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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084182

RESUMO

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) has been the focus of increased research because of its important role as an antioxidant and in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced damage repair. Studies on GPxs have relevance with Macrobrachium nipponense because it has poor tolerance to hypoxia in Macrobrachium nipponense. The two subunits named as MnGPx-3 and MnGPx-4 according to the glutathione peroxidase nomenclature system. Both full-length cDNAs were cloned from the hepatopancreas. In this study, we analyzed the expression of two GPxs in Macrobrachium nipponense in response to changes in environmental oxygen. Expression levels of MnGPx-3 and MnGPx-4 indicated that both have strong responses to hypoxia. In situ hybridization showed that MnGPx-3 and MnGPx-4 were located in secretory and storage cells in hepatopancreas. These results suggest that GPx gene is expressed and released by secretory cells and released response to hypoxia. In the gill tissue, however, GPxs are located in blood cells, suggesting that they perform different functions in different tissues or organs. The results of in situ hybridization were consistent with those of quantitative Real-time PCR. This study provides a basis for understanding the oxidative stress response in M. nipponense under hypoxia.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Glutationa Peroxidase/química , Hibridização In Situ , Palaemonidae/enzimologia , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(2): 222-227, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893301

RESUMO

This paper assesses the role of intestinal helminth parasite of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii on host metal accumulation in Lekki lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Lead, zinc, copper, chromium and iron concentrations were determined in water, sediment, intestinal parasite, intestine of infected and non-infected prawns. Intestinal nematode parasite Cucullanus sp. was identified. Pb and Cr were not detected in the water and sediment. The sediment had higher concentrations of the metals than the water medium, and exceeded the WHO limits for Zn, Cu and Fe. Cucullanus sp. accumulated Zn 19 times, Cr several thousand times more and Fe 11 times more than the host intestine (wet wt). This parasite could have accumulated these metals from its host, reducing the concentration of these metals in the tissues of the infected prawns compared to non-infected ones. The infected and non-infected prawns accumulated Zn and Fe several times more than the water medium. The parasite influenced metal accumulation in the host tissue and pose ecological risk.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nematoides/fisiologia , Palaemonidae/parasitologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/parasitologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846692

RESUMO

The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is a commercial freshwater prawn species in China. It is highly sensitive to hypoxia, and this has posed a challenge to its intensive culturing. To date, the effects of hypoxia on reproduction in female prawns are not entirely clear, as are the underlying mechanisms of the effects of hypoxia. In this work, comparative transcriptome and gene expression analyses of the eyestalk were performed in M. nipponense females under hypoxia and reoxygenation conditions. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the combined reads yielded 43,583 unigenes with an average length of 1726 bp. A total of 711 genes were found to be differentially expressed in the eyestalk under the hypoxia and reoxygenation conditions. With the help of functional and pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes, a novel set of transcripts that were associated with several important functions, such as hormone biosynthesis and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, were identified. Additionally, ten neuropeptides were identified based on the differentially expressed transcripts, and they were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Three neuropeptide genes were expressed in the neural tissue and ovary of the prawns; this indicates that they were involved in reproductive processes. In particular, RNA interference (RNAi) short neuropeptide F dramatically promoted ovary maturation, as indicated by the gonad somatic index. While the present findings do indicate that hypoxia affects reproductive function in M. nipponense females, in-depth functional analyses of the candidate neuropeptides should be conducted in the future to understand their role in hypoxia adaptation and the associated mechanisms that affect the reproductive capacity of this species.


Assuntos
Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma
4.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(2): 245-253, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858197

RESUMO

Open-air landfill's may be are considered as a potential source of human environmental exposure to chemical substances such as, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and toxic metals. Due to possible availability of mercury in the environment caused by open landfill emissions, this study evaluates the spatiality and seasonality of macroinvertebrates, in particular shrimps (Macrobrachium amazonicum), exposure to mercury (Hg). Information regarding Hg accumulation in this crustacean may be important for the development of public policies aiming conservation and preservation of ecosystems surrounding landfills in Amazon, and around the world. Sampling occurred quarterly in the following months: November/2015; February/2016; May/2016 and; August/2016. In each of these months, three points were selected: P1, P2 and P3. The samples were processed via acid digestion and the quantification of metal was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The average concentration of total mercury (T-Hg) was 24.565 ± 6.610 µg kg-1 wet weight, with minimum and maximum limits of 12.742 ± 11.367 (P3) and 35.509 ± 14.761 µg kg-1 wet weight (P1) in November/2015 and August/2016, respectively. The concentration of total mercury (T-Hg) in shrimps was different between points (p = 0.004) and months (p = 0.000). The T-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in May and August 2016, which corresponds to the dry season. The presence of landfills promotes large accumulation of T-Hg in the aquatic biota and represents a risk to human health. However, seasonal changes in T-Hg levels were observed. In the wettest period, bioconcentration factor levels decrease in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Brasil , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Rios , Estações do Ano , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 729-733, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531704

