Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.526
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 224, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431851

RESUMO

The neural circuitry mediating taste has been mapped out from the periphery to the cortex, but genetic identity of taste-responsive neurons has remained elusive. Here, we describe a population of neurons in the gustatory region of the parabrachial nucleus that express the transcription factor Satb2 and project to taste-associated regions, including the gustatory thalamus and insular cortex. Using calcium imaging in awake, freely licking mice, we show that Satb2 neurons respond to the five basic taste modalities. Optogenetic activation of these neurons enhances taste preferences, whereas chronic inactivation decreases the magnitude of taste preferences in both brief- and long-access taste tests. Simultaneous inactivation of Satb2 and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons in the PBN abolishes responses to aversive tastes. These data suggest that taste information in the parabrachial nucleus is conveyed by multiple populations of neurons, including both Satb2 and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Física , Paladar/fisiologia
2.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 174-182, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398159

RESUMO

Sustained pain is a major characteristic of clinical pain disorders, but it is difficult to assess in isolation from co-occurring cognitive and emotional features in patients. In this study, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging signature based on whole-brain functional connectivity that tracks experimentally induced tonic pain intensity and tested its sensitivity, specificity and generalizability to clinical pain across six studies (total n = 334). The signature displayed high sensitivity and specificity to tonic pain across three independent studies of orofacial tonic pain and aversive taste. It also predicted clinical pain severity and classified patients versus controls in two independent studies of clinical low back pain. Tonic and clinical pain showed similar network-level representations, particularly in somatomotor, frontoparietal and dorsal attention networks. These patterns were distinct from representations of experimental phasic pain. This study identified a brain biomarker for sustained pain with high potential for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Aversivos/toxicidade , Capsaicina/toxicidade , Conectoma/métodos , Conectoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 49-66, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734392

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Taste and smell disturbances in patients affected by cancer are very common, but often under-recognized symptoms. If not addressed properly, they may impact nutritional status, food enjoyment, and quality of life. Treatment tools available for clinicians to manage chemosensory alterations are limited and are often based on personal clinical experiences. The aim of this study was to assess current oncological and palliative care literature through a scoping review, in order to identify available treatments for taste and smell alterations in cancer patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Google Scholar were searched from inception until January 2020, with subject headings relevant to the domains of chemosensory alterations, palliative, and cancer care. A total of 10,718 English and French language publications were reviewed, yielding 43 articles on the researched topic. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of selected articles led to difficulties in interpretation and analysis of the available evidence. Included publications differed in study design, population sample, anticancer treatments, and measures of assessment for taste and smell disturbances. A broad variety of treatment options were described including zinc and polaprezinc, radio-protectors, vitamins and supplements, anti-xerostomia agents, active swallowing exercises, nutritional interventions, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and photobiomodulation. CONCLUSION: This scoping review identifies the current state of knowledge regarding chemosensory alterations within supportive cancer care. Despite not reaching firm conclusions, this article offers therapeutic venues to further explore in larger and more methodologically sound studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/tratamento farmacológico , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Amifostina/uso terapêutico , Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Paladar/patologia , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
4.
Food Chem ; 338: 127816, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818866

RESUMO

Bitterness is an inherent organoleptic characteristic affecting the flavor of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. In this study, the vital bitter components of Z. bungeanum were concentrated through solvent extraction, sensory analysis, silica gel chromatography, and thin-layer chromatographic techniques and subsequently identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Two components with the highest bitterness intensities (BIs), such as 7-methoxycoumarin and 8-prenylkaempferol were selected. The bitter taste perceived thresholds of 7-methoxycoumarin and 8-prenylkaempferol were 0.062 mmol/L and 0.022 mmol/L, respectively. Moreover, the correlation between the contents of the two bitter components and the BIs of Z. bungeanum were proved. The results of siRNA and flow cytometry showed that 7-methoxycoumarin and 8-prenylkaempferol could activate the bitter receptor hTAS2R14. The results concluded that 7-methoxycoumarin and 8-prenylkaempferol contribute to the bitter taste of Z. bungeanum.


Assuntos
Quempferóis/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Zanthoxylum/química , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Quempferóis/análise , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Umbeliferonas/análise , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to elucidate the prognostic factors of the patients with taste disorders who were treated with popular and common medication in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study on the medical charts of a total of 255 patients with taste disorders who were treated primarily with oral medication including a zinc agent. RESULTS: The factors below were significantly linked with poor prognosis: 1) male gender, 2) taste disorders that began 3 months before starting treatment and 3) a severe taste disorder grade at the initial visit. CONCLUSIONS: We have concluded that the prognosis for the patients with taste disorders who were treated by popular and standard medication therapy in Japan recently was significantly linked to gender, the period of 3 months before starting the treatment and the severity of the disorder at the time of diagnosis. In addition, we recognized some limitations we should resolve in further research including a method of measuring "umami" and so on. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Better awareness of these factors should be clinically useful when we manage patients with taste disorders. Earlier treatment should be started to cure the symptoms.


