater variability of the real dose of pro-healthy compounds absorbed by the human body. The exploitation of the genetic and biochemical potential of HGM and correct ecological studies of both isolated strains and mixed population are of great interest. This review focuses on the most recent advances in this field.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Manipulação de Alimentos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Paladar , Verduras/química
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10550-10561, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460245

RESUMO

Red wine is rich in phenolic compounds, which chiefly determine its characteristic taste. One of its major phenolic acid constituents for which an astringency, yet no clear contribution to bitter taste has been reported, is gallic acid (GA). In previous studies, we have demonstrated bitter-tasting constituents to regulate cellular proton secretion (PS) as a key mechanism of gastric acid secretion via activation of bitter taste sensing receptors (TAS2Rs). Here, we hypothesized a contributing role of GA to the red wine-stimulated effect on PS in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1 cells). Sensory analyses revealed that 10 µM GA as the lowest concentration tested more bitter than tap water, with increasing bitter ratings up to 1000 µM. In HGT-1 cells, the concentration of 10 µM GA evoked the most pronounced effect on PS secretion, either when added to cells as in-water solution or when spiked to a red wine matrix. GA-spiking of Zweigelt and Blaufränkisch red wine samples up to a concentration of 10 µM resulted in an equally stimulated PS, whereas the non-GA-spiked wine samples demonstrated contrary effects on PS, indicating a functional role of GA on PS. Involvement of TAS2R4 in the GA-induced PS was verified by means of an HGT-1 homozygote CRISPR-Cas9 TAS2R4 knockout approach. Moreover, gene expression analyses revealed GA to increase TAS2R4. These results demonstrate a functional role of TAS2R4 in GA-evoked PS as a key mechanism of gastric acid secretion aiding digestion. Moreover, our data provide mechanistic insights, which will help to produce stomach-friendly red wines.


Assuntos
Paladar , Vinho , Adstringentes , Digestão , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Ácido Gástrico , Humanos , Vinho/análise
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444855

RESUMO

The concept of sustainable nutrition considers different fields: from human health to environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects. Currently, in Europe, the diets that reflect the assumptions of the sustainable diet are the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet. They both encourage the consumption of vegetable, organic and minimally processed foods, as well as regional, seasonal and Fair-Trade products, reducing the ecological impact of the production chain. These eating habits could be established starting from the prenatal period and from infancy during the complementary feeding stage, aiding children to accept of a more variable diet in terms of flavor, taste and texture. In particular, the positive parental role model is an effective method for improving a child's diet and behaviors. Two healthy plates representing a sustainable diet in early infancy, at 6 and 24 months, are here proposed, in line with the "Planetary Health Diet" approved by the EAT-Lancet Commission. Our work aims to highlight how a sustainable diet is possible since infancy, since the introduction of solid foods.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Paladar , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10260-10271, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435781

RESUMO

Condiments such as spreads, dressings, or sauces are usually consumed together with carrier foods such as breads or vegetables. Dynamic interactions between condiments and carriers occur during consumption, which can influence aroma release and perception. This study investigated in vivo aroma release (PTR-MS) and dynamic sensory perception (time-intensity) of mayonnaises spiked with lemon aroma (limonene, citral). Mayonnaises were assessed without and with carrier foods (bread, potato). When different mayonnaises were consumed and assessed alone, aroma release and intensity perception were positively correlated. Interestingly, when mayonnaises were combined with carriers, aroma release and perception were no longer positively correlated. Addition of carriers increased release of limonene and citral into the nasal cavity during consumption but decreased perceived aroma intensity of condiments. The increase in aroma release induced by the carriers can be explained by differences in oral processing behaviors and by the increased surface area of mayonnaise-carrier combinations. Carrier addition is likely to modulate aroma perception of composite foods by cross-modal texture-aroma interactions. This work demonstrates that not only physicochemical characteristics of foods but also cross-modal interactions play a role in influencing flavor perception of composite foods.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Sensação , Pão , Percepção , Paladar
11.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110481, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399477

RESUMO

In order to clarify the effect of nanocomposite-based packaging (NP) on umami and microflora characteristics of F. filiformis during cold storage, the contents of umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), and microflora succession were investigated. Results showed that NP could delay the degradation of umami components and inhibit bacterial growth in F. filiformis. At the initial stage, the dominant bacteria were Lactobacillus, Thermus and Acinetobacter. After 15 days of storage, the bacteria count in NP reached 7.63 lg cfu/g, which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in control, and the major bacterial communities of packaged F. filiformis were Ewingella, Serratia and Pseudomonas. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Lactobacillus, Brevibacillus and Okibacterium were negatively correlated with AMP and IMP 5-nucleotides. Present work suggested that NP could enhance the umami flavor formation and improve the microbial community structure of F. filiformis, resulting in a better commercial quality. The results provided theoretical basis for large-scale applications of NP.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Flammulina , Aromatizantes , Paladar
12.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110493, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399489

RESUMO

Pungency is increasingly being recognized as an important factor of overall sensory quality, palatability, and consumer preference of distilled spirits. The characterization of pungency is necessary to evaluate the potential sensory quality of distilled spirits. In this study, the temporal profiles of pungency of Baijiu with different aging times were evaluated using time-intensity (TI) and temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) methods, considering both pungency intensity and pungency sub-qualities. TI results indicated significant differences in release rate of pungency during Baijiu consumption. Compared to young Baijiu, old Baijiu tend to show higher release rate of pungency, the areas under the curve and duration of pungency were significantly decreased in old Baijiu. The TDS results showed significant differences in the combination of dominant sub-qualities, as well as in the maximum dominance rates and the dominant duration of sub-qualities among Baijiu. The young Baijiu were mainly characterized by the dominant sub-qualities of "burning" and "numbing", whereas for old Baijiu, "burning", "prickle", and "drying" were dominant. The application of TI and TDS provided dynamic and temporal profiles of pungency to fully characterize pungency differences of distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Sensação , Paladar , Bebidas , Comportamento do Consumidor
13.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110534, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399511

RESUMO

The global carbonated beverage market is large, and consumers like the oral irritation (ex. burning or prickling) associated with carbonated beverages. This study's first objective was to identify the effect of carbonation on consumers' liking and sensory perception of fruit juices (apple, cherry, and blueberry). The secondary aim was to evaluate consumers' emotional responses to carbonated fruit juices. The first trial asked consumers (n = 103) to use check-all-that-apply (CATA) and nine-point hedonic scales to evaluate six fruit juices (three carbonated and three non-carbonated). In the second trial, consumers (n = 107) were asked to evaluate the pictures of the same juices using the CATA variant of EsSense25 Profile® and a purchase intent scale. The consumers were also asked to identify what they like and dislike about carbonated beverages using an open-ended comment question. The first trial demonstrated that flavour significantly affected the overall liking scores but also identified that carbonation increased the overall liking of the blueberry and apple juices (p < 0.05). In the emotional response trial, the participants did not separate the samples based on carbonation, but rather separated the blueberry juices from the cherry and apple juices. The penalty lift analysis identified that when positive emotions were selected, the participants' purchase intent increased. Lastly, the consumers identified they like mouthfeel and flavour-enhancing qualities of carbonated beverages and associated them with special events. However, the participants disliked beverages that are too carbonated or flat and associated carbonated beverages with negative physical sensations and health perceptions. Overall, the flavour was more important than if the beverage was carbonated or not and purchase intent scores increased when positive emotions were perceived. Future research should investigate how emotions affect purchase intent, how participant's familiarity affects the emotions they select and evaluate how carbonation affects other beverages.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção , Paladar
14.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110551, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399528

RESUMO

Currently, consumers' interest in healthy products has attracted the attention of academia and the meat industry, which has focused mainly on incorporating ingredients with healthier properties. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the social representation of original burgers and burgers with mushroom addition considering different sexes and body mass indexes (BMIs) of individuals. Thus, 209 Brazilians answered a word association task followed by a word classification based on their importance and valence for original burgers and burgers with the addition of mushrooms. To obtain the structure of social representation, the words were positioned into four distinct zones based on their frequency of elicitation and importance. Also, the polarity index was used to give a connotation to the words. Three groups of consumers were identified. The first group (consumers with class-1 obesity of both sexes) associated the original burger with positive categories (cheese, juicy, seasoned, food, tasty, joy, salad and delicious). The second one (female consumers with pre-obesity and class-1 obesity) associated the burger with the addition of mushrooms with the elements price, different, vegetarian, flavor, gourmet and healthy. Finally, the third group (men and women for both stimuli and with a wide range of BMI) characterized burgers with sensory attributes, feelings and moments of consumption. In conclusion, the social representation of the original burger and the burger with the addition of mushrooms differed among consumers, suggesting that the main associations can be the main motivations for the consumption of a certain product.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Produtos da Carne , Feminino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Produtos da Carne/análise , Paladar
15.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110556, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399533

RESUMO

The structure and diversity of bacterial communities in spontaneously fermented zha-chili prepared using two different rice varieties (glutinous rice and indica rice) were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Through metabolic pathway prediction, electronic senses and metabolite analysis, the relationships among the rice varieties used for preparation and the bacterial microbiota, flavor, and organic acid/amino acid metabolites in zha-chili were elucidated. We observed that the structure of bacterial communities in zha-chili samples differed significantly with the rice variety used during fermentation (p < 0.05), and that there was a greater abundance of bacterial species in zha-chili prepared using glutinous rice. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant in zha-chili, with an average relative abundance of 77.09%. The aroma of zha-chili was influenced by the raw material itself, while the characteristic tastes of zha-chili - including sourness, umami and richness - were significantly correlated with the bacterial microbiota. In addition, the abundance of lactic acid bacteria was positively correlated with the levels of organic acids and negatively correlated with the levels of amino acids. This also made the zha-chili prepared using glutinous rice sourer and imparted more umami taste to the zha-chili prepared using indica rice. Our observations provide a reference for the evaluation of zha-chili quality and could effectively guide the improvement of zha-chili products.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oryza , Bactérias/genética , Aromatizantes , Paladar
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9202-9207, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342446

