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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3861-3868, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872716

RESUMO

Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty could be used to clear heat,invigorate Qi,and promote fluid production. The indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction include infectious diseases,such as lung infection,influenza,encephalitis,enteric typhoid and hospital infection; thermoplegia; acute cerebrovascular disease,diabetes mellitus,severe hyperosmolarity,hypernatremia,intractable hypotension,shock and other internal diseases; sweating,irritation,thirst,want to drink several liters of water,dry mouth,dry tongue,and big pulse. This prescription has been widely used to treat acute and severe cases in the cardiovascular intensive care ward. The prescription can be used to treat exogenous and internal injury diseases,which are characterized by excessive heat,fluid injury,thirst for water,dry mouth,dry tongue and other symptoms; refractory hypotension and hypovolemic shock that need large dose of supplemental fluid to maintain blood pressure and may also belong to the extension of the Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction formula syndrome; severe hyperosmolarity and hypernatremia needing nasal feeding with large quantities of sterile water or cool boiled water that may also belong to the extension of the Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction formula syndrome; the four major symptoms,namely severe heat,excessive perspiration,great thirst,and large-bounding pulse,are actually the indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction,rather than Baihu Decoction. Severe irritability should also be added into the indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction; severe heat refers to pathogenesis,rather than a symptom.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Panax/química , Cuidados Críticos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa , Fitoterapia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(29): 7817-7829, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729585

RESUMO

Despite Panax quinquefolius L. serving as a crucial source for food additives, healthcare products, and herbal medicines, unawareness of the metabolome differences among three parts (root, PQR; stem leaf, PQL; flower bud, PQF) seriously restricts its quality control. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-Orbitrap-MS) was fully utilized to comprehensively identify and compare the ginsenoside compositions among PQR, PQL, and PQF. Metabolite profiling and characterization were performed by coupling reversed-phase UHPLC (a CSH C18 column) and improved untargeted data-dependent MS2 acquisition in the negative mode. A novel vehicle, "Ginsenoside Sieve," was proposed by developing fixed tolerance (± 10 mDa), discrete mass defect filtering (MDF) based on the m/z features of 499 known ginsenosides, which assisted in the screening of 71 (from 3453 ions), 89 (from 6842), and 84 (from 7369) target precursor masses for PQR, PQL, and PQF, respectively. The newly established data-dependent acquisition (DDA) approach exhibited 14% improvement in characterization of targeted components (using a PQL sample), and comparable performance in identifying the unknown, compared with conventional DDA. We could characterize 347 saponins (147 from PQR, 173 from PQL, and 195 from PQF), and 157 thereof not ever-isolated from the Panax genus. These potentially new saponins have 63 unknown masses. Subsequent untargeted metabolomics analysis unveiled 20 marker saponins, among which m-Rb1, Rb1, Ro, m-Rb2, and m-Rb1 isomer are the most important diagnostic for differentiating the three parts. Conclusively, the established improved DDA represents a potent ginsenoside characterization strategy, and the results obtained in this work would benefit better quality control of P. quinquefolius. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flores/química , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Metabolômica , Plantas Medicinais/química
3.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapy drug for malignant tumors. The clinical application of DOX is limited due to its dosage relative cardiotoxicity. Oxidative damage and cardiac inflammation appear to be involved in DOX-related cardiotoxicity. Shenmai injection (SMI), which mainly consists of Panax ginsengC.A.Mey.and Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl, is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Shenmai injection on doxorubicin-induced acute cardiac injury via the regulation of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into seven groups: control, DOX (10 mg/kg), SMI (5 g/kg), DOX with pretreatment with SMI (0.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg or 5 g/kg) and DOX with post-treatment with SMI (5 g/kg). Forty-eight hours after the last DOX administration, all mice were anesthetized for ultrasound echocardiography. Then, serum was collected for biochemical and inflammatory cytokine detection, and heart tissue was collected for histological and Western blot detection. RESULTS: A cumulative dose of DOX (10 mg/kg) induced acute cardiotoxicity in mice manifested by altered echocardiographic outcome, and increased tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1, interferon-γ, and serum AST and LDH levels, as well as cardiac cytoplasmic vacuolation and myofibrillar disarrangement. DOX also caused the increase in the expression of IKK-α and iNOS and produced a large amount of NO, resulting in the accumulation of nitrotyrosine in the heart tissue. Pretreatment with SMI elicited a dose-dependent cardioprotective effect in DOX-dosed mice as evidenced by the normalization of serum inflammatory mediators, as well as improve dcardiac function and myofibril disarrangement. CONCLUSIONS: SMI could recover inflammatory cytokine levels and suppress the expression of IKK-α and iNOS in vivo, which was increased by DOX. Overall, there was evidence that SMI could ameliorate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting inflammation and recovering heart dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ophiopogon/química , Panax/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(25): 2334-2347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648643

RESUMO

The dried root of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer or Panax quinquefolius L.) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to manage cancer symptoms and chemotherapy side effects in Asia. The anti-cancer efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, which are commonly known as ginsenosides. Ginsenosides were first identified as key active ingredients in Panax ginseng and subsequently found in Panax quinquefolius, both of the same genus. To review the recent advances on anti-cancer effects of ginsenosides against breast cancer, we conducted a literature study of scientific articles published from 2010 through 2018 to date by searching the major databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar, and CNKI. A total of 50 articles authored in either English or Chinese related to the anti-breast cancer activity of ginsenosides have been reviewed, and the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on ginsenosides are summarized. This review focuses on how ginsenosides exert their anti-breast cancer activities through various mechanisms of action such as modulation of cell growth, modulation of the cell cycle, modulation of cell death, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of metastasis, inhibition of multidrug resistance, and cancer immunemodulation. In summary, recent advances in the evaluation of ginsenosides as therapeutic agents against breast cancer support further pre-clinical and clinical studies to treat primary and metastatic breast tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
5.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104370, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629872

RESUMO

Ginseng is an ancient herb, belonging to Asian traditional medicine, that has been considered as a restorative to enhance vitality for centuries. It has been demonstrated that the antioxidant action of ginseng may be mediated through activation of different cellular signaling pathways involving the heme oxygenase (HO) system. Several compounds derived from ginseng have been studied for their potential role in brain, heart and liver protection, and the Nrf2 pathway seems to be the most affected by these natural molecules to exert this effect. Ginseng is also popularly used in cancer patients therapy for the demonstrated capability to defend tissues from chemotherapy-induced damage. Reported results suggest that the effect of ginseng is primarily associated with ROS scavenging, mainly exerted through the activation of Nrf2 pathway, and the consequent induction of HO-1 levels. This review aims to discuss the connection between the antioxidant properties of ginseng and the activation of the HO system, as well as to outline novel therapeutic applications of this medicinal plant to human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/fisiologia , Panax/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Plant Sci ; 288: 110224, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521213

RESUMO

Patatin-liked phospholipase A (pPLAs) are major lipid acyl hydrolases that participate in various biological functions in plant growth and development. Previously, a ginseng-derived pPLAIII homolog was reported to reduce lignin content in Arabidopsis. This led us to evaluate its possible usefulness as a biomass source in wood plant. Herein, we report that there are six members in the pPLAIII gene family in poplar. Overexpression of pPLAIIIß derived from ginseng resulted in a reduced plant height with radially expanded stem growth in hybrid poplars. Compared with the wild type (WT), the chlorophyll content was increased in the overexpression poplar lines, whereas the leaf size was smaller. The secondary cell wall structure in overexpression lines was also altered, exhibiting reduced lignification in the xylem. Two transcription factors, MYB92 and MYB152, which control lignin biosynthesis, were downregulated in the overexpression lines. The middle xylem of the overexpression line showed heavy thickening, making it thicker than the other xylem parts and the WT xylem, which rather could have been contributed by the presence of more cellulose in the selected surface area. Taken together, the results suggest that PgpPLAIIIß plays a role not only in cell elongation patterns, but also in determining the secondary cell wall composition.


Assuntos
Lignina/metabolismo , Panax/genética , Fosfolipases A/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/genética , Panax/química , Fosfolipases A/química , Fosfolipases A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Madeira/genética , Xilema/genética , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(5): 871-883, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407196

RESUMO

Ginseng has been traditionally used as an herbal nutritional supplement in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Japan, and Vietnam for several millennia. Most studies have focused on the role of ginseng on anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Recently, modulator activities of ginseng on the immune responses during pathogenic bacterial and viral infections and beneficial effects of ginseng in infectious diseases have been elucidated. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed the potential of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides Rg1, Rg3, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Re, Rd, Rh2 for treatment of several infectious diseases. The molecular mechanisms of these effects mainly involve inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-10), apoptotic pathway (bcl-2, bcl-xL), PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPKs pathway, JAK2/STAT5, NF-κB pathway, and the inflammasome. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the effects of ginseng in the immune responses during the infections and its bioactivities on the prevention of infectious diseases as well as its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of ginseng as an anti-bacterial and anti-viral medication and vaccine adjuvant will be discussed as well.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426477

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Ro (Ro), a major saponin derived and isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, exerts multiple biological activities. However, the anti-tumour efficacy of Ro remains unclear because of its poor in vitro effects. In this study, we confirmed that Ro has no anti-tumour activity in vitro. We explored the anti-tumour activity of Ro in vivo in B16F10 tumour-bearing mice. The results revealed that Ro considerably suppressed tumour growth with no significant side effects on immune organs and body weight. Zingibroside R1, chikusetsusaponin IVa, and calenduloside E, three metabolites of Ro, were detected in the plasma of Ro-treated tumour-bearing mice and showed excellent anti-tumour effects as well as anti-angiogenic activity. The results suggest that the metabolites play important roles in the anti-tumour efficacy of Ro in vivo. Additionally, the haemolysis test demonstrated that Ro has good biocompatibility. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that Ro markedly suppresses the tumour growth of B16F10-transplanted tumours in vivo, and its anti-tumour effects are based on the biological activity of its metabolites. The anti-tumour efficacy of these metabolites is due, at least in part, to its anti-angiogenic activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacocinética , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1361-1368, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434170

RESUMO

Codium fragile is an edible seaweed in Asian countries that has been used as a thrombolytic, anticoagulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory agent. Ginseng has also been known to maintain immune homeostasis and to regulate the immune system via enhancing resistance to diseases and microorganisms. In this study, anionic macromolecules extracted from C. fragile (CFAM) were orally administered with red ginseng extract (100 mg/kg body weight) to cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed male BALB/c mice to investigate the immune-enhancing cooperative effect of Codium fragile and red ginseng. Our results showed that supplementing CFAM with red ginseng extract significantly increased spleen index, T- and B-cell proliferation, NK cell activity, and splenic lymphocyte immuneassociated gene expression compared to those with red ginseng alone, even though a high concentration of CFAM with red ginseng decreased immune biomarkers. These results suggest that CFAM can be used as a co-stimulant to enhance health and immunity in immunosuppressed conditions.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Ânions/isolamento & purificação , Ânions/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressão , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Substâncias Macromoleculares/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Baço/imunologia
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434310

RESUMO

A pregnant woman's diet consists of many products, such as fruits, vegetables, cocoa, tea, chocolate, coffee, herbal and fruit teas, and various commercially available dietary supplements, which contain a high number of biological active plant-derived compounds. Generally, these compounds play beneficial roles in women's health and the development of fetus health. There are, however, some authors who report that consuming excessive amounts of plants that contain high concentrations of polyphenols may negatively affect the development of the fetus and the offspring's health. Important and problematic issues during pregnancy and lactation are bacterial infections treatment. In the treatment are proposals to use plant immunomodulators, which are generally considered safe for women and their offspring. Additional consumption of biologically active compounds from plants, however, may increase the risk of occurrences to irreversible changes in the offspring's health. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out safety tests for immunomodulators before introducing them into a maternal diet. Here, we present data from animal experiments for the four most-studied plants immunomodulators genus: Rhodiola, Echinacea, Panax, and Camellia, which were used in maternal nutrition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Camellia/química , Echinacea/química , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Panax/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Gravidez , Rhodiola/química
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3719643, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467885

RESUMO

Background: The clinical anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DEX) can cause many side effects such as muscle atrophy for long-term use. Muscle atrophy induced by DEX may be caused by decrease of glucose consumption. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was previously considered to be an antiatrophic agent for glucocorticoid- (GC-) treated therapies. As one of the main components, it remains unclear whether ginseng total protein (GP) facilitates recovery from muscle atrophy induced by DEX. Methods: In this study, GP was extracted and purified with Sephadex-G50. C2C12 myoblasts was induced with 2% horse serum to differentiate into C2C12 myotubes. Cell viability was analyzed by the MTT assay, and Ca2+ concentration was analyzed by a flow cytometer. The release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and the glucose consumption were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (Akt) and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were analyzed by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of AS160 was quantified by Immunofluorescence staining. Results: We found that GP increased cell viability and increased myotube diameter in high-dose DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes for 24 h, but this activity was not found in the enzymatic hydrolyzed GP group. GP reduced muscle atrophy by decreasing the expression of key proteins such as muscle RING-finger protein-1 and muscle atrophy F-box, reducing the Ca2+ concentration, and decreasing the release of LDH in DEX-injured C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, GP improved glucose consumption and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, PI3K, Akt, and AS160 and the expression of GLUT4 in DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that GP has effects on recovering DEX-induced muscle atrophy and cell injury, which may improve glucose consumption via the AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathways in high-dose DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes. This study provides in vitro mechanistic insights into the recovery of muscle atrophy with GP treatment.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dexametasona/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4 , Humanos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mioblastos/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10048-10058, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422666

RESUMO

Ginseng, the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is used not only as a herbal medicine but also as a functional food to support body functions. Ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) is a major bioactive component in ginseng. In this study, the beneficial effects of GRg3 on rats with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were evaluated via the behavioral experiment and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, metabolomic analysis based on UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and apoptosis analysis was used to obtain the change between AD and GRg3-administrated rats to assess the underlying mechanisms on improving mitochondrial dysfunction. Results showed that GRg3 could prevent the cognitive impairment of AD rats by improving the mitochondrial dysfunction. The potential mechanisms were related to regulate the abnormality of energy metabolism, electron transport chain, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and antiapoptosis. These findings support the exploitation of GRg3 as an effective complementary and functional food to prevent and delay AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Panax/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416121

RESUMO

As our global population ages, the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is critical to our society. In recent years, researchers have begun to study the role of biologically active chemicals from plants and herbs to gain new inspiration and develop new therapeutic drugs. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) is a famous Chinese herbal medicine with a variety of pharmacological activities. It has been used to treat various diseases since ancient times. Extensive research over the years has shown that ginseng has potential as a neuroprotective drug, and its neuroprotective effects can be used to treat and prevent neurological damage or pathologically related diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression symptoms, and strokes). Moreover, evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of ginsenoside, its main active ingredient, in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing, and current clinical results have not reported any serious adverse reactions to ginseng. Therefore, we briefly review the recent research and development on the beneficial effects and mechanisms of ginseng and its main active ingredient, ginsenoside, in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, hoping to provide some ideas for the discovery and identification of ginseng neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Panax/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10342-10351, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461273

RESUMO

Maltol, a maillard reaction product from ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer), has been confirmed to inhibit oxidative stress in several animal models. Its beneficial effect on oxidative stress related brain aging is still unclear. In this study, the mouse model of d-galactose (d-Gal)-induced brain aging was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of maltol. Maltol treatment significantly restored memory impairment in mice as determined by the Morris water maze tests. Long-term d-Gal treatment reduced expression of cholinergic regulators, i.e., the cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT) (0.456 ± 0.10 vs 0.211 ± 0.03 U/mg prot), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (36.4 ± 5.21 vs 66.5 ± 9.96 U/g). Maltol treatment prevented the reduction of ChAT and AChE in the hippocampus. Maltol decreased oxidative stress levels by reducing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production in the brain and by elevating antioxidative enzymes. Furthermore, maltol treatment minimized oxidative stress by increasing the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). The above results clearly indicate that supplementation of maltol diminishes d-Gal-induced behavioral dysfunction and neurological deficits via activation of the PI3K/Akt-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in brain. Maltol might become a potential drug to slow the brain aging process and stimulate endogenous antioxidant defense capacity. This study provides the novel evidence that maltol may slow age-associated brain aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pironas/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6806-6813, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) are common processing techniques in the extraction of active compounds from food materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis combined with HHP treatments on ginsenoside metabolites in red ginseng. RESULTS: The yield and changes in the levels of polyphenol and ginsenoside were measured in red ginseng treated with commercial enzymes such as Ultraflo L, Viscozyme, Cytolase PCL5, Rapidase and Econase E at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa), 50 MPa, and 100 MPa. ß-Glucosidase activity of Cytolase was the highest at 4258.2 mg-1 , whereas Viscozyme showed the lowest activity at 10.6 mg-1 . Pressure of 100 MPa did not affect the stability or the activity of the ß-glucosidase. Treatment of red ginseng with Cytolase and Econase at 100 MPa significantly increased the dry weight and polyphenol content of red ginseng, compared with treatments at 0.1 MPa and 50 MPa (P < 0.05). The amounts of ginsenoside and ginsenoside metabolites derived from red ginseng processed using Cytolase were higher than those derived from red ginseng treated with the other enzymes. Treatment with Cytolase also significantly increased the skin and intestinal permeability of red ginseng-derived polyphenols. CONCLUSION: Cytolase could be useful as an enzymatic treatment to enhance the yield of bioactive compounds from ginseng under HHP. In addition, ginsenoside metabolites obtained by Cytolase hydrolysis combined with HHP are functional substances with increased intestinal and skin permeability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Hidrólise , Pressão Hidrostática , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Panax/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/metabolismo
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900188, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298488

RESUMO

Panaxadiol is a dammarane-type ginsenoside having high ginseng content. The 3-hydroxy group of panaxadiol (PD) was modified by fatty acids and diacids. The modified panax glycol had enhanced anticancer activity. Twelve PD derivatives were evaluated and purified by chemical synthesis, column chromatography, co-synthesis, and identification. The human leukemia cells THP-1, HL-60, and human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 were evaluated; PD derivatives were tested and evaluated in vitro by MTT assay. The results showed that the antitumor activities of some derivatives on three tumor cell lines were better than those of PD.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Panax/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ginsenosídeos/síntese química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Panax/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323789

RESUMO

The ginseng berry contains a variety of biologically active compounds and has a higher ginsenoside content than its roots. This study focused on the hepatoprotective activity of ginseng berry extract prepared by enzyme treatment (EGB) compared to the non-enzyme-treated ginseng berry extract (GB) and quality control of EGB. The feeding effect of EGB on alcohol-induced liver damage (AILD) was investigated by measuring the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with those of EtOH-fed mice. Furthermore, cytokine levels in the culture supernatants of EGB- or GB-treated RAW 264.7 cells were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous quantification of four major ginsenosides in EGB using UPLC-QTOF/MS. Treatment with EGB at a dose of 0.5 or 1 mg/mouse significantly suppressed the AST and ALT levels in mice with AILD. Enzyme-treated ginseng berry was also found to suppress the production of inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, showing higher activity than that of GB. The amount of ginsenoside Re, F5, F3, and Rd in the EGB obtained using UPLC-QTOF/MS was 45.9, 3.3, 4.0, and 6.2 mg/g, respectively. These results suggest that EGB has a potential effect on AILD, and its hepatoprotective effect provides beneficial insights into developing new candidates for the prevention and cure of AILD. Also, this study demonstrated the utility of UPLC-QTOF/MS-based major compounds for quality control (QC) of EGB.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Frutas/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoprostona/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/lesões , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323835

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a sensitive method for detecting 13 ginsenosides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and to apply this method to pharmacokinetic studies in human following repeated oral administration of red ginseng extract. The chromatograms of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, F1, compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) in human plasma were well separated. The calibration curve range for 13 ginsenosides was 0.5-200 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.5 ng/mL for all ginsenosides. The inter- and intra-day accuracy, precision, and stability were less than 15%. Among the 13 ginsenosides tested, nine ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg3, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT) were detected in the human plasma samples. The plasma concentrations of Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, and Rg3 were correlated with the content in red ginseng extract; however, CK, Rh2, PPD, and PPT were detected although they are not present in red ginseng extract, suggesting the formation of these ginsenosides through the human metabolism. In conclusion, our analytical method could be effectively used to evaluate pharmacokinetic properties of ginsenosides, which would be useful for establishing the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymic relationship of ginsenosides as well as ginsenoside metabolism in humans.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/química , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 57-64, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual problems constitute a largely-overlooked problem for women during menopause. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Ginseng on sexual function (primary outcome), quality of life and menopausal symptoms (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. DESIGN: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 62 women who were randomly assigned to the intervention/control groups using block randomization. INTERVENTION: The intervention group received 500 mg of Panax Ginseng and the control group received placebo twice daily for four weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standard questionnaires including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) and the Greene Menopausal Symptom Scale were completed before and four weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics and the baseline scores of sexual function, quality of life and menopausal symptoms (P > 0.05). After the intervention, the mean total score of FSFI (Adjusted Mean Difference = 6.32, 95% CI = 3.48 to 9.16, P < 0.001) was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The mean total score of quality of life (AMD=-20.79, 95% CI=-25.83 to -15.75, P < 0.001) and menopausal symptoms (AMD=-8.25, 95% CI=-10.55 to -5.95, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group. CONCLUSION: Ginseng has significant effects in improving sexual function and quality of life and mitigating menopausal symptoms. As a multipotent plant, Ginseng can be a suitable alternative for conventional therapies to promote the health of menopausal women.


Assuntos
Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 98-103, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess effects of ginseng supplementation on CRP/hs-CRP levels in clinical trial studies. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was carried out for clinical trials published in ISI web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases from the beginning to 16th February 2018. Of 83 articles found in the first step of the systematic search, seven studies with nine arms included in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Results of pooled random-effect size analysis of nine trials showed non-significant decreasing effects of ginseng supplementation on CRP level (WMD: -0.1 mg/l, 95% CI, -0.26, 0.1; P = 0.27) with significant heterogeneity shown within the studies. The subgroup analysis showed that ginseng supplementation could significantly reduce CRP level by 0.51 (95% CI: -0.68, -0.34; P < 0001, test for heterogeneity: P = 0.44, I2 = 0.0%) in patients with a baseline serum CRP level of greater than 3 mg/dl. Trial duration and dose of ginseng supplementation included no significant effects on CRP level in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Results of the current meta-analysis study have shown that ginseng supplementation can decrease significantly serum CRP/hsCRP levels in patients with elevated serum level of this inflammatory marker.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo
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