Assuntos
Carnosina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios do Paladar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Limiar Gustativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Compostos de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico
6.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 18-21, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988482

RESUMO

Compared with other sensory modalities, age-related alterations in taste and smell are less known and less investigated in clinical practice. In fact, the elderly with a loss of smell or taste may not always report it or be aware of it. In addition, the clinical evaluation of taste and smell by specific tests is rarely performed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Idoso , Humanos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 243, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856144

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to develop taste-masked donut-shaped tablet formulations utilizing fused filament fabrication three-dimensional printing paired with hot-melt extrusion techniques. Caffeine citrate was used as the model drug for its bitter taste, and a 3-point bend test was performed to assess the printability of filaments. The stiffness constant was calculated to represent the printability by fitting the breaking distances and stress data into Hooke's law. The formulations without Eudragit E PO (F6) and with Eudragit E PO (F7) filaments exhibited the desired hardness with a "k" value of 48.30 ± 3.52 and 45.47 ± 3.51 g/mm3 (n = 10), respectively, and were successfully printed. The donut-shaped tablets were 3D printed with 10, 50, and 100% infill densities. In vitro dissolution studies were performed in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8, artificial saliva) to evaluate the taste-masking efficiency of the printed donuts. In the first minute, the concentrations of caffeine citrate observed in the dissolution media from all the printed donuts were less than the bitter threshold of caffeine citrate (0.25 mg/mL). Formulation F7, which contained Eudragit E PO copolymer, demonstrated better taste-masking efficiency than formulation F6. Furthermore, both formulations F6 and F7 demonstrated immediate drug release profiles in gastric medium (10% infill, > 80% release within 1 h). Taste-masked caffeine citrate formulations were successfully developed with donut shapes, which will enhance appeal in pediatric populations and increase compliance and patient acceptance of the dosage form.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Extrusão por Fusão a Quente/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/química , Cafeína/farmacologia , Citratos/química , Citratos/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Excipientes/química , Excipientes/farmacologia , Humanos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/farmacologia , Comprimidos , Paladar/fisiologia
9.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(11): 1255-1257, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the pathogen causing the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) commencing in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Multiple reports have shown subjective loss of taste and smell as an early and hallmark symptom for COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in our clinical practice during July 2020 on patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction. All patients were categorized into 3 groups (supertasters, tasters, and nontasters) via taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide, thiourea, and sodium benzoate with taste strip testing. The results of the taste strip tests were correlated with clinical course. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (mean, 51 [range, 24-82] years of age; 44 [44%] women) were assessed. We found that 21 of 100 (21%) were nontasters, 79 of 100 (79%) were tasters, and 0 of 100 (0%) were supertasters (p < 0.001). Twenty-one of 21 (100%) (p < 0.001) of the patients requiring inpatient admission were classified as nontasters. All 79 (100%) (p < 0.001) of the patients who displayed mild to moderate symptoms not requiring admission were classified as tasters. CONCLUSION: Our results show objective data that taste disturbance, specifically global loss of taste, appears to correlate with the clinical course specific to each individual, because 100% of the patients requiring inpatient admission were classified as nontasters.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(8): 703-709, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate of chemosensitive functions in coronavirus disease 2019 patients has not yet been determined. METHOD: A multicentre prospective study on 138 coronavirus disease 2019 patients was conducted. Olfactory and gustatory functions were prospectively evaluated for 60 days. RESULTS: Within the first 4 days of coronavirus disease 2019, 84.8 per cent of patients had chemosensitive dysfunction that gradually improved over the observation period. The most significant increase in chemosensitive scores occurred in the first 10 days for taste and between 10 and 20 days for smell. At the end of the observation period (60 days after symptom onset), 7.2 per cent of the patients still had severe dysfunctions. The risk of developing a long-lasting disorder becomes significant at 10 days for taste (odds ratio = 40.2, 95 per cent confidence interval = 2.204-733.2, p = 0.013) and 20 days for smell (odds ratio = 58.5, 95 per cent confidence interval = 3.278-1043.5, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Chemosensitive disturbances persisted in 7.2 per cent of patients 60 days after clinical onset. Specific therapies should be initiated in patients with severe olfactory and gustatory disturbances 20 days after disease onset.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
11.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(17): 2774-2781, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786309