RESUMO

Accumulation of nonylphenol (NP) in hepatopancreas, gonad, eyestalk, and muscle of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii following 72 h exposure to 100 µg/L NP, and depuration of NP in these tissues at 0.5-192 h post exposure were examined. We also examined the expressions of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) of prawn following 0-20 days exposure to 0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/L NP. NP accumulation in hepatopancreas and gonad with high concentration, and low concentration in muscle, but depurated faster in eyestalk and muscle. The expressions of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) increased directly with dose and time. In conclusion, NP accumulated significantly in gonad together with high Vg and VgR expressions, and depurated slow in hepatopancreas and gonad when prawns were removed back to control water. The induction of Vg and VgR under NP exposure might be a stress response in M. rosenbergii.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Água Doce/química , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Vitelogeninas/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 689-696, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506728

RESUMO

To test the toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), Macrobrachium rosenbergii were exposed to three concentrations of TBT viz. 10 ng/L, 100 ng/L and 1000 ng/L for 90 days. The bioaccumulation of TBT level varied in hepatopancreas based upon dose dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed the reduction in basement membrane thickness, disruption of the hepatopancreatic tubules and abnormal lumen in hepatopancreas of TBT treated prawns. The ultrastructure of the control prawn showed normal architecture of cellular organelles with prominent nuclei in hepatocytes. On the other hand, many vacuoles, irregular arrangements of microvilli, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternaes and abnormal nucleus were seen in the TBT treated group. Further, the biochemical and vitellogenin content were altered remarkably due to TBT exposure. It directly indicated that TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis. Therefore, it was inferred that the administration of TBT has considerably affected the hepatopancreatic functions in M. rosenbergii.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Água Doce/química , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Trialquitina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Trialquitina/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 223-231, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319208

RESUMO

The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an economically and nutritionally important species of the Palaemonidae family of decapod crustaceans. Ammonia is a major aquatic environmental pollutant that negatively affects the health of prawns and their associated commercial productivity. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing techniques for detecting the effects of ammonia stress (22.1 mg/L ammonia-N for 48 h) on gene expression in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense. We generated 176,228,782 high-quality reads after eliminating adapter sequences and filtering out low-quality reads, which were assembled into 63453 unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of the ammonia-treated and control groups identified 887 differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05), including 481 upregulated genes and 406 downregulated genes. Analyses of the GO and KEGG databases revealed significant differences between the two groups in 32 pathways. Immune-related pathways under ammonia stress included Complement and coagulation cascades, Platelet activation, B cell receptor signaling pathway, Antigen processing and presentation, Chemokine signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. Remarkably, ammonia stress altered the expression patterns of key immune genes (lectin3, syntenin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, cathepsin L, PIM3, serine protease inhibitor, suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 like protein), indicating that ammonia-stress induce immune response. These data provide new insights into the immune response of M. nipponense and pave a new way for fighting ammonia stress. The genes and pathways identified here represent valuable genetic resources for development of molecular markers and genetic breeding studies.


Assuntos
Amônia/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 363-375, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974219

