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1.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(4): 109, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve regeneration is a coordinated process of Schwann cell (SC) reprogramming and intrinsic neuronal growth program activation. Panaxydol (PND) is a strong biologically active traditional Chinese medicine monomer extracted from Panax notoginseng rhizomes. In vitro, PND protects neurons and SCs from injury and stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) by SCs. We hypothesized that PND may also promote peripheral nerve regeneration in adult animals. METHODS: PND (10 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally into the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for two consecutive weeks after sciatic nerve transection. The morphology of the repaired sciatic nerve was evaluated after 16 weeks, and sensory and motor function recovery was evaluated using functional and behavioral techniques. RESULTS: PND was biologically safe at an injection dose of 10 mg/kg/day. After 14 days, it significantly increased the myelination of regenerated nerve fibers, and promoted sensory and motor function recovery. In the early stage of injury, PND significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors in distal injured nerves, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PND promotes nerve regeneration in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that PND leads to sensory and motor recovery in a sciatic nerve transection model rat. Furthermore, we showed that BDNF mRNA level was significantly increased in the injured distal nerve, potentially contributing to the functional recovery. Further research is warrantied to examine whether direct injection is a more efficient method to increase BDNF expression compared to an exogenous BDNF administration.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Panax notoginseng , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Di-Inos , Álcoois Graxos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11410, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794170

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution poses potential safety risks for Panax notoginseng cultivation, a medicinal plant in Yunnan. Under exogenous Cd stress, field experiments were conducted to understand the effects of lime (0, 750, 2250 and 3750 kg hm-2) applied and oxalic acid (0, 0.1 and 0.2 mol L-1) leaves sprayed on Cd accumulation, antioxidant system and medicinal components of P. notoginseng. The results showed that Lime and foliar spray of oxalic acid were able to elevate Ca2+ and alleviate Cd2+ toxicity in P. notoginseng under Cd stress. The addition of lime and oxalic acid increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and alters osmoregulator metabolism. The most significant increase in CAT activities increased by 2.77 folds. And the highest increase of SOD activities was 1.78 folds under the application of oxalic acid. While MDA content decreased by 58.38%. There were very significant correlation with soluble sugar, free amino acid, proline and soluble protein. Lime and oxalic acid were able to increase calcium ions (Ca2+), decrease Cd content and improve the stress resistance of P. notoginseng, while increasing the production of total saponins and flavonoids. Cd content were the lowest, 68.57% lower than controls, and met the standard value (Cd ≤ 0.5 mg kg-1, GB/T 19086-2008). The proportion of SPN was 7.73%, which reached the highest level of all treatments, the flavonoids content increased significantly by 21.74%, which reached the medicinal standard value and optimal yield.


Assuntos
Ácido Oxálico , Panax notoginseng , Antioxidantes , Cádmio/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio , China , Flavonoides , Óxidos
3.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(7): 2394-2404, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687875

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is one of the most famous valuable medical plants in China, and its broad application in clinical treatment has an inseparable relationship with the active molecules, ginsenosides. Ginsenosides are glycoside compounds that have varied structures for the diverse sugar chain. Although extensive work has been done, there are still unknown steps in the biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides. Here, we screened candidate glycosyltransferase genes based on the previous genome and transcriptome data of P. notoginseng and cloned the full length of 27 UGT genes successfully. Among them, we found that PnUGT33 could catalyze different ginsenoside substrates to produce higher polarity rare ginsenosides by extending the sugar chain. We further analyzed the enzymatic kinetics and predicted the catalytic mechanism of PnUGT33 by simulating molecular docking. After that, we reconstructed the biosynthetic pathway of rare ginsenoside Rg3 and gypenoside LXXV in yeast. By combining the Golden Gate method and overexpressing the UDPG biosynthetic genes, we further improved the yield of engineering yeast strain. Finally, the shake-flask culture yield of Rg3 reached 51 mg/L and the fed-batch fermentation yield of gypenoside LXXV reached 94.5 mg/L, which was the first and highest record.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Ginsenosídeos/genética , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Panax/química , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saponinas , Açúcares/metabolismo , Triterpenos
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 275: 153756, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767909