RESUMO

The rapid recovery of smell and taste functions in COVID-19 patients could be attributed to a decrease in interleukin-6 levels rather than central nervous system ischemic injury or viral damage to neuronal cells. To correlate interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients with olfactory or gustatory dysfunctions and to investigate the role of IL-6 in the onset of these disorders, this observational study investigated 67 COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disorders or both, who did not require intensive care admission, admitted at COVID Hospital of Policlinico of Bari from March to May 2020. Interleukin-6 was assayed in COVID-19 patients with taste or smell disturbances at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. At the same time, patients have been given a specific survey to evaluate the severity of taste and smell disturbances. Of 125 patients with smell or taste dysfunctions at onset of disease, 67 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, while 58 were excluded because 35 of them required intensive care admission, 5 were unable to answer, 5 died, 7 had finished chemotherapy recently, and 5 refused to participate. The evaluation of taste and smell disorders was carried out using a survey performed at the time of admission and at the time of swab negativization. Sinonasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was used as a reference for olfactory function assessment, and Taste and Smell Questionnaire Section of the US NHANES 2011-2014 protocol (CDC 2013b) was used as reference for gustatory function assessment. A venous blood sample was taken for each patient to measure IL-6 levels upon entry and at swab negativization. Interleukin-6 levels in COVID-19 patients in relation to olfactory or gustatory disorders were correlated from the time of their admission to the time of swab negativization. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the decrease of interleukin-6 levels and the improvement of smell (p value < 0.05) and taste (p = 0.047) functions at swab negativization. The acquired results demonstrate the key role of interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of chemosensitive disorders in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Transtornos do Olfato/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Distúrbios do Paladar/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Paladar/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia
12.
Dan Med J ; 67(9)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical symptoms, including affection of sense of smell and taste, among participants in a party held in Copenhagen after which many participants reported symptoms compatible with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A 37-item questionnaire was sent electronically to all 95 participants seven weeks after the party. The questionnaire included questions about the type, timing and duration of COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 65 of 95 (68%) participants responded, among whom 51/65 (78%) had symptoms compatible with COVID-19; 53% (27/51) had affection of their sense of smell and taste; 70% (19/27) reported a total loss of taste. These symptoms continued for 1-3 weeks for 78% and 3-6 weeks for 22% (6/27). Interestingly, 11/27 (41%) reported that they had not fully regained their sense of taste and 3/27(11%) were still very affected by this symptom. Moreover, 44% of the respondents who had lost their sense of taste perceived this symptom as moderate to severe. Eighty-one percent (22/27) reported a total loss of smell. This symptom continued for 1-3 and > 3 weeks in 74% and 26%, respectively. At the time of the investigation, 48% had not fully regained their sense of smell and 7% were still very affected. More than half of the respondents who lost their sense of smell perceived this symptom as moderate to severe. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 report an affected sense of smell and taste. The duration of these symptoms currently remains unknown. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925813, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that spread from China is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The head and neck region can be variably affected in adult patients, and taste and smell disorders are typical manifestations. However, pediatric clinical signs are less severe, making the onset diagnosis challenging to interpret. The variability of nasal olfactory symptoms in children and adolescents is intertwined with possible warning signs, including gastrointestinal, ocular, or dermatological symptoms. We present a case involving a 15-year-old boy with clinically confirmed COVID-19 who had late-onset rash and transient taste and smell disorders. CASE REPORT The boy's clinical history revealed that a family member was positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the preceding 3 days, the boy's eating habits had changed; he perceived a metallic taste while eating and had a loss of appetite. He also had erythematous skin lesions on the lower limbs for the 2 previous days. A sore throat, nasal congestion, and a runny nose were reported on head and neck examination. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test was positive, confirming the initial diagnostic hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in children and adolescents can be asymptomatic, but it can also occur with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Due to the unique immune characteristics of pediatric and adolescent patients, the correct interpretation of the gustatory and skin symptoms associated with specific laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the most appropriate management and supportive care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Disgeusia/etiologia , Exantema/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/fisiopatologia , Exantema/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e270-e272, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658093

RESUMO

Among individuals who tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019, smell and taste sensations were significantly less impaired among children than among adults, in a stepwise manner. Sensory impairment was correlated with recent data of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression in the corresponding age groups. This is the first report to compare sensory impairment in children and adults testing positive for coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Hipestesia/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipestesia/enzimologia , Hipestesia/fisiopatologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Biol ; 18(7): e3000712, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663220

RESUMO

Tools enabling closed-loop experiments are crucial to delineate causal relationships between the activity of genetically labeled neurons and specific behaviors. We developed the Raspberry Pi Virtual Reality (PiVR) system to conduct closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of neural functions in unrestrained animals. PiVR is an experimental platform that operates at high temporal resolution (70 Hz) with low latencies (<30 milliseconds), while being affordable (

Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Optogenética , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Animais , Quimiotaxia , Larva/fisiologia , Luz , Locomoção , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes , Sensação/fisiologia , Software , Paladar/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Neuron ; 107(2): 219-233, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640192