RESUMO

Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are important antioxidant enzymes that occur in virtually all oxygen-respiring organisms, and copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD) is one of the most important SODs. In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Cu/Zn-SOD was expressed in a yeast eukaryotic system. The open reading frame (ORF) of MrCu/ZnSOD was cloned into the plasmid vector pHAC181, and the recombinant plasmid was integrated into the downstream region of the GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain GAL1-ScRCH1 via homologous recombination. The resulting recombinant MrCu/ZnSOD consisted of a 3 × HA-tag at its C-terminal. Via western blot, the molecular weight of the recombinant MrCu/ZnSOD was estimated at about 30 kDa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of this recombinant MrCu/ZnSOD ranged from 0.556 to 0.840 µM, and from 0.967 to 2.015 µM, respectively. The recombinant MrCu/ZnSOD protein was able to agglutinate four Gram-negative bacterial strains, as well as two of three Gram-positive strains (except Staphylococcus aureus). This demonstrated that the recombinant protein possessed some antimicrobial activity against certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. M. rosenbergii were fed with the recombinant yeast strain MrCu/ZnSOD for 4 weeks and then challenged with the most common crustacean pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This group of prawns presented lower mortality, higher enzymatic activity, and higher expression of the mRNA of immune-related genes than that in the control groups. Taken together, these results suggest that MrCu/ZnSOD is an antioxidant enzyme and antimicrobial peptide involved in the crustacean innate immune system and offers protection to the host against pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/imunologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/imunologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/imunologia , Aglutinação , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/imunologia , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965605

RESUMO

The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor (DMRT) gene family involvement in sex development is widely conserved from invertebrates to humans. In this study, we identified a DM (Doublesex/Mab-3)-domain gene in Macrobrachium nipponense, which we named MniDMRT11E because it has many similarities to and phylogenetically close relationships with the arthropod DMRT11E. Amino acid alignments and structural prediction uncovered conservation and putative active sites of the DM domain. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the MniDMRT11E was highly expressed in the ovary and testis in both males and females. Cellular localization analysis showed that DMRT11E was mainly located in the oocytes of the ovary and the spermatocyte of the testis. During embryogenesis, the expression level of MniDMRT11E was higher at the cleavage stage than at other stages. During the different stages of ovarian development, MniDMRT11E expression gradually increased from OI to OIII and decreased to the lowest level at the end of OIV. The results indicated that MniDMRT11E probably played important roles in embryonic development and sex maturity in M. nipponense. MniDMRT11E dsRNA injection also significantly reduced vitellogenin (VG) expression and significantly increased insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) expression, indicating a close relationship in gonad development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/embriologia , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Masculino , Ovário/embriologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/genética , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 288: 268-275, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902292

RESUMO

The allergenicity suppression of tropomyosin (TM) from Exopalaemon modestus by glycation with saccharides of different molecular sizes (glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose and maltoheptaose) was investigated using immunoblotting, human colon epithelial cell line (Caco-2) and human basophil cell line (KU812). Glycation of TM by glucose, maltotriose, maltopentaose and maltoheptaose significantly destructed and masked TM epitopes to obtain lower allergenicity, while glycation of TM by maltose had insignificant suppression on TM allergenicity. In addition, the glycated TM by glucose, maltotriose, maltopentaose and maltoheptaose inhibited the proliferation and IL-8 secretion of Caco-2, and the CD63 and CD203c expression, MAPK signaling of KU812 basophils, while the glycated TM by maltose had insignificant suppression on the allergy reactivities of Caco-2 cells and KU812 basophils. Glycation of TM by saccharides with larger molecular sizes (such as maltoheptaose) could provide new insight into the desensitization of shrimp-induced food allergy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Masculino , Maltose/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trissacarídeos/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Tropomiosina/farmacologia
11.
Int J Radiat Biol ; 95(6): 753-763, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822214

RESUMO

Purpose: The effect of low level cobalt-60 (60Co) gamma radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was evaluated by observing their hemocyte counts and biochemical parameters. Materials and methods: Prawns were exposed to 3, 30, 300 and 3000 milligray (mGy) dose levels and their tissues of gills, hepatopancreas and muscle were analyzed. Results: The results showed that the number of hemocytes in the hemolymph and concentrations of protein and carbohydrate were significantly reduced in irradiated groups than compared to the control prawn. Increased aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Acetyl choline esterase (AChE) in the irradiated groups reflects tissue damage. Conclusions: Hence, this study concludes that even low level of ionizing radiation (60Co gamma) can cause acute damages in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles in irradiated groups. Highlights 60Co exposures effect the THC and biochemical of prawn M. rosenbergii. Different dose levels such as 3, 30, 300 and 3000 mGy. Biochemical parameters serve as reliable indicators of physical status of organism. Self-regulating mechanisms might be the reason for preventing from the lethality. Suggested that nuclear industries should manage below 3 mGy.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Cobalto/efeitos adversos , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos da radiação , Palaemonidae/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos da radiação , Contagem de Células , Palaemonidae/citologia , Palaemonidae/metabolismo
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1002-1018, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840062

