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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846430

RESUMO

Indo-Pacific lionfish have become invasive throughout the western Atlantic. Their predatory effects have been the focus of much research and are suggested to cause declines in native fish abundance and diversity across the invaded range. However, little is known about their non-consumptive effects, or their effects on invertebrates. Lionfish use shelters on the reef, thus there is potential for competition with other shelter-dwelling organisms. We demonstrate similar habitat associations between invasive lionfish, native spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) and native long-spined sea urchins (Diadema antillarum), indicating the potential for competition. We then used a laboratory experiment to compare activity and shelter use of each species when alone and when lionfish were paired with each native species. Spiny lobsters increased their activity but did not change their shelter use in the presence of a lionfish, whilst long-spined sea urchins changed neither their activity nor shelter use. However, lionfish reduced their shelter use in the presence of spiny lobsters and long-spined sea urchins. This study highlights the importance not only of testing for the non-consumptive effects of invasive species, but also exploring whether native species exert non-consumptive effects on the invasive.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Espécies Introduzidas , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Região do Caribe , Recifes de Corais , Dinâmica Populacional
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4219, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144341

RESUMO

Many marine animals have evolved sensory abilities to use electric and magnetic cues in essential aspects of life history, such as to detect prey, predators and mates as well as to orientate and migrate. Potential disruption of vital cues by human activities must be understood in order to mitigate potential negative influences. Cable deployments in coastal waters are increasing worldwide, in capacity and number, owing to growing demands for electrical power and telecommunications. Increasingly, the local electromagnetic environment used by electro- and magneto-sensitive species will be altered. We quantified biologically relevant behavioural responses of the presumed, magneto-receptive American lobster and the electro-sensitive Little skate to electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions of a subsea high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission cable for domestic electricity supply. We demonstrate a striking increase in exploratory/foraging behaviour in skates in response to EMF and a more subtle exploratory response in lobsters. In addition, by directly measuring both the magnetic and electric field components of the EMF emitted by HVDC cables we found that there were DC and unexpectedly AC components. Modelling, restricted to the DC component, showed good agreement with measured results. Our cross-disciplinary study highlights the need to integrate an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic EMF environment together with the responses of sensitive animals when planning future cable deployments and predicting their environmental effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Biodiversidade , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Rajidae/fisiologia , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Palinuridae/efeitos da radiação
3.
Mar Environ Res ; 156: 104918, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174338

RESUMO

Spiny lobster post-larvae undertake an extensive migration from the open ocean to the coast, during which time their swimming is fueled solely by energy reserves accumulated through their preceding larval phase. We assessed the influence of future ocean temperatures on the swimming behavior and energy use of migrating post-larvae of Sagmariasus verreauxi, by experimentally swimming post-larvae for up to 6 days at three temperatures and measuring the lipid and protein used, and observing their time spent actively swimming. Increasing the temperature from 17 °C to 23 °C doubled the energy utilized by post-larvae while swimming, while also reducing the time they spent swimming by three times. Therefore, increasing ocean temperatures appear to greatly affect the energetic cost and efficiency of shoreward migration of post-larvae in this lobster species, with the potential to markedly impact post-larval recruitment into coastal populations under future scenarios of ocean warming.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Metabolismo Energético , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Água do Mar , Temperatura , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Larva/fisiologia , Lipídeos , Oceanos e Mares , Proteínas
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 202, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937868

RESUMO

Understanding mechanisms of thermal sensitivity is key to predict responses of marine organisms to changing temperatures. Sustaining heart function is critical for complex organisms to oxygenate tissues, particularly under temperature stress. Yet, specific mechanisms that define thermal sensitivity of cardiac function remain unclear. Here we investigated whole animal metabolism, cardiac performance and mitochondrial function in response to elevated temperatures for temperate, subtropical and tropical spiny lobster species. While oxygen demands increased with rising temperatures, heart function became limited or declined in all three species of lobsters. The decline in cardiac performance coincided with decreases in mitochondrial efficiency through increasing mitochondrial proton leakage, which predicts impaired compensation of ATP production. Species differences were marked by shifts in mitochondrial function, with the least thermal scope apparent for tropical lobsters. We conclude that acute temperature stress of spiny lobsters, irrespective of their climatic origin, is marked by declining cellular energetic function of the heart, contributing to an increasing loss of whole animal performance. Better understanding of physiological thermal stress cascades will help to improve forecasts of how changing environmental temperatures affect the fitness of these ecologically and commercially important species.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Aclimatação , Animais , Respiração Celular , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Palinuridae/classificação
5.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710648