RESUMO

The main active ingredients of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Panax notoginseng, are the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). They can be synthesized via the mevalonate pathway; PnSS and PnSE1 are the key rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway. In this study, an interaction between PnMYB2 and the key enzymes was identified and characterized from the P. notoginseng cDNA library using the Y1H technique. Subsequently, X-α-gal color reaction confirmed the interaction between PnMYB2 and the upstream sequences of PnSS and PnSE1 promoters. Full-length cDNA sequence of PnMYB2 was isolated and characterized. PnMYB2 has an open reading frame of 864 bp, encoding 287 amino acids. 3D structural analysis of PnMYB2 indicated that its structure was similar to that of the template. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PnMYB2 and PgMYB2 are highly homologous and belong to the R2R3 MYB transcription factor (TF). Subcellular localization analysis showed that PnMYB2 was localized in the nucleus. The recombinant protein PnMYB2 was successfully obtained through prokaryotic expression and was confirmed to be an inclusion body protein. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments demonstrated that PnMYB2 specifically binds to MYB core and AC-rich elements. This study provides a theoretical basis for transcriptional regulation of saponin biosynthesis in P. notoginseng.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Plantas Medicinais , Saponinas , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(8): 106597, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the combination effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS)and dual antiplatelet drugs (DAPT), and to explore the mechanism via cyclooxygenase /prostaglandin pathway. METHODS: Right carotid artery thrombosis was induced in Wistar rats by infiltration with 70% FeCl3, and the animals were randomly divided into sham group, model group, DAPT group and PNS + DAPT group, intragastrically treated for 4 weeks. The cerebral pia mater microcirculation was observed in vivo after anesthetizing by anatomical microscope. The wet weight of carotid artery thrombosis was measured. Gastric mucosal injury was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Platelet aggregation rate was detected with adenosine diphosphate -induced turbidimetry. Platelet CD62p expression was detected by flow cytometry. Concentrations of 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 in gastric mucosa and thromboxane B2, 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and fibrin fragment D in the plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: PNS and DAPT increased the blood flow volume of cerebral pia mater and decreased erythrocyte aggregation and leukocyte adhesion of model rats. Compared to DAPT, PNS and DAPT further reduced the weight of carotid artery thrombosis with enhanced inhibition of platelet aggregation, increased tissue plasminogen activator levels and decreased fibrin fragment D levels. PNS and DAPT alleviated gastric injury induced by dual antiplatelet drugs and upregulated the expression of 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha in the gastric mucosa compared with DAPT. CONCLUSIONS: PNS combined with DAPT increased anti-thrombosis effects of DAPT and mitigated DAPT-related gastric injury. The underlying mechanisms may be associated with enhanced antiplatelet aggregation and activation of the fibrinolytic system and up-regulation of 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha expression in gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Trombose das Artérias Carótidas , Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Trombose , 6-Cetoprostaglandina F1 alfa , Animais , Trombose das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Saponinas/farmacologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/farmacologia
6.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154269, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild and systematically improving multiple metabolic disorders was a focused view for Compound Danshen Dripping Pills playing synergistic effects through multiple components and multiple targets. The difference in overall therapeutic effects and endogenous metabolic regulation between short- and long-term administration was still unclear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the difference in endogenous metabolic regulation between short- and long-term Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP) administration against acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: The model of AMI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The cardiac protection effects of CDDP were investigated by echocardiography, 1- or 2-week were defined as short- and long-term based on desirable efficacy variability. The entire metabolic changes between short- and long-term administration of CDDP were profiled by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. In addition, the metabolic regulatory network of CDDP administration against myocardial infarction rats was also compared with those of a typical chemical drug isosorbide 5-mononitrate (ISMN). RESULTS: After 1- or 2-week continuous oral administration, CDDP could significantly alleviate AMI-induced cardiac dysfunction. By using LC-MS-based metabolomics analyses, we systematically investigated the metabolic profiles of plasma and heart tissue samples at fixed exposure time-points (2 h, 24 h) from AMI rats with CDDP treatment. Most interestingly, global endogenous metabolic changes were observed in cardiac samples collected at different stages post consecutive CDDP administration, fluctuating at 2 and 24 h after 1 week but stabilizing after 2 weeks. The disrupted metabolic pathways such as glycerophospholipid, amino acids, fatty acids, and arachidonic acid metabolism were reconstructed after both short- and long-term CDDP treatment, while taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and purine metabolism contributed to the whole efficacy after long-term CDDP administration. CONCLUSION: Long-term CDDP treatment plays prolonged and stable efficacy against AMI compared with short-term treatment by specifically regulating purine and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and systematically redressing metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Infarto do Miocárdio , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Animais , Canfanos , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Metabolômica , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng , Purinas , Ratos , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Taurina
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(7): 435, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763100

