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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780763

RESUMO

Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. In the 100% complete feed and ginseng polysaccharide (Po) group, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was significantly increased, crypt depth was reduced, and villus height remained unaffected. Next, we studied the intestinal microbial composition of 32 Xuefeng black-bone chickens. A total of 10 phyla and 442 genera were identified, among which Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Sutterella and Asteroleplasma abundance increased and decreased, respectively, in the FP and Po groups. Sutterella abundance was positively correlated to villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and negatively correlated to crypt depth, and Asteroleplasma abundance was positively correlated to crypt depth and negatively correlated to villus height to crypt depth ratio. At the species level, the FP group showed significantly increased Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum and decreased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance, and the Po group showed significantly increased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance. Moreover, bacterial abundance was closely related to the jejunum histomorphology. Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance was positively correlated with crypt depth and negatively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio. Mycoplasma_gallinarum abundance was positively correlated to villus height, and Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum abundance was positively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio and negatively correlated with crypt depth. Therefore, fermented feeds with ginseng polysaccharides may be used as effective alternatives to antibiotics for improving intestinal morphology and microbial composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Fermentação , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4529-4535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although ginseng seed oil (GSO) appears to have various roles in the body, its anti-cancer effect has not been investigated. Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer but shows adverse effects with drug resistance. This study investigated the effect of GSO in ER+ breast cancer cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assays, western blots and Annexin V staining were conducted to examine cell viability and apoptosis. The synergistic effect of tamoxifen in combination with GSO or oleic acid (OA) was determined. RESULTS: GSO and OA caused apoptosis of MCF-7 ER+ breast cancer cells and had synergistic effects with tamoxifen in inhibiting tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TAMR) ER+ breast cancer cell growth. CONCLUSION: GSO may block ER+ breast cancer recurrence in combination with tamoxifen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1091-1102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668967

RESUMO

Black ginseng (BG), which is ginseng that has been steamed and dried nine times, and its main protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, and Rg2 have been reported to exhibit various forms of biological activity, including antiseptic, antidiabetic, wound-healing, immune-stimulatory, and anti-oxidant activity. The aim of the this study was to examine the effects of [Formula: see text] (a rare protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction; Rg2, Rg4, Rg6, Rh1, and Rh4) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-)2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs). [Formula: see text] was tested to determine its effect on iNOS protein expression and inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-[Formula: see text] in the lung tissue of LPS-treated mice. The results showed that [Formula: see text] induced the expression of HO-1, reduced LPS-activated NF-[Formula: see text]B-luciferase activity, and inhibited iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2, which contributed to the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. In particular, [Formula: see text] induced the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus by increasing Nrf2-ARE activity and decreased IL-1[Formula: see text] production in LPS-activated HPAECs. This reduction in iNOS/NO expression due to [Formula: see text] was reversed by siHO-1 RNA transfection. In LPS-treated mice, [Formula: see text] significantly reduced lung tissue iNOS protein levels and TNF-[Formula: see text] levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, these findings indicate that [Formula: see text] has a critical anti-inflammatory effect due to its ability to regulate iNOS via the inhibition of p-STAT-1 and NF-[Formula: see text]B, and thus it may be suitable for the treatment of inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Panax/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia
4.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1141-1157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668974

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is considered as a major factor in aging and exacerbates aging process through a variety of molecular mechanisms. D-galactose, a normal reducing sugar with high dose can cause the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or stimulate free radical production indirectly by the formation of advanced glycation end products in tissues, finally resulting in oxidative stress. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3), a major and representative component isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer), has been shown to observably have an anti-oxidative effect. We thereby investigated the beneficial effects of