RESUMO

The size at which sexual maturity is reached is a key population parameter used to guide the setting of minimum legal size limits in fisheries. Understanding spatial and temporal variations in size at maturity is fundamental to management because the relationship between size at maturity and minimum legal size limits affects the fraction of the mature population biomass that is harvested, and resulting egg production, larval settlement and recruitment. This study measured the size at maturity of female Southern Rock Lobster (Jasus edwardsii) across South Australia between 1991 and 2015 in relation to known oceanographic characteristics, surface and subsurface temperature data, and relative changes in lobster abundance. There was pronounced north to south spatial variation in estimates of size at maturity. Larger average size at maturity was recorded in warmer north-western areas of the fishery relative to the cooler waters of the south-east. Estimates of size at maturity also differed over 25 years across the fishery. However, the nature of temporal responses varied spatially, and were more consistent with variations in surface and subsurface water temperature at local-scales than changes in lobster density. In the well-mixed waters of the north-western, western and south-eastern parts of the fishery, relatively high rates of increase in sea-surface temperature and size at maturity were recorded since 1991, indicating that size at maturity may be responding to ocean warming associated with global climate change. In more central parts of the fishery, contrasting temporal signals in sea-surface temperature (positive) and bottom temperature (negative) indicated increases in upwelling strength over the study period, and formation of a bottom cold pool below a warm surface layer, with corresponding decreases in size at maturity recorded. The spatio-temporal changes in size at maturity measured in this study highlight the need for oceanographic information to be integrated into future stock assessment models to enhance harvest strategy development, allow timely adaptive management decisions and increase the resilience of fisheries to the impacts of climate change.


Assuntos
Palinuridae/anatomia & histologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Maturidade Sexual , Análise Espaço-Temporal
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1907): 20191424, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337309

RESUMO

The effects of anthropogenic aquatic noise on marine invertebrates are poorly understood. We investigated the impact of seismic surveys on the righting reflex and statocyst morphology of the palinurid rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, using field-based exposure to air gun signals. Following exposure equivalent to a full-scale commercial assay passing within 100-500 m, lobsters showed impaired righting and significant damage to the sensory hairs of the statocyst. Reflex impairment and statocyst damage persisted over the course of the experiments-up to 365 days post-exposure and did not improved following moulting. These results indicate that exposure to air gun signals caused morphological damage to the statocyst of rock lobsters, which can in turn impair complex reflexes. This damage and impairment adds further evidence that anthropogenic aquatic noise has the potential to harm invertebrates, necessitating a better understanding of possible ecological and economic impacts.


Assuntos
Ruído/efeitos adversos , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Palinuridae/efeitos da radiação , Reflexo de Endireitamento/fisiologia , Reflexo de Endireitamento/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos dos Sentidos/fisiologia , Órgãos dos Sentidos/efeitos da radiação
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 752-762, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163297

RESUMO

The West Coast rock lobster (WCRL), Jasus lalandii, inhabits highly variable environments frequented by upwelling events, episodes of hypercapnia and large temperature variations. Coupled with the predicted threat of ocean acidification and temperature change for the coming centuries, the immune response in this crustacean will most likely be affected. We therefore tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to hypercapnia and elevated seawater temperature will alter immune function of the WCRL. The chronic effects of four combinations of two stressors (seawater pCO2 and temperature) on the total number of circulating haemocytes (THC) as well as on the lobsters' ability to clear (inactivate) an injected dose of Vibrio anguillarum from haemolymph circulation were assessed. Juvenile lobsters were held in normocapnic (pH 8.01) or hypercapnic (pH 7.34) conditions at two temperatures (15.6 and 18.9 °C) for 48 weeks (n = 30 lobster per treatment), after which a subsample of lobsters (n = 8/treatment), all at a similar moult stage, were selected from each treatment for the immune challenge. Baseline levels of haemocytes (THC ml-1) and bacteria (CFU ml-1) in their haemolymph were quantified 24 h prior to bacterial challenge. Lobsters were then challenged by injecting 4 × 104V. anguillarum per g body weight directly into the cardiac region of each lobster and circulating haemocyte and culturable bacteria were measured at 20 min post challenge. No significant differences in THC ml-1 (p < 0.05) were observed between any of the treatment groups prior to the bacterial challenge. However lobsters chronically exposed to a combination of hypercapnia and low temperature had significantly higher (p < 0.05) THCs post-challenge in comparison with lobsters chronically exposed to hypercapnia and high temperature. A significant interactive effect was recorded between temperature and pH for the post-challenge THC data (two-way ANOVA, p = 0.0025). Lobster were very efficient at rendering an injected dose of bacteria non-culturable, with more than 83% of the theoretical challenge dose (∼1.7 × 105Vibrio ml-1 haemolymph) inactivated within the first 10 min following injection. Although differences in the inactivation of V. anguillarum were observed between treatment groups, none of these differences were significant. Clearance efficiency was in the following order: Hypercapnia/low temperature > normocapnia/high temperature > normocapnia/low temperature > hypercapnia/high temperature. This study demonstrated that despite chronic exposure to combinations of reduced seawater pH and high temperature, the WCRL was still capable of rapidly rendering an injected dose of bacteria non-culturable.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Hemolinfa/química , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Palinuridae/imunologia , Animais , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Palinuridae/química , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química
8.
J Comp Physiol B ; 189(3-4): 351-365, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101978