RESUMO

Proteins and, in particular, plant-based proteins are becoming more and more important in the face of future challenges, resulting from continuous population growth, the imbalance between malnutrition and overweight/obesity, and environmental changes. Recent developments open new avenues for improving the quality and sustainable production of plant proteins. Increasing knowledge on the key drivers of the off-flavor of plant proteins, which currently limit their use, supports new strategies to reach full flavor experience, thus enhancing consumer acceptance. Current limitations and future directions for improving the flavor profiles of plant-based proteins are discussed in this perspective.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Paladar , Aromatizantes
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9869-9882, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410124

RESUMO

1,2-Rhamnosyltransferase (1,2RhaT) catalyzes the final step of production of flavanone neohesperidoside (FNH) that is responsible for the primary bitter taste of citrus fruits. In this study, species-specific flavonoid profiles were determined in 87 Citrus accessions by identifying eight main flavanone glycosides (FGs). Accumulation of FNHs was completely correlated to the presence of the 1,2RhaT gene in 87 citrus accessions analyzed using a novel 1,2RhaT-specific DNA marker. Pummelo (Citrus grandis) was identified as the genetic origin for a function allele of 1,2RhaT that underpinned FNH-bitterness in modern citrus cultivars. In addition, genes encoding six MYB and five bHLH transcription factors were shown to coexpress with 1,2RhaT and other flavonoid pathway genes related to FNH accumulation, indicating that these transcription factors may affect the fruit taste of citrus. This study provides a better understanding of bitterness formation in Citrus varieties and a genetic marker for the early selection of nonbitterness lines in citrus breeding programs.


Assuntos
Citrus , Alelos , Citrus/genética , Flavonoides , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paladar
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371946

RESUMO

Nutrient sensing plays important roles in promoting satiety and maintaining good homeostatic control. Taste receptors (TAS) are located through the gastrointestinal tract, and recent studies have shown they have a relationship with metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze the jejunal expression of TAS1R2, TAS1R3, TAS2R14 and TAS2R38 in women with morbid obesity, first classified according to metabolic syndrome presence (MetS; n = 24) or absence (non-MetS; n = 45) and then classified according to hepatic histology as normal liver (n = 28) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 41). Regarding MetS, we found decreased expression of TAS2R14 in MetS patients. However, when we subclassified patients according to liver histology, we did not find differences between groups. We found negative correlations between glucose levels, triglycerides and MetS with TAS1R3 expression. Moreover, TAS2R14 jejunal expression correlated negatively with the presence of MetS and ghrelin levels and positively with the jejunal Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-10 levels. Furthermore, TAS2R38 expression correlated negatively with TLR9 jejunal expression and IL-6 levels and positively with TLR4 levels. Our findings suggest that metabolic dysfunctions such as MetS trigger downregulation of the intestinal TASs. Therefore, taste receptors modulation could be a possible therapeutic target for metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Jejuno/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Paladar , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/patologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10272-10280, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436886

RESUMO

Salt is very important for human health and food seasoning. Recently, several peptides isolated from natural food products have been reported exhibiting a salty taste or a saltiness-enhancing function. In this investigation, taste-active peptides occurring in commercial Chinese fermented soybean curd were isolated and identified using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and nano-LC/Q-TOF MS/MS. The salty taste-enhancing function of the target fractions was confirmed by both a rat taste cell model and/or human sensory evaluation. Four decapeptides were found as taste-active compounds. Among them, peptide E (EDEGEQPRPF) was the most potent saltiness-enhancing peptide: 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mmol/L NaCl solution could increase its salty perception equivalent to the salt level of 63 mmol/L NaCl reference solution. The sequence of the peptide has been found in the α'-subunit of ß-conglycinin [Glycine max]. The remaining peptides V (VGPDDDEKSW), DD (DEDEQPRPIP), and DG (DEGEQPRPFP) showed umami and kokumi tastes as well as a weak saltiness-enhancing sensation. These findings suggest that the decapeptide EDEGEQPRPF could be a possible alternative to partially reduce the amount of sodium intake without compromising for saltiness.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Alimentos de Soja , Animais , China , Peptídeos , Ratos , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Paladar
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372231

RESUMO

Based on surface electromyography (sEMG), a novel recognition method to distinguish six types of human primary taste sensations was developed, and the recognition accuracy was 74.46%. The sEMG signals were acquired under the stimuli of no taste substance, distilled vinegar, white granulated sugar, instant coffee powder, refined salt, and Ajinomoto. Then, signals were preprocessed with the following steps: sample augments, removal of trend items, high-pass filter, and adaptive power frequency notch. Signals were classified with random forest and the classifier gave a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 74.46%, which manifested the feasibility of the recognition task. To further improve the model performance, we explored the impact of feature dimension, electrode distribution, and subject diversity. Accordingly, we provided an optimized feature combination that reduced the number of feature types from 21 to 4, a preferable selection of electrode positions that reduced the number of channels from 6 to 4, and an analysis of the relation between subject diversity and model performance. This study provides guidance for further research on taste sensation recognition with sEMG.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Paladar , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia , Humanos
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