RESUMO

Elucidating the molecular basis of adaptation to different environmental conditions is important because adaptive ability of a species can shape its distribution, influence speciation, and also drive a variety of evolutionary processes. For crustaceans, colonization of freshwater habitats has significantly impacted diversity, but the molecular basis of this process is poorly understood. In the current study, we examined three prawn species from the genus Macrobrachium (M. australiense, M. tolmerum, and M. novaehollandiae) to better understand the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation using a comparative transcriptomics approach. Each of these species naturally inhabit environments with different salinity levels; here, we exposed them to the same experimental salinity conditions (0‰ and 15‰), to compare expression patterns of candidate genes that previously have been shown to influence phenotypic traits associated with freshwater adaptation (e.g., genes associated with osmoregulation). Differential gene expression analysis revealed 876, 861, and 925 differentially expressed transcripts under the two salinities for M. australiense, M. tolmerum, and M. novaehollandiae, respectively. Of these, 16 were found to be unannotated novel transcripts and may be taxonomically restricted or orphan genes. Functional enrichment and molecular pathway mapping revealed 13 functionally enriched categories and 11 enriched molecular pathways that were common to the three Macrobrachium species. Pattern of selection analysis revealed 26 genes with signatures of positive selection among pairwise species comparisons. Overall, our results indicate that the same key genes and similar molecular pathways are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation widely across this decapod group; with nonoverlapping sets of genes showing differential expression (mainly osmoregulatory genes) and signatures of positive selection (genes involved with different life history traits).


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Palaemonidae/genética , Seleção Genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Salinidade , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Cell Tissue Res ; 376(3): 471-484, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778730

RESUMO

Neuropeptide F in invertebrates is a homolog of neuropeptide Y in mammals and it is a member of FMRFamide-related peptides. In arthropods, such as insects, there are two types of neuropeptide F comprising long neuropeptide F (NPF) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Both NPFs are known to play a crucial role in the regulations of foraging, feeding-related behaviors, circadian rhythm, stress responses, aggression and reproduction in invertebrates. We have earlier found that in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, there are three isoforms of NPF and four isoforms of sNPF and that NPFs are expressed in the eyestalks and brain. In the present study, we investigate further the tissue distribution of NPF-I in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) and its role in the development of testes in small male (SM) Macrobrachium rosenbergii. By immunolocalization, using the rabbit polyclonal antibody against NPF-I as a probe, we could detect NPF-I immunoreactivity in the neuropils and neuronal clusters of the subesophageal ganglia (SEG), thoracic ganglia (TG) and abdominal ganglia (AG) of the SM prawns. In functional assays, the administrations of synthetic NPF-I (KPDPTQLAAMADALKYLQELDKYYSQVSRPRFamide) and sNPF (APALRLRFamide) peptides significantly increased the growth rates of SM prawns and significantly increased the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and proliferations of early germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of their testes. It is, therefore, suggestive that NPFs may play critical roles in energy homeostasis towards promoting growth as well as testicular development in prawns that could be applied in the aquaculture of this species.


Assuntos
Gânglios/metabolismo , Células Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Neurópilo/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Masculino , Palaemonidae/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 223: 157-164, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776760

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) has been evaluated for application in environmental remediation and pollution control strategies. However, the side effects caused by the interactions of GO with classical pollutants in aquatic environments are still largely unknown. In this work, the ecotoxicological effects of GO, cadmium, zinc and the interactions between GO and these trace elements (co-exposure) were evaluated through acute toxicity tests and routine metabolism (i.e., oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) in Palaemon pandaliformis (shrimp). After 96 h of exposure, GO did not present acute ecotoxicity at concentrations up to 5.0 mg L-1. However, the association of GO with Cd or Zn increased the toxicity of these trace elements as demonstrated by the decrease in LC50 values. The 96 h LC50 of Cd associated with GO was 1.7 times less than the 96 h LC50 of Cd alone. Similarly, the 96 h LC50 of Zn associated with GO was 1.8 times less than the 96 h LC50 of Zn alone. Additionally, the co-exposure of GO with trace elements impaired the routine metabolism of P. pandaliformis. Finally, the GO potentiated the ecotoxicological effects of Cd and Zn in the shrimp model. Future research on this emerging nanomaterial should focus on its use and disposal in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Grafite/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Dose Letal Mediana , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 484-492, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639875

RESUMO

Autophagy, a crucial process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is under the control of several autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, and is highly conserved in most animals, but its response to adverse environmental conditions is poorly understood in crustaceans. Herein, we hypothesised that autophagy acts as a protective response to hypoxia, and Beclin 1, ATG7 and ATG8 in oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) were chosen as potential biomarkers under hypoxia exposure; thus, their full-length cDNA sequences were cloned and characterised. Open reading frames (ORFs) of 1281, 2076 and 360 bp, encoding proteins of 427, 692 and 120 amino acid residues, respectively, were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the three M. nipponense proteins do not form a clade with vertebrate homologs. Protein and mRNA levels were investigated in different tissues and developmental stages, and all three were significantly upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the hepatopancreas following hypoxia stress. Biochemical and morphological analysis of hepatocytes revealed that hypoxia increased the abundance of hepatic autophagic vacuoles and stimulated anaerobic metabolism. RNA interference-mediated silencing of ATG8 significantly increased the death rate of M. nipponense juveniles under hypoxia stress conditions. Together, these results suggest that Beclin 1, ATG7 and ATG8 contribute to autophagy-based responses against hypoxia in M. nipponense. The findings also expand our understanding of the potential role of autophagy as an adaptive response against hypoxia toxicity in crustaceans. The results showed that hepatic ATG8 levels may be directly indicative of acute hypoxia in prawns, and provide insight into the time at which hypoxia exposure occurs. Autophagy-related genes expression pattern seems to be sensitive and good biomarkers of acute hypoxia exposure.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Palaemonidae/genética , Animais , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Família da Proteína 8 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/genética , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rios/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 144-154, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630047

RESUMO

The oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is a highly adaptable, tolerant, and fecund freshwater prawn that inhabits a wide range of aquatic environments. The hepatopancreas of crustaceans is not only a site for secretion of digestive enzymes, and also plays important roles in several metabolic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It is the main organ for the detoxification and immunity. In this study, high-throughput sequencing techniques were used to detect the effect of nitrite stress (10 mg/L nitrite-N for 48 h) on gene expression in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense. A total of 13,769 million reads were harvested, and 94,534 transcripts were de novo assembled using Trinity software and produced 56,054 non-redundant transcripts. A total of 825 differentially expressed genes were obtained comparing 48 h nitrite stress with control group. In the analysis of GO and KEGG database, significant differences were found in 49 pathways. Immune-related pathways under nitrite stress included arginine and proline metabolism, glutamate metabolism, Jak-Stat signaling pathway, endocytosis, wnt signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway, GnRH signaling pathway and phagosome. Apoptosis-related pathway was also significantly altered, such as lysosome and apoptosis. Remarkably, nitrite stress altered the expression patterns of key apoptosis genes (tetraspanins-like protein, LAMP, CD63, caspase 3C and Caspase 1) and immune genes (Serine proteinase-like protein, C-type lectin, daf-36, SOCS-2, alpha-2-macroglobulin), confirmed that nitrite-stress induce immune response and eventually even apoptosis. This study provided a new insight into the role of hepatopancreas in crustaceans, and further investigation will continue.


Assuntos
Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitritos/toxicidade , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/genética , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Acta Histochem ; 121(2): 156-163, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558912

RESUMO

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an important aquaculture species. A better understanding of the molecular components of reproduction in this species would help to advance the prawn production. In the present study, we demonstrated the presence of an egg laying hormone (ELH)-like peptide in the male reproductive system. First, an antibody to the abalone (a)ELH was generated, and by Western blot it was shown to specifically bound to a protein from the male M. rosenbergii reproductive tissues with a similar size to molluscan ELH. This aELH-like peptide was localized in spermatogonia in the testes of all three male morphotypes: blue claw, orange claw and small males. Moreover, the aELH-like peptide was detected in the epithelium of the spermatic duct and its associated smooth muscle cell layers and on the outer surface of spermatozoa. As well, the aELH-like peptide was detected in the spermatophore located in the female thelycum at 4-6 h post-mating, indicating that it was transferred to the female during copulation. Taken together, we suggest that this aELH-like peptide could be as a male inducing factor that helped to accelerate female spawning. Liquid chromatography of crude extracts and immunoblot analysis suggested that the aELH-like peptide could be further purified for ultimate characterization.


Assuntos
Genitália Masculina/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Água Doce , Masculino , Testículo
18.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(2): 230-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488568

RESUMO

Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug. Exopalaemon carinicauda is important in the prawn aquaculture industry in China. Florfenicol pharmacokinetics in E. carinicauda were studied at different temperatures and via different routes of administration to provide a scientific basis for the rational use of drugs for E. carinicauda production. At water temperatures of 22 ± 0.4°C and 28 ± 0.3°C, after intramuscular (IM) injection and oral (per ora (PO)) administration of florfenicol at 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 30 mg/kg BW, respectively, the florfenicol concentration in the plasma, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, and carapace of E. carinicauda was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After IM injection at different temperatures, the metabolism of florfenicol in E. carinicauda conformed to a two-compartment open model with zero-order absorption. After PO administration, the metabolism of florfenicol in E. carinicauda was consistent with a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. Using an identical administration route but different water temperatures, the metabolism of florfenicol in E. carinicauda was quite different. Overall, florfenicol was absorbed rapidly and distributed widely in E. carinicauda, but elimination was slow and the bioavailability was not high. A low temperature and PO administration resulted in a low elimination rate.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Temperatura , Tianfenicol/administração & dosagem , Tianfenicol/sangue , Tianfenicol/farmacocinética
19.
Chemosphere ; 217: 289-297, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419383

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of metal toxicity to organisms farmed for food may suggest mitigation strategies. We determined the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h median lethal concentrations of lead in juvenile oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense). The prawns were then exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (13.13 and 26.26 µg/L) of lead for 60 days and growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and metabolite profiles were assessed. Prawns exposed to 26.26 µg/L but not to 13.13 µg/L lead exhibited lower weight gain than controls. The lead burden in muscle was 0.067 and 0.25 µg/g of dry weight exposed to 13.13 and 26.26 µg/L, respectively. Levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were not altered following exposure. Exposure increased malondialdehyde activity in the hepatopancreas and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Catalase activity first increased and then decreased as lead concentrations increased. Some intestinal epithelial cells disassociated from the basement membrane in prawns exposed to 13.13 µg/L lead. Intestinal epithelial cells in prawns exposed to 26.26 µg/L lead separated completely from the basement membrane. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics assays showed the 13.13-µg/L exposure did not elicit significant metabolic alterations. Exposure to 26.26 µg/L lead differentially up-regulated 58 metabolites and down-regulated 21 metabolites. The metabolites identified were involved in galactose, purine, glutathione, and carbon metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids and steroids, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. These data indicate that chronic lead exposure can adversely affect growth, increase accumulation in muscle, impair intestinal morphology, and induce oxidant stress or neurotoxicity-related effects in M. nipponense.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Chumbo/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/anatomia & histologia , Palaemonidae/metabolismo
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 187(2): 543-552, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948910

RESUMO

This study deals with synthesis of chromium nanoparticles (CrNPs) from potassium dichromate using the aqueous extract of Allium sativum. They were characterized through UV-VIS light, FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, and FT-IR, which revealed uniform, mono-dispersive, and highly stable CrNPs of 31-64-nm size. The Artemia nauplii was enriched with 4.94 mg/L of CrNPs (24-h LC50) at different durations (½, 1, 2, and 4 h) and then fed to Macrobrachium rosenbegii post-larvae (PL) for 30 days as live feed. The results showed that ½- and 1-h enriched Artemia nauplii led to significant improvements in nutritional indices including growth and survival, and concentrations of tissue biochemical constituents, such as total protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid of M. rosenbergii PL (P < 0.05), which suggests that this concentration of CrNPs was non-toxic to M. rosenbergii PL. This was confirmed by the insignificant alterations recorded in activities of SOD and CAT (P > 0.05) in M. rosenbergii PL fed with ½- and 1-h enriched Artemia nauplii as live feed. After that, SOD and CAT activities started to increase. Therefore, this optimized concentration of CrNPs (4.94 mg/L) is recommended for enrichment of Artemia nauplii for ½-1-h duration as a sustainable material in the nursery of M. rosenbergii.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Palaemonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catalase/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Palaemonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
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