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with diverse properties that is cultivated in a narrow ecological range because of its sensitivity to high temperatures. Endophytic bacteria play a prominent role in plant response to climate warming. However, the endophytic bacterial structures in P. notoginseng at high temperatures are yet unclear. In the present study, the diversity and composition of the endophytic bacterial community, and their relationships with two P. notoginseng plants with different heat tolerance capacities were compared using the full-length 16S rRNA PacBio sequencing system. The results revealed that the diversity and richness of endophytic bacteria were negatively associated with the heat tolerance of P. notoginseng. Beneficial Cyanobacteria, Rhodanobacter and Sphingomonas may be recruited positively by heat-tolerant plants, while higher amounts of adverse Proteobacteria such as Cellvibrio fibrivorans derived from soil destructed the cellular protective barriers of heat-sensitive plants and caused influx of pathogenic bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Harmonious and conflicting bacterial community was observed in heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive P. notoginseng, respectively, based on the co-occurrence network. Using functional gene prediction of metabolism, endophytic bacteria have been proposed to be symbiotic with host plants; the bacteria improved primary metabolic pathways and secondary metabolite production of plants, incorporated beneficial endophytes, and combated adverse endophytes to prompt the adaptation of P. notoginseng to a warming environment. These findings provided a new perspective on the function of endophytes in P. notoginseng adaptation to high temperatures, and could pave the way for expanding the cultivable range of P. notoginseng.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Bactérias/genética , Endófitos , Temperatura Alta , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Temperatura
8.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154223, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng, a valuable medicinal plant, is traditionally used to treat trauma, body pain, and cardiovascular diseases in two clinical forms including raw (crude) and processed form. Processing-triggered compound transformation is responsible for the distinct bioactivity between raw and processed Panax notoginseng. Nevertheless, investigating the chemical diversity and dynamic transformation pattern of processed Panax notoginseng is challenging. METHODS: A new approach, which integrates multi-components characterization, processing trajectory depiction, discovery of differential markers, transformation mechanism of metabolites, in situ spatial distribution and transformation of metabolites, was established to elucidate the role of processing on the holistic chemical transformations of Panax notoginseng (PN). RESULTS: In this study, 136 ginsenosides (mainly rare ginsenosides) were identified or tentatively characterized and the temperature-dependent chemical variation trajectory was depicted via principal component analysis (PCA). Nineteen processing-associated markers were confirmed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). For the first time, the transformation pathway of ginsenosides during processing were elucidated by integrating the precursor ion scan (PIS) and mimic processing strategy that involves with deglycosylation, dehydration, hydration, acetylation, and isomerization. Results of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) revealed the major ginsenosides M-Rb1, R1, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, and Re exhibited distinct spatial distribution pattern that are highly abundant in the xylem and showed a downward trend during processing. We firstly depicted the spatial distribution of processing-triggered rare ginsenosides (Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, etc.), and in situ transformation of ginsenosides was discovered in the process of steaming. Additionally, this variation trend was consistent with untargeted metabolomics results. CONCLUSION: This study comprehensively revealed chemical diversity and dynamic transformation pattern and depicted the spatial distribution of ginsenosides of PN during processing. It could provide a clue for the distinct bioactivities between raw and processed PN and elucidate the role of processing on the holistic chemical transformations of natural products, more importantly, the proposed strategy is valuable for the quality evaluation and control of the processing of natural product.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Panax/química , Panax notoginseng/química
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1675: 463177, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660315

RESUMO

To comprehensively elucidate the herbal metabolites is crucial in natural products research to discover new lead compounds. Ginsenosides are an important class of bioactive components from the Panax plants exerting the significant tonifying effects. However, to identify new ginsenosides by the conventional strategies trends to be more and more difficult because of the large spans of acid-base property (the neutral and acidic saponins), molecular mass (400-1400 Da), and rather low content. Herein, an off-line multidimensional chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry approach was presented: ion exchange chromatography (IEC) as the first dimension of separation, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) in the second dimension, and reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) for the third dimension which was hyphenated to a Q Exactive Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. By applying to the flower buds of P. ginseng (PGF), P. quinquefolius (PQF), and P. notoginseng (PNF), IEC using a PhenoSphereTM SAX column could fractionate the total extracts into the neutral (unretained) and acidic (retained) fractions, while HILIC (an XBridge Amide column) and RPC (BEH Shield RP18 column) achieved the hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction separations, respectively. Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry offered rich structural information and complementary resolution to the co-eluting components, particular to those minor ones by including precursor ion lists in data-dependent acquisition. We could characterize 803 ginsenosides from PGF, 795 from PQF, and 833 from PNF, and 1561 thereof are potentially unknown. These results can indicate the great potential of this multidimensional approach in the ultra-deep characterization of complex herbal samples supporting the efficient discovery of potentially novel natural compounds.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Flores/química , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Panax/química , Panax notoginseng/química , Prostaglandinas F/análise , Prostaglandinas F/metabolismo
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 291: 119535, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698368

RESUMO

Ultrasonic disruption extraction (UDE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) were used to extract polysaccharides (PNFPs) from Panax notoginseng flower, and the yield, physicochemical characteristics, structural characteristics, functional properties and biological activities were evaluated and compared. Results indicated that UDE changed the above properties of PNFPs. Compared with HRE (H-PNFPs), the yields, uronic acid contents, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, water-solubility, water holding capacity, and oil holding capacity of the polysaccharides (U-PNFPs) extracted by UDE increased by 48.63%, 47.36%, 39.98%, 7.41%, 2.26%, 15.56%, and 1.34%, respectively. In comparison, the molecular weight and protein content decreased by 43.53% and 16.46%. Results demonstrate that UDE could effectively improve the physicochemical and functional properties, and bioactivities. These findings are helpful for better understanding the relationship between the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of U-PNFPs, especially U-PNFP-2 exhibited the most significant antioxidant activity, which can prevent oxidative stress, applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ultrassom , Água/química
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(10): 2584-2596, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718476

RESUMO

As a famous and precious Chinese medicinal material, Panax notoginseng(PN) has been commonly used for a long history in China. As reported, PN exhibits significant pharmacological actions in protecting cardiocerebral vascular system and nervous system and suppressing tumors. In recent years, with the innovation in ideas, as well as the development of methods and equipment, PN has been extensively investigated, and notable progress has been made. This paper reviewed the advancements of PN in recent five years from chemical components, chromatographic analysis, P. notoginseng extracts, and pharmacology, in which the application of PN extracts in quality control was first summarized. The present study aims to provide a theoretical basis for quality control, product development, and rational medication of PN.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax notoginseng , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Panax notoginseng/química , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684502

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is a medicinal plant in China, the flowers of which have high medicinal value. To study the differences in the floral fragrance compounds of P. notoginseng flowers (bionic wild cultivation) from the forests of Yunnan Province, the floral fragrance compounds from four varieties of P. notoginseng flowers (four-forked seven leaves, three-forked seven leaves, four-forked five-seven leaves, and three-forked five-six leaves) were compared and analyzed via headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. A total of 53 floral fragrance compounds from the P. notoginseng flowers were divided into eight categories, mainly consisting of terpenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and alcohols. Moreover, high contents of 3-carene, germacrene D, (-)-α-gurjunene, valencene, (+)-γ-gurjunene, menogene, and aromandendrene were identified from the flowers of different P. notoginseng varieties. Interestingly, floral fragrance compounds such as 3-carene, valencene, aromandendrene, menogene, and (+)-γ-gurjunene were first reported in the flowers of P. notoginseng. Cluster analysis showed that P. notoginseng with four-forked and three-forked leaves clustered into two subgroups, respectively. In addition, principal component analysis showed that (+)-γ-gurjunene, (+)-calarene, copaene, 1,8,12-bisabolatriene, γ-elemene, (-)-aristolene, caryophyllene, 3-carenes, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene can be used to distinguish the floral fragrance components of four P. notoginseng flower species. This study provides a theoretical basis for elucidating the floral fragrance compounds emitted from the flowers of different P. notoginseng varieties in an agroforestry system.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Pinus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , China , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Panax notoginseng/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
13.
Phytochem Anal ; 33(6): 971-981, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Panax notoginseng is one of the traditional precious and bulk-traded medicinal materials in China. Its anticoagulant activity is related to its saponin composition. However, the correlation between saponins and anticoagulant activities in P. notoginseng from different origins and identification of the origins have been rarely reported. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the correlation of components and activities of P. notoginseng from different origins and develop a rapid P. notoginseng origin identification method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacological experiments, HPLC, and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (variable selection) combined with chemometrics methods of P. notoginseng main roots from four different origins (359 individuals) in Yunnan Province were conducted. RESULTS: The pharmacological experiments and HPLC showed that the saponin content of P. notoginseng main roots was not significantly different. It was the highest in main roots from Wenshan Prefecture (9.86%). The coagulation time was prolonged to observe the strongest effect (4.99 s), and the anticoagulant activity was positively correlated with the contents of the three saponins. The content of ginsenoside Rg1 had the greatest influence on the anticoagulant effect. The results of spectroscopy combined with chemometrics show that the variable selection method could extract a small number of variables containing valid information and improve the performance of the model. The variable importance in projection has the best ability to identify the origins of P. notoginseng; the accuracy of the training set and the test set was 0.975 and 0.984, respectively. CONCLUSION: This method is a powerful analytical tool for the activity analysis and identification of Chinese medicinal materials from different origins.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Panax notoginseng/química , Saponinas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 972-980, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543049

RESUMO

Soil acidification is an important factor leading to poor growth and root rot disease of Panax notoginseng in the understorey of forests. In this study, different amounts of quicklime (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 kg·hm-2) were amended into acid soil under forest. We evaluated the effect of quikelime addition on soil chemical properties, phenols, rhizosphere microorganisms and growth of P. notoginseng. The results showed that an appro-priate amount of quicklime addition (500-1000 kg·hm-2) could significantly increase soil pH, decrease the content of phenols (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, syringic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid), promote P. notoginseng growth, and reduce the incidence of root rot disease. An appropriate amount of quicklime (500-1000 kg·hm-2) could significantly reduce the fungi:bacteria ratio, increase bacteria diversity, and increase the relative abundance of Ascomycota and Proteobacteria as well as Massilia and Sphingomonas. However, excessive quicklime addition (1500-2000 kg·hm-2) could reduce the content of available nitrogen and organic matter, and inhibit P. notoginseng growth. Therefore, 500-1000 kg·hm-2 of quicklime amendment could improve the chemical properties and microbial community of acid soil under forest, thereby promoting P. notoginseng growth, and reducing the incidence of root rot disease.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Panax notoginseng , Compostos de Cálcio , Florestas , Óxidos , Fenóis , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 202: 115106, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623408

RESUMO

We investigated whether Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS-R1) attenuates allergic rhinitis (AR) through AMPK/Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission. AR model was established in mice by Ovalbumin (OVA). In vitro, human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpCs) were stimulated using recombinant human interleukin 13 (IL-13). PNS-R1 was administrated in vivo and in vitro. Then, HE staining of nasal tissue, ELISA detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and proinflammatory cytokine levels in serum and nasal lavage fluid, flow cytometry analysis of Th1/Th2 ratio and apoptosis, TUNEL staining, Western blot, detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial ROS, immunofluorescence analysis of Tom20 and mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 co-localization, and mitochondrial membrane potential detection, were performed. PNS-R1 attenuated allergic symptoms in AR mice, decreased OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, and TNF-α levels, and restored the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Meanwhile, we found that PNS-R1 treatment significantly reduced apoptosis, ROS production, and co-localization of Tom20 and Drp1 in the nasal epithelium of AR mice. In vitro, we found that PNS-R1 upregulated mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ROS and mitochondrial ROS production as well as Cleaved-caspase-3/9, Bax, Cyt-c, Apaf-1 expression and mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, we found that PNS-R1 downregulated Drp1 phosphorylation (Ser 616) and Drp1 translocation in an AMPK-dependent manner, promoted MFN2 expression, and reduced TXNIP, NLRP3, Caspase-1, and IL-1ß expression. PNS-R1 may protect mitochondrial integrity by inhibiting AMPK/Drp1 and TXNIP/NLRP3 signaling pathway, thereby alleviating AR symptoms in mice. PNS-R1 may have great potential as a therapeutic agent for AR.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Rinite Alérgica , Saponinas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Interleucina-13/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ovalbumina , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rinite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico
16.
Genes Genomics ; 44(7): 855-866, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternaria panax is the causative agent of black spot disease in Panax notoginseng, which causes significant yield loss. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenicity remain mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sequenced the transcriptome of A. panax during infecting P. notoginseng leaves using next-generation RNA-seq to understand the molecular aspects of black spot disease. METHODS: In this study, we sequenced the A. panax transcriptome during infecting P. notoginseng leaves through next-generation sequencing to explore the pathogenesis genes that may be responsible for black spot disease on P. notoginseng. RESULT: The de novo transcriptome assembly of A. panax produced 23,036 unigenes, of which 18,096 genes were functionally annotated by at least one protein database. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathways of differentially up-regulated genes suggest that most genes are associated with metabolic processes, catalytic activity, starch, and sucrose metabolism during infection. Many pathogenesis-associated genes, including genes encoding secreted proteins, candidate secreted effectors, cell wall degrading enzymes, transcription factors, and transporters, were up-regulated in A. panax during infection. In addition, the secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes, including cytochrome P450, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases, were also identified in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Differential gene expression analysis has confirmed that A. panax infection was mainly present in the middle and final stages. The findings show that these pathogenesis-associated genes in A. panax may be critical for the P. notoginseng black spots disease.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Alternaria , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Panax notoginseng/genética , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 212: 303-313, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609837

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the main active ingredients of Panax notoginseng, a representative plant of the genus Panax. However, the detailed regulation mechanism of PNS biosynthesis remains elusive. Therefore, a sequence of upstream promoters of PnSS and PnSE were cloned and analyzed firstly. GUS quantitative results showed that the upstream promoters could specifically and significantly respond to exogenous GA and ABA signals. To further identify the binding proteins that respond to peripheral hormones, PnCOX11 and PnDCD were screened and identified from the P. notoginseng cDNA library. The Y1H experiment verified the interaction between the above two binding proteins and the promoters. Several online software was used to analyze the domains, secondary structures, three-dimensional structures, and phylogenetic trees of the two binding proteins. Subcellular localization analysis exhibited that PnCOX11 was mainly located in the chloroplast, while PnDCD was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Prokaryotic expression demonstrated that the recombinant proteins had a high concentration under the induction of IPTG. This study can provide a fundamental date for the subsequent thorough investigation of the transcription regulatory mechanism of PNS biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/química , Panax notoginseng/genética , Filogenia , Saponinas/farmacologia
18.
Phytomedicine ; 102: 154119, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Re (Re) belongs to protopanaxatriol saponins and exists in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax notoginseng, and other plants in the Araliaceae family. Re has recently become a research focus owing to its pharmacological activities and benefits to human bodies. PURPOSE: To summarize recent findings regarding the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Re and highlight and predict the potential therapeutic effects and systematic mechanism of Re. METHODS: Recent studies (2011-2021) on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Re were retrieved from Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Embase up to December 2021 using relevant keywords. Network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis were used to predict the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Re against potential diseases. RESULTS: Re presented a wide range of therapeutic and biological activities, including neuroprotective, cardiovascular, antidepressant, antitumorigenic, and others effects. The related pharmacological mechanisms of Re include the regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems in the brain; the induction of tumor cell apoptosis; the inhibition of tau protein hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress; the activation of p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK signals; the improvement of lipid metabolism; and the reduction of endothelial cell dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This paper summarizes comprehensively the current research progress of Re and provides new research insights into the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Re against potential diseases.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Saponinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Saponinas/farmacologia
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9299574, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498130

RESUMO

Ginsenosides are a class of active components extracted from ginseng plants (such as Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoginseng). Ginsenosides have significant protective effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and immune system, so they have been widely used in the treatment of related diseases. Entry of a variety of endogenous or exogenous harmful substances into the body can lead to an imbalance between the antioxidant defense system and reactive oxygen species, thus producing toxic effects on a variety of tissues and cells. In addition, oxidative stress can alter multiple signaling pathways, including the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE, PI3K/AKT, Wnt/ß-catenin, and NF-κB pathways. With the deepening of research in this field, various ginsenoside monomers have been reported to exert antioxidant effects through multiple signaling pathways and thus have good application prospects. This article summarized the research advancements regarding the antioxidative effects and related mechanisms of ginsenosides, providing a theoretical basis for experimental research on and clinical treatment with ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases
20.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566332

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is an important functional health product, and has been used worldwide because of a wide range of pharmacological activities, of which the taproot is the main edible or medicinal part. However, the technologies for origin discrimination still need to be further studied. In this study, an ICP-MS/MS method for the accurate determination of 49 elements was established, whereby the instrumental detection limits (LODs) were between 0.0003 and 7.716 mg/kg, whereas the quantification limits (LOQs) were between 0.0011 and 25.7202 mg/kg, recovery of the method was in the range of 85.82% to 104.98%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 10%. Based on the content of multi-element in P. notoginseng (total of 89 mixed samples), the discriminant models of origins and cultivation models were accurately determined by the neural networks (prediction accuracy was 0.9259 and area under ROC curve was 0.9750) and the support vector machine algorithm (both 1.0000), respectively. The discriminant models established in this study could be used to support transparency and traceability of supply chains of P. notoginseng and thus avoid the fraud of geographic identification.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Panax notoginseng/química , Análise Espectral , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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