RESUMO

Metabolism in aquatic ectotherms evaluated by oxygen consumption rates reflects energetic costs including those associated with protein synthesis. Metabolism is influenced by nutritional status governed by feeding, nutrient intake and quality, and time without food. However, little is understood about contribution of protein synthesis to crustacean energy metabolism. This study is the first using a protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide to research contribution of cycloheximide-sensitive protein synthesis to decapod crustacean metabolism. Juvenile Sagmariasus verreauxi were subject to five treatments: 2-day fasted lobsters sham injected with saline; 2-day fasted lobsters injected with cycloheximide; 10-day starved lobsters injected with cycloheximide; post-prandial lobsters fed with squid Nototodarus sloanii with no further treatment; and post-prandial lobsters injected with cycloheximide. Standard and routine metabolic rates in starved lobsters were reduced by 32% and 41%, respectively, compared to fasted lobsters, demonstrating metabolic downregulation with starvation. Oxygen consumption rates of fasted and starved lobsters following cycloheximide injection were reduced by 29% and 13%, respectively, demonstrating protein synthesis represents only a minor component of energy metabolism in unfed lobsters. Oxygen consumption rate of fed lobsters was reduced by 96% following cycloheximide injection, demonstrating protein synthesis in decapods contributes a major proportion of specific dynamic action (SDA). SDA in decapods is predominantly a post-absorptive process likely related to somatic growth. This work extends previously limited knowledge on contribution of protein synthesis to crustacean metabolism, which is crucial to explore the relationship between nutritional status and diet quality and how this will affect growth potential in aquaculture species.


Assuntos
Cicloeximida/farmacologia , Privação de Alimentos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inanição/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado Nutricional , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4375, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867504

RESUMO

Florida Bay is home to a network of shallow mud-banks which act as barriers to circulation creating small basins that are often subject to extremes in temperature and salinity. Florida bay is also important juvenile habitat for the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus. While our understanding of the effect of environmental changes on the survival, growth, and movement of spiny lobsters is growing, the effect on their chemosensory abilities has not yet been investigated. Lobsters rely heavily on chemical cues for many biological and ecological activities, and here we report on the effect of extreme environmental events in temperature (32 °C), salinity (45ppt), and pH (7.65 pH) on social behavior and sheltering preference in P. argus. Under normal conditions, chemical cues from conspecifics are used by spiny lobsters to identify suitable shelter and cues from stone crabs and diseased individuals are used to determine shelters to be avoided. In all altered conditions, lobsters lost the ability to aggregate with conspecifics and avoid stone crabs and diseased conspecifics. Thus, seasonal extreme events, and potentially future climate change conditions, alter the chemosensory-driven behavior of P. argus and may result in decreased survivorship due to impaired shelter selection or other behaviors.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Salinidade , Temperatura , Animais , Humanos
10.
J Neurosci ; 39(4): 596-611, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504282

RESUMO

Neurons operate within defined activity limits, and feedback control mechanisms dynamically tune ionic currents to maintain this optimal range. This study describes a novel, rapid feedback mechanism that uses SUMOylation to continuously adjust ionic current densities according to changes in activity. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a peptide that can be post-translationally conjugated to ion channels to influence their surface expression and biophysical properties. Neuronal activity can regulate the extent of protein SUMOylation. This study on the single, unambiguously identifiable lateral pyloric neuron (LP), a component of the pyloric network in the stomatogastric nervous system of male and female spiny lobsters (Panulirus interruptus), focused on dynamic SUMOylation in the context of activity homeostasis. There were four major findings: First, neuronal activity adjusted the balance between SUMO conjugation and deconjugation to continuously and bidirectionally fine-tune the densities of two opposing conductances: the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih) and the transient potassium current (IA). Second, tonic 5 nm dopamine (DA) gated activity-dependent SUMOylation to permit and prevent activity-dependent regulation of Ih and IA, respectively. Third, DA-gated, activity-dependent SUMOylation contributed to a feedback mechanism that restored the timing and duration of LP activity during prolonged modulation by 5 µm DA, which initially altered these and other activity features. Fourth, DA modulatory and metamoduatory (gating) effects were tailored to simultaneously alter and stabilize neuronal output. Our findings suggest that modulatory tone may select a subset of rapid activity-dependent mechanisms from a larger menu to achieve homeostasis under varying conditions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Post-translational SUMOylation of ion channel subunits controls their interactions. When subunit SUMOylation is dysregulated, conductance densities mediated by the channels are distorted, leading to nervous system disorders, such as seizures and chronic pain. Regulation of ion channel SUMOylation is poorly understood. This study demonstrated that neuronal activity can regulate SUMOylation to reconfigure ionic current densities over minutes, and this regulation was gated by tonic nanomolar dopamine. Dynamic SUMOylation was necessary to maintain specific aspects of neuronal output while the neuron was being modulated by high (5 µm) concentrations of dopamine, suggesting that the gating function may ensure neuronal homeostasis during extrinsic modulation of a circuit.


Assuntos
Homeostase/fisiologia , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Sumoilação/fisiologia , Animais , Dopamina/fisiologia , Feminino , Gânglios dos Invertebrados/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Ativação do Canal Iônico/fisiologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Canais de Potássio Shal/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203935, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240423

RESUMO

The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, has two classes of chemosensilla representing "olfaction" and "distributed chemoreception," as is typical for decapod crustaceans. Olfactory sensilla are found exclusively on antennular lateral flagella and are innervated only by olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that project into olfactory lobes organized into glomeruli in the brain. Distributed chemoreceptor sensilla are found on all body surfaces including the antennular lateral flagella (LF) and walking leg dactyls (dactyls), and are innervated by both chemoreceptor neurons (CRNs) and mechanoreceptor neurons that project into somatotopically organized neuropils. Here, we examined expression of three classes of chemosensory genes in transcriptomes of the LF (with ORNs and CRNs), dactyls (with only CRNs), and brain of P. argus: Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), which are related to ionotropic glutamate receptors and found in all protostomes including crustaceans; Gustatory Receptors (GRs), which are ionotropic receptors that are abundantly expressed in insects but more restricted in crustaceans; and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, a diverse set of sensor-channels that include several chemosensors in diverse animals. We identified 108 IRs, one GR, and 18 homologues representing all seven subfamilies of TRP channels. The number of IRs expressed in the LF is far greater than in dactyls, possibly reflecting the contribution of receptor proteins associated with the ORNs beyond those associated with CRNs. We found co-receptor IRs (IR8a, IR25a, IR76b, IR93a) and conserved IRs (IR21a, IR40a) in addition to the numerous divergent IRs in the LF, dactyl, and brain. Immunocytochemistry showed that IR25a is expressed in ORNs, CRNs, and a specific type of cell located in the brain near the olfactory lobes. While the function of IRs, TRP channels, and the GR was not explored, our results suggest that P. argus has an abundance of diverse putative chemoreceptor proteins that it may use in chemoreception.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Palinuridae/anatomia & histologia , Palinuridae/genética , Filogenia , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/fisiologia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/genética , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/fisiologia
12.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 5)2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361594

RESUMO

On a global scale, the geomagnetic field varies predictably across the Earth's surface, providing animals that migrate long distances with a reliable source of directional and positional information that can be used to guide their movements. In some locations, however, magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust generate an additional field that enhances or diminishes the overall field, resulting in unusually steep gradients of field intensity within a limited area. How animals respond to such magnetic anomalies is unclear. The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a benthic marine invertebrate that possesses a magnetic sense and is likely to encounter magnetic anomalies during migratory movements and homing. As a first step toward investigating whether such anomalies affect the behavior of lobsters, a two-choice preference experiment was conducted in which lobsters were allowed to select one of two artificial dens, one beneath a neodymium magnet and the other beneath a non-magnetic weight of similar size and mass (control). Significantly more lobsters selected the control den, demonstrating avoidance of the magnetic anomaly. In addition, lobster size was found to be a significant predictor of den choice: lobsters that selected the anomaly den were significantly smaller as a group than those that chose the control den. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence for magnetoreception in spiny lobsters, raise the possibility of an ontogenetic shift in how lobsters respond to magnetic fields, and suggest that magnetic anomalies might influence lobster movement in the natural environment.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Campos Magnéticos , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 20(7): 365-371, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it's possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The testes were dissected out and fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution for 11 h, dehydrated in 70% alcohol and lastly placed in tissue processor for 18±1 h at 60°C. The tissues blocks were cut at the thickness of 4 µm on a rotary microtome. Stained tissues were taken under Advance Microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i Nomarski DIC). Collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013. Data were presented as mean±standard deviation. Statistical analyses were done using one-way ANOVA using SPSS (Version 22). RESULTS: These lobules of mature P. polyphagus were formed via different germinative lineage cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The histological characteristics of testes showed that the process of spermatogenesis went through the stages of four testes maturation which were spermatogonia I and II, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids and spermatozoa stages within different body weight of P. polyphagus. It was found that there were significant difference between body weight and carapace length to the testicular maturation stages (one-way ANOVA and p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The results of this experiment indicated that males P. polyphagus have four stages of testes maturation and can be considered to have fully mature testes that ready for fertilization at 452 g body weight (BW) and 107 mm carapace length (CL) or more.


Assuntos
Palinuridae/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Espermatogênese , Espermatogônias , Espermatozoides
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 125(1-2): 146-156, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807415

RESUMO

There is a critical knowledge gap regarding the impacts of seismic air gun signals on the physiology of adult crustaceans. We conducted four controlled field experiments to examine the impact of seismic acoustic signals on spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Seismic air gun exposure suppressed total haemocyte count (THC) for up to 120days post-exposure, suggesting a chronic negative impact of immune competency. THC levels after 365days post-exposure, were elevated two fold, potentially indicating an immune response to infection. Haemolymph refractive index was reduced after 120days post exposure in one experiment, suggesting a chronic impairment of nutritional condition. There was no effect of air gun exposure on 24 haemolymph biochemical parameters, hepatopancreas index or survival. Collectively these results indicate that the biochemical haematological homeostasis of J. edwardsii is reasonably resilient to seismic acoustic signals, however, air gun exposure may negatively influence the lobster's nutritional condition and immunological capacity.


Assuntos
Hemolinfa/química , Hemolinfa/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Acústica/instrumentação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa/citologia , Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Refratometria
15.
Conserv Biol ; 31(6): 1312-1321, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28248436

RESUMO

Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of nontarget predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of nontarget predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically relevant areas for spatial protection. We investigated the local population response (number of breeders) of the Bank Cormorant (Phalacrocorax neglectus), a range-restricted endangered seabird, to the availability of its prey, the heavily fished west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii). Using Bayesian state-space modeled cormorant counts at 3 colonies, 22 years of fisheries-independent data on local lobster abundance, and generalized additive modeling, we determined the spatial scale pertinent to these relationships in areas with different lobster availability. Cormorant numbers responded positively to lobster availability in the regions with intermediate and high abundance but not where regime shifts and fishing pressure had depleted lobster stocks. The relationships were strongest when lobsters 20-30 km offshore of the colony were considered, a distance greater than the Bank Cormorant's foraging range when breeding, and may have been influenced by prey availability for nonbreeding birds, prey switching, or prey ecology. Our results highlight the importance of considering the scale of ecological relationships in marine spatial planning and suggest that designing spatial protection around focal species can benefit marine predators across their full life cycle. We propose the precautionary implementation of small-scale marine protected areas, followed by robust assessment and adaptive-management, to confirm population-level benefits for the cormorants, their prey, and the wider ecosystem, without negative impacts on local fisheries.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Pesqueiros , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
16.
Curr Biol ; 26(24): 3393-3398, 2016 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27939312

RESUMO

The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is one of the most valuable fisheries commodities in the Central American region, directly employing 50,000 people and generating >US$450 million per year [1]. This industry is particularly important to small island states such as The Bahamas, which exports more lobster than any other country in the region [1]. Several factors contribute to this disproportionally high productivity, principally the extensive shallow-water banks covered in seagrass meadows [2], where fishermen deploy artificial shelters for the lobsters to supplement scarce reef habitat [3]. The surrounding seabed communities are dominated by lucinid bivalve mollusks that live among the seagrass root system [4, 5]. These clams host chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts in their gills that synthesize organic matter using reduced sulfur compounds, providing nutrition to their hosts [6]. Recent studies have highlighted the important role of the lucinid clam symbiosis in maintaining the health and productivity of seagrass ecosystems [7, 8], but their biomass also represents a potentially abundant, but as yet unquantified, food source to benthic predators [9]. Here we undertake the first analysis of Caribbean spiny lobster diet using a stable isotope approach (carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) and show that a significant portion of their food (∼20% on average) is obtained from chemosynthetic primary production in the form of lucinid clams. This nutritional pathway was previously unrecognized in the spiny lobster's diet, and these results are the first empirical evidence that chemosynthetic primary production contributes to the productivity of commercial fisheries stocks.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Pesqueiros , Cadeia Alimentar , Palinuridae/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Região do Caribe , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Simbiose
17.
Curr Biol ; 26(24): R1277-R1279, 2016 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997838

RESUMO

Chemosynthetic primary production by symbiotic microbes powers entire ecosystems in the remote deep sea. New research shows that in shallow waters chemosynthetic symbioses can contribute substantially to a vital economic resource - lobster fisheries in the Caribbean Sea.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Região do Caribe , Pesqueiros/economia , Luz Solar , Simbiose
18.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0166343, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846289

RESUMO

The southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) industry in Australia favours red lobsters, which are usually caught in shallow waters, over paler (brindle) lobsters. This preference is driven partly by the Chinese market, where red is associated with luck and prosperity, and additionally, by the widely held perception within the industry that brindles have greater mortality rates during out of water transport than reds. Limited scientific evidence supports these industry observations; however, these studies did not evaluate the initial condition of lobsters. This study aimed first, to determine which variables better describe condition in J. edwardsii and second, to compare condition among lobsters in several sites around Tasmania at the typical time of high transport mortality. Male lobsters were collected from the South West, South East, East and North coast of Tasmania in late November/December 2014, which correspond to the start of the Tasmanian fishing season. A comprehensive condition assessment was applied by measuring tissue proximal composition, Brix index, Total Haemocyte Count, pH, haemocyanin and another 16 haemolymph parameters of interest. A useful framework to compare condition in J. edwardsii was established by first, using Brix index as a measure of nutritional condition, second, using pH, magnesium, and bicarbonate to evaluate differences in physiological condition and finally, using THC counts as a proxy for lobster health condition. Lobsters from different sites had different nutritional, physiological and health condition, consistent with industry observations, however our results indicate that some red shallow water lobsters exhibited poorer nutritional and health condition, while some deep water brindle lobsters were in good condition. Differences in condition could not be directly associated to catch depth of lobsters and was related to other spatially discrete factors which sometimes vary over distances <3 km.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição Animal/métodos , Pesqueiros , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Hemocianinas/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Masculino , Palinuridae/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Tasmânia
19.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159671, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442242

RESUMO

Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Palinuridae/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Abdome/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Calibragem , Carbono/análise , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395444

RESUMO

Mortality events during live transport of Jasus edwardsii rock lobsters are common around the time of season openings in Tasmania, with lobsters from deeper fishing areas with pale shell colouration (brindle) being perceived as more susceptible than shallow-water, red-coloured (red) lobsters. The aims of this study were to assess and predict the vulnerability of brindle and red lobsters to extended emersion exposure using pre- and post-emersion data which included 28 haemolymph biochemical parameters and 5 behaviour traits. No effect of lobster shell colour on haemolymph biochemistry, behaviour traits and their vulnerability to emersion was found. A combined survival of 97% after 40h and 57% after 64h in a first experiment, and 37% after 64h in a second experiment, was observed. Behaviour traits (i.e., righting response, tail flips and three reflex behaviours) were poor indicator of survival. Haemolymph parameters were either unaffected by emersion (e.g., Brix index, protein and lipids), affected by emersion but not associated with mortality (e.g., total haemocyte counts, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, glucose and uric acid), or associated with mortality following a recovery period (e.g., pH, the sodium to potassium ratio, urea, and the activity of amylase). A build-up of anaerobic end-products and nitrogenous waste most likely resulted in the mortality. A model based on lobster size and the pre-emersion concentration of haemolymph bicarbonate and haemocyanin was found to be a useful indicator of future survival. This study provides promising leads towards the development of a blood based vulnerability test for live crustacean prior transport.


Assuntos
Palinuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Masculino , Restrição Física , Estresse Fisiológico , Tasmânia , Transportes
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