RESUMO

The main neurological manifestation of COVID-19 is loss of smell or taste. The high incidence of smell loss without significant rhinorrhea or nasal congestion suggests that SARS-CoV-2 targets the chemical senses through mechanisms distinct from those used by endemic coronaviruses or other common cold-causing agents. Here we review recently developed hypotheses about how SARS-CoV-2 might alter the cells and circuits involved in chemosensory processing and thereby change perception. Given our limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we propose future experiments to elucidate disease mechanisms and highlight the relevance of this ongoing work to understanding how the virus might alter brain function more broadly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673349

RESUMO

In mammals, inter- and intraspecies differences in consumption of sweeteners largely depend on allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene (locus Sac) encoding the T1R3 protein, a sweet taste receptor subunit. To assess the influence of Tas1r3 polymorphisms on feeding behavior and metabolism, we examined the phenotype of F1 male hybrids obtained from crosses between the following inbred mouse strains: females from 129SvPasCrl (129S2) bearing the recessive Tas1r3 allele and males from either C57BL/6J (B6), carrying the dominant allele, or the Tas1r3-gene knockout strain C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm (B6-Tas1r3-/-). The hybrids 129S2B6F1 and 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 had identical background genotypes and different sets of Tas1r3 alleles. The effect of Tas1r3 hemizygosity was analyzed by comparing the parental strain B6 (Tas1r3 homozygote) and hemizygous F1 hybrids B6 × B6-Tas1r3-/-. Data showed that, in 129S2B6-Tas1r3-/-F1 hybrids, the reduction of glucose tolerance, along with lower consumption of and lower preference for sweeteners during the initial licking responses, is due to expression of the recessive Tas1r3 allele. Hemizygosity of Tas1r3 did not influence these behavioral and metabolic traits. However, the loss of the functional Tas1r3 allele was associated with a small decline in the long-term intake and preference for sweeteners and reduction of plasma insulin and body, liver, and fat mass.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Genótipo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemizigoto , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência
19.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E276-E290, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574112

RESUMO

Intake of sugars, especially the fructose component, is strongly associated with the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the relative role of taste versus metabolism in driving preference, intake, and metabolic outcome is not fully understood. We aimed to evaluate the preference for sweet substances and the tendency to develop metabolic syndrome in response to these sugars in mice lacking functional taste signaling [P2X2 (P2X purinoreceptor 2)/P2X3 (P2X purinoreceptor 3) double knockout mice (DKO)] and mice unable to metabolize fructose (fructokinase knockout mice). Of interest, our data indicate that despite their inability to taste sweetness, P2X2/3 DKO mice still prefer caloric sugars (including fructose and glucose) to water in long-term testing, although with diminished preference compared with control mice. Despite reduced intake of caloric sugars by P2X2/3 DKO animals, the DKO mice still show increased levels of the sugar-dependent hormone FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) in plasma and liver. Despite lower sugar intake, taste-blind mice develop severe features of metabolic syndrome due to reduced sensitivity to leptin, reduced ability to mobilize and oxidize fats, and increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In contrast to P2X2/3 DKO and wild-type mice, fructokinase knockout mice, which cannot metabolize fructose and are protected against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, demonstrate reduced preference and intake for all fructose-containing sugars tested but not for glucose or artificial sweeteners. Based on these observations, we conclude that sugar can induce metabolic syndrome in mice independently of its sweet properties. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the metabolism of fructose is necessary for sugar to drive intake and preference in mice.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X2/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X2/fisiologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/deficiência , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X3/fisiologia
20.
Adv Pharmacol ; 88: 59-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416872

RESUMO

Humans perceive sweet taste via activation of a specific taste receptor expressed at the surface of taste receptor cells located on the tongue and soft palate papillae. The sweet taste receptor functions as an obligate heterodimer, comprising two different class C GPCR subunits. This receptor is unique in that it is activated or modulated by a plethora of ligands from highly diverse chemical classes, from small molecules to peptides and proteins and interacting with topologically distinct sites on each of its subunits. Modulators acting at separate functional domains of the sweet taste receptor can behave as full agonists. However, contrary to observations made with other class C GPCRs such as the metabotropic glutamate receptors and the γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB) receptor, modulators interacting within the allosteric sites in the transmembrane domains of the sweet taste receptor only exert a relatively small effect on the affinity and efficacy of the agonist interacting at the orthosteric binding site located within the Venus fly trap domain (VFD). Newly identified potent and efficacious positive allosteric modulators (PAM)s of the sweet taste receptor rather interact at a site in close proximity to the agonist, within the VFD, display significant probe dependence, and markedly increase the affinity of the orthosteric ligand. Several sweet taste receptor inhibitors have also been characterized. Functional studies reveal a complex relationship between different ligands. Whether the antagonist will be surmountable or insurmountable and will act competitively or non-competitively largely depends on the agonist being studied and the location of its interaction site on the receptor.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Paladar/fisiologia , Regulação Alostérica , Sítio Alostérico , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA