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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2263-2275, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986019

RESUMO

The growth conditions and age of Panax ginseng are vital for determining the quality of the ginseng plant. However, the considerable difference in price according to the cultivation method and period of P. ginseng leads to its adulteration in the trade market. We herein focused on ginseng peptides and the possibility of these peptides to be used as biomarker(s) for discrimination of P. ginseng. We applied an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry-based peptidomics approach to characterize ginseng peptides and discover novel peptide biomarkers for authentication of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG). We identified 52 high-confidence peptides and screened 20 characteristic peptides differentially expressed between MCG and cultivated ginseng (CG). Intriguingly, 6 differential peptides were expressed significantly in MCG and originated from dehydrins that accumulated during cold or drought conditions. In addition, 14 other differential peptides that were significantly expressed in CG derived from ginseng major protein, an essential protein for nitrogen storage. These biological associations confirmed the reliability and credibility of the differential peptides. Additionally, we determined several robust peptide biomarkers for discrimination of MCG through a precise selection process. These findings demonstrate the potential of peptide biomarkers for identification and quality control of P. ginseng in addition to ginsenoside analysis.


Assuntos
Panax/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biomarcadores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade
2.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 481-489, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514979

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a well-known Asian traditional herbal medicine with a large market demand. The plant is native to eastern North America, and its main producing areas worldwide are decreasing due to continuous cropping obstacles and environmental changes. Therefore, the identification of maximum similarities of new ecological distribution of P. quinquefolius, and prediction of its response to climate change in the future are necessary for plant introduction and cultivation. In this study, the areas with potential ecological suitability for P. quinquefolius were predicted using the geographic information system for global medicinal plants (GMPGIS) based on 476 occurrence points and 19 bioclimatic variables. The results indicate that the new ecologically suitable areas for P. quinquefolius are East Asia and the mid-eastern Europe, which are mainly distributed in China, Russia, Japan, Ukraine, Belarus, North Korean, South Korea, andRomania. Under global climate change scenarios, the suitable planting areas for P. quinquefolius would be increased by 9.16%-30.97%, and expandingnorth and west over the current ecologically suitable areas by 2070. The potential increased areas that are ecologically suitable include northern Canada, Eastern Europe, and the Lesser Khingan Mountains of China, and reduced regions are mainly in central China, the southern U.S., and southern Europe. Jackknife tests indicate that the precipitation of the warmest quarter was the important climatic factor controlling the distribution of P. quinquefolius. Our findings can be used as auseful guide for P. quinquefolius introduction and cultivation in ecologically suitable areas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Geografia
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(7): e1900203, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197924

RESUMO

Ginsenosides are the major constituent that is responsible for the health effects of American ginseng. The ginsenoside profile of wild American ginseng is ultimately the result of germplasm, climate, geography, vegetation species, water, and soil conditions. This is the first report to address the ginsenoside profile of wild American ginseng grown in Tennessee (TN), the third leading state for production of wild American ginseng. In the present study, ten major ginsenosides in wild American ginseng roots grown in TN, including Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, and Rg3, were determined simultaneously. The chemotypic differences among TN wild ginseng, cultivated American ginseng, and Asian ginseng were assessed based on the widely used markers of ginsenoside profiling, including the top three ginsenosides, ratios of PPD/PPT, Rg1/Rb1, Rg1/Re, and Rb2/Rc. Our findings showed marked variation in ginsenoside profile for TN wild ginseng populations. Nevertheless, TN wild ginseng has significant higher ginsenoside content and more ginsenoside diversity than the cultivated ginseng. The total ginsenoside content in TN wild ginseng, as well as ginsenosides Rg1 and Re, increases with the age of the roots. Marked chemotypic differences between TN wild ginseng and cultivated American ginseng were observed based on the chemotypic markers. Surprisingly, we found that TN wild ginseng is close to Asian ginseng with regard to these characteristics in chemical composition. This study verified an accessible method to scientifically elucidate the difference in chemical constituents to distinguish wild from the cultivated American ginseng. This work is critical for the ecological and biological assessments of wild American ginseng so as to facilitate long-term sustainability of the wild population.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tennessee
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6089-6096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng seeds have strong dormancy and a prolonged germination period in comparison to other seeds; thus, it is a great challenge to propagate ginseng. Seed longevity is closely associated with germination rate and viability, so we assumed that if a seed loses its viability, specific metabolic alterations regarding plant growth factors might occur. In this study, we divided ginseng seeds into normal and accelerated-aging groups. Both groups were treated with gibberellic acid, which is one of the most important plant-growth regulators. Afterward, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the samples, to identify the metabolic alterations between the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-four endogenous metabolites in normal and accelerated aging groups were putatively identified. To determine the differential significance of these metabolites, t-tests and fold-change analysis were conducted followed by principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis to determine the metabolites that showed distinct responses between the groups. Among the differentially expressed metabolites (P value < 0.05 and FDR < 0.1), nine metabolites were selected as potential biomarker candidates for the prediction of seed longevity. CONCLUSION: Nine metabolites related to ginseng seed longevity were identified by comparing metabolomes. Our findings suggest that ginseng propagation can be facilitated by the regulation of these distinctive metabolic features of the seeds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Panax/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Germinação , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metabolômica , Panax/química , Panax/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252608

RESUMO

(1) Background: The ability to determine the age of ginseng is very important because the price of ginseng depends on the cultivation period. Since morphological observation is subjective, a new scientific and systematic method for determining the age of ginseng is required. (2) Methods: Three techniques were used for a metabolomics approach. High-resolution magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy was used to analyze powdered ginseng samples without extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) were used to analyze the extracts of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old ginseng. (3) Results: A metabolomics approach has the potential to discriminate the age of ginseng. Among the primary metabolites detected from NMR spectroscopy, the levels of fumarate and choline showed moderate prediction with an area under the curve (AUC) value of more than 0.7. As a result of UPLC-QTOF/MS-based profiling, 61 metabolites referring to the VIP (variable importance in the projection) score contributed to discriminating the age of ginseng. The results of GC×GC-TOF/MS showed clear discrimination of 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old ginseng using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to 100% of the discrimination rate. The results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, 16 metabolites between 4- and 5-year-old ginseng, and 18 metabolites between 5- and 6-year-old ginseng contributed to age discrimination in all regions. (4) Conclusions: These results showed that metabolic profiling and multivariate statistical analyses can distinguish the age of ginseng. Especially, it is meaningful that ginseng samples from different areas had the same metabolites for age discrimination. In future studies, it will be necessary to identify the unknown variables and to collaboratively study with other fields the biochemistry of aging in ginseng.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise Discriminante , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Curva ROC , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889792

RESUMO

Aiming at revealing the structural diversity of secondary metabolites and the different patterns in wild-simulated American ginseng (WsAG) and field-grown American ginseng (FgAG), a comprehensive and unique phytochemical profile study was carried out. In the screening analysis, a total of 121 shared compounds were characterized in FgAG and WsAG, respectively. The results showed that both of these two kinds of American ginseng were rich in natural components, and were similar in terms of the kinds of compound they contained. Furthermore, in non-targeted metabolomic analysis, when taking the contents of the constituents into account, it was found that there indeed existed quite a difference between FgAG and WsAG, and 22 robust known biomarkers enabling the differentiation were discovered. For WsAG, there were 12 potential biomarkers including two ocotillol-type saponins, two steroids, six damarane-type saponins, one oleanane-type saponins and one other compound. On the other hand, for FgAG, there were 10 potential biomarkers including two organic acids, six damarane-type saponins, one oleanane-type saponin, and one ursane. In a word, this study illustrated the similarities and differences between FgAG and WsAG, and provides a basis for explaining the effect of different growth environments on secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Metanol/química , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panax/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal
7.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336634

RESUMO

In vitro cultivation is an effective way to increase pharmaceutical production. To increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of American ginseng, the present study uses trans-anethole as an elicitor. The content of nine triterpene saponins was determined: Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Rg1, Rg2, Re and Rf. Trans-anethole was found to stimulate saponin synthesis regardless of exposure time (24 and 72 h). Twenty-four hour exposure to 1 µmol trans-anethole in the culture medium resulted in the highest increase of total saponin content (twice that of untreated roots), and optimum accumulation of Rb-group saponins, with ginsenoside Rc dominating (8.45 mg g-1 d.w.). In contrast, the highest mean content of protopanaxatriol derivatives was obtained for 10 µmol trans-anethole. The Re metabolite predominated, reaching a concentration of 5.72 mg g-1 d.w.: a 3.9-fold increase over untreated roots. Elicitation with use of trans-anethole can therefore be an effective method of increasing ginsenoside production in shake flasks.


Assuntos
Anisóis/farmacologia , Panax/metabolismo , Saponinas/biossíntese , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meios de Cultura/química , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saponinas/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(17): 7309-7317, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971477

RESUMO

Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Family Araliaceae) is one of the major medicinal and nutraceutical plants, which is native to oriental region. It is used worldwide as a popular herbal medicine because of its pharmacological effects like anti-oxidative, anti aging, anti-cancer, adaptogenic, and other health-improving activities. Chief components of ginseng identified till date are ginsenosides, a group of saponins with triterpenoid structure. Ginseng is cultivated under controlled conditions, and for harvesting of fully grown roots of the plant, the cultivation takes long duration of about 5-7 years and cultivated ginseng roots are inferior in quality and ginsenoside content. Wild Mountain ginseng is superior in quality and ginsenoside content but is scarce in nature. Therefore, for obtaining the useful compounds of this plant at commercial scale, cell and organ cultures especially adventitious roots have been established by using superior clones of wild mountain ginseng, ginseng biomass is produced by applying large scale bioreactors. In this paper, an effort has been made to shed light on the scientific literature and to decipher the evidences for quality, safety, and efficacy of ginseng adventitious roots produced from in vitro cultures.


Assuntos
Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Ginsenosídeos/normas , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 75(10): 1401-1407, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980813

RESUMO

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium (Gsoil 556T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field and subjected to its taxonomic position. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 556T was shown to belong to the genus Actinomadura of the family Thermomonosporaceae and was closely related to A. montaniterrae CYP1-1BT (99.3%), A. nitritigenes DSM 44137T (98.7%), and A. rudentiformis HMC1T (98.5%), while it showed less than 98.4% sequence similarity to the other species of this genus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is most closely related to A. rudentiformis HMC1T and A. nitritigenes DSM 44137T. The DNA G+C content was 73.1 mol%. The peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugar contained fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and ribose. The predominant menaquinone (KK) was MK-9(H8) [55%] and MK-9(H6) [45%]. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c). All these data supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 556T to the genus Actinomadura. The DNA-DNA hybridization between strain Gsoil 556T and its phylogenetically closest relatives were less than 40%. Furthermore, the results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain Gsoil 556T to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from currently known Actinomadura species. Therefore, strain Gsoil 556T represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura hankyongense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain Gsoil 556T (=KACC 19438T=LMG 30327T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinomycetales/classificação , Actinomycetales/genética , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Genótipo , Panax/microbiologia , Filogenia
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 75(11): 1453-1459, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039183

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped, bacterium (designated Gsoil 531T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain Gsoil 531T clustered with species of the genus Mesorhizobium and was closely related to M. camelthorni CCNWXJ 40-4T (98.9%) and M. alhagi CCNWXJ12-2T (98.7%). The DNA G + C content was 62.9 mol% and the predominant quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C19:0 cyclo ω8c and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c). The DNA-DNA hybridization values were less than 35.0% between novel isolate and its closest reference strains M. camelthorni HAMBI 3020T, M. alhagi HAMBI 3019T and M tamadayense LMG 26736T. Physiological, biochemical and low values of DNA-DNA hybridization results enabled strain Gsoil 531T to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from all known species of the genus Mesorhizobium. Therefore, strain Gsoil 531T signifies a novel species of the genus Mesorhizobium, for which the name Mesorhizobium hankyongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain Gsoil 531T (= KACC 19443T = LMG 30463T).


Assuntos
Mesorhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Mesorhizobium/classificação , Mesorhizobium/genética , Mesorhizobium/metabolismo , Panax/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1427-1433, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728032

RESUMO

Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days. During the cultivation, photosynthetic rate was measured four times. After 40 days cultivation, chlorophyll content, stem diameter and the spatiotemporal expression of saponin synthesis related genes PgHMGR and PgSQE were tested. The results showed that there were significant differences in the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content among different nitrogen concentrations. The relative expression level of PgHMGR gene and PgSQE gene in root, stem and leaves of ginseng were different. Ginseng seedlings cultivated by 20 mg·L⁻¹ nitrogen possess the highest photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, while PgHMGR and PgSE showed the highest gene expression level. The optimal nitrogen concentration for the growth of 2-years-old ginseng might be 20 mg·L⁻¹ with 57.14 g ammonium nitrate each plant or pure 20.00 mg nitrogen each plant. It is concluded that this concentration is the most suitable concentration for the ginsenoside synthesis. Pollution-free ginseng with fine nitrogen fertilizer cultivation is conducive to the production of high quality and efficient ginseng medicinal materials. It lays a theoretical foundation for the rational fertilization and environment-friendly sustainable ecological ginseng planting industry.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Nitrogênio , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese
12.
Molecules ; 23(6)2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799492

RESUMO

LC/MS-based chemical profiling of a ginseng farm soil-derived actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. BYK1371, enabled the discovery of two new cyclic heptapeptides, depsidomycins B and C (1 and 2), each containing two piperazic acid units and a formyl group at their N-terminus. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. These new compounds were determined to possess d-leucine, d-threonine, d-valine, and S-piperazic acid based on the advanced Marfey's method and a GITC (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-ß-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate) derivatization of their hydrolysates, followed by LC/MS analysis. Depsidomycins B and C displayed significant antimetastatic activities against metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Oligopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Isotiocianatos/química , Leucina/química , Leucina/isolamento & purificação , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piridazinas/química , Piridazinas/isolamento & purificação , Estereoisomerismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Treonina/química , Treonina/isolamento & purificação , Valina/química , Valina/isolamento & purificação
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 134: 1-15, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772270

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H. Chow (P. notoginseng) is a highly valued Chinese materia medica having a hemostatic effect and mainly used for the treatment of trauma and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Stringent growth requirements, weak resistance to insect pests and plant diseases, arsenic contamination and continuous cropping constitute hurdles to further increases in the agricultural production of P. notoginseng. This review focuses on the traditional uses (based on traditional Chinese medicine theory), major chemical components, biological activities, pharmacological properties, geographical distributions and historical development of taxonomy of P. notoginseng and its related species in Panax genus, including Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer (P. japonicus), Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. major (Burkill) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng (P. japonicus var. major) and Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. bipinnatifidus (Seem.) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng (P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus) are reviewed. This review sheds light on the origin herbs of Zhujieshen (ZJS) and Zhuzishen (ZZS), e.g., P. japonicas var japonicas, P. japonicus var. major and P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus could be used as a substitute for P. notoginseng as hemostatic herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Panax notoginseng/classificação , Panax/classificação , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/provisão & distribução , Hemostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hemostáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hemostáticos/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panax notoginseng/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 200(7): 1049-1055, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679163

RESUMO

A novel bacterium, designated DCY114T, was isolated from ginseng-cultivated soil in Gochang-gun, Republic of Korea. This isolate was assigned to the genus Paenibacillus and is closely related to Paenibacillus amylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T (98.3%), P. dongdonensis KUDC0114T (98.0%), P. tylopili MK2T (97.9%), P. tundrae A10bT (97.8%), and P. xylanexedens B22aT (97.5%) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain DCY114T is a Gram-reaction positive, catalase and oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic rod that is motile by peritrichous flagella. Strain DCY114T produces siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and is able to solubilize phosphate as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. MK-7 was the diagnostic menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and C18:0, and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and an unknown amino lipid (AL1,2). The genomic DNA G + C content was 46.0 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic results also placed strain DCY114T within the genus Paenibacillus. DNA-DNA homology values between strain DCY114T and closely related reference strains were lower than 43%. The low DNA relatedness data in combination with phylogenetic and biochemical tests indicated that strain DCY114T could not be assigned to a recognized species. The results of this study support that the DCY114T strain is a novel species belonging to the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus panacihumi is proposed. The type strain is DCY114T (= KCTC 33915T = JCM 32073T).


Assuntos
Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/classificação , Paenibacillus/genética , Paenibacillus/metabolismo , Panax/microbiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Curr Microbiol ; 75(5): 624-629, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289978

RESUMO

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium (Gsoil 137T) was isolated from soil of a ginseng field of Pocheon province in South Korea and subjected to a polyphasic approach in order to determine its taxonomic position. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain Gsoil 137T was shown to belong to the family Nocardioidaceae and was closely related to Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli Gsoil 098T (96.7%), Aeromicrobium panaciterrae (96.7%), and Aeromicrobium halocynthiae JCM 15749T (96.6%). Being phylogenetic, it was most closely related to Aeromicrobium halocynthiae JCM 15749T. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.3 mol%. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was menaquinone MK-8 (H4) and MK-7 (H4) was a minor compound. The major cellular fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1 ω9c and summed feature 4 (C16:1 ω7c/C15:0 iso 2-OH). All these data supported the affiliation of strain Gsoil 137T to the genus Aeromicrobium. The results of physiological and biochemical tests enabled strain Gsoil 137T to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from currently known Aeromicrobium species. Therefore, strain Gsoil 137T represents a novel species of the genus Aeromicrobium, for which the name Aeromicrobium panacisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 137T (= KCTC 19130T = DSM 17940T = CCUG 52475T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinomycetales/classificação , Actinomycetales/genética , Actinomycetales/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Filogenia , República da Coreia
16.
J Microbiol ; 56(1): 24-29, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299847

RESUMO

A taxonomic study was conducted on BR7-21T, a bacterial strain isolated from the soil of a ginseng field in Baekdu Mountain. Comparative studies of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate was most closely related to Conexibacter woesei DSM 14684T, Solirubrobacter pauli ATCC BAA-492T, Patulibacter minatonensis JCM 12834T, with 93.8%, 92.4%, and 91.5% sequence similarity, respectively; each genus represented a family in the order Solirubrobacterales. Strain BR7-21T was Gram-reaction positive, non-spore forming, aerobic, non-motile, and short rod-shaped. It grew well on half-strength R2A medium. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 73.9%. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall and the major menaquinones were MK-7(H4) and MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were summarized as (C16:1ω7c/iso-C15:0 2-OH), iso-C16:0, and C17:0 cyclo. On the basis of polyphasic evidence, it was proposed that strain BR7-21T should be placed in a new genus and species, for which the name Baekduia soli gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed with the type strain BR7-21T (= KCTC 22257T = LMG 24797T). The family Baekduiaceae fam. nov. is proposed to encompass the genus Baekduia gen. nov.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
17.
Int Microbiol ; 21(3): 153-162, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810956

RESUMO

Panax ginseng is an important medicinal herb due to its ability to strengthen the human immune system. However, due to the increasing needs of ginseng in medicine, the continuous cropping of ginseng has become more common and has resulted in increased problems with fungal decay. Thus, chemical fungicides are commonly used in ginseng plantings, which have caused fungicide residue problems. As an alternative control measure, biocontrol bacteria can be used to manage fungal pathogens. Additionally, these bacteria are environmentally friendly and can also improve stress tolerance in plants. In this study, an antifungal bacterial strain, TB6, that possesses ACC deaminase activity was isolated from the rhizosphere of ginseng plants. This strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. TB6 was applied to 2-year-old ginseng seedlings for a 2-year period, and its impact on the soil rhizosphere was evaluated. The results revealed that strain TB6 decreased fungal abundance and diversity; improved urease, catalase, and phosphatase activities; and decreased the cellulase activity of the rhizosphere soil. In addition, strain TB6 also promoted root growth and increased the fresh weight of ginseng roots, in addition to increasing polyphenol oxidase and catalase activities. These results may have practical implications for the use of biocontrol bacteria in ginseng plantings.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/classificação , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Biota , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Catalase/análise , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polifenóis/análise
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 37(3): 393-410, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150823

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The dynamics of metabolites from leaves to roots of Panax ginseng during development has revealed the tissue-specific and year-specific metabolic networks. Being an essential Oriental medicinal plant, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a slow-growing perennial herb-accumulating pharmaceutically active metabolites such as ginsenosides in roots during growth. However, little is known about how ginseng plants survive in the harsh environments such as winter cold and summer heat for a longer period and accumulates those active metabolites as the plant grows. To understand the metabolic kinetics in both source and sink organs such as leaves and roots of ginseng plant, respectively, and to assess the changes in ginsenosides biosynthesis during ginseng growth, we investigated the metabolic profiles from leaves and roots of 1-, 4-, and 6-year-old field-grown ginseng plants. Using an integrated non-targeted metabolomic approach, we identified in total 348 primary and secondary metabolites, which provided us for the first time a global metabolomic assessment of ginseng during growth, and morphogenesis. Strikingly, the osmoprotectants and oxidized chemicals were highly accumulated in 4- and 6-year-old ginseng leaves suggested that ginseng develop a wide range of metabolic strategies to adapt unfavorable conditions as they mature. In 6-year-old plants, ginsenosides were decreased in leaves but increased in roots up to 1.2- to sixfold, supporting the view that there is a long-distance transport of ginsenosides from leaves to roots as ginseng plants mature. Our findings provide insights into the metabolic kinetics during the development of ginseng plant and this could complement the pharmacological importance of ginseng and its compounds according to their age.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Panax/metabolismo , Cinética , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232922

RESUMO

Panax ginseng is a traditional medicine. Fresh ginseng is one of the most important industries related to ginseng development, and fresh ginseng of varying ages has different medicinal properties. Previous research has not systematically reported the correlation between changes in key enzyme activity with changes in ginsenoside content in fresh ginseng over time. In this study, for the first time, we use ginseng samples of varying ages in Ji'an and systematically reported the changes in the activity of seven key enzymes (HMGR, FPS, SS, SE, DS, CYP450, and GT). We investigated the content of ginsenoside and gene expression of these key enzymes. Ginsenoside content was measured using HPLC. HPLC, GC-MS, and LC-MS were combined to measure the enzyme activity of the key enzymes. Quantitative PCR was used in the investigation of gene expression. By analyzing the correlation between the enzyme activity and the transcription level of the key enzymes with ginsenoside content, we found that DS and GT enzyme activities are significantly correlated with the ginsenoside content in different ages of ginseng. Our findings might provide a new strategy to discriminate between ginseng of different years. Meanwhile, this research provides important information for the in-depth study of ginsenoside biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Ginsenosídeos/biossíntese , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(17): 3267-3274, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192434

RESUMO

As the limit of the usage of available forest land, cultivated ginseng in the farmland would become the mainly Panax ginseng planting mode, meanwhile the non-polluted production technology would be the mainly development direction in the future. In this study, the non-polluted cultivation technology system of P. ginseng was established based on the research results of field investigation in the cultivated regions. The system includes suitable planting regions selecting, planting method, field management, pest control, harvesting & processing, and quality control. Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of soil restoration after P. ginseng cultivation, establishment the platform of comprehensive disease & pest control, breeding new varieties for high stress tolerance and resistance, and a traceability system for P. ginseng cultivation. In all, these strategies was considered to largely developing of the ginseng industry in the green and sustainable way.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas , Florestas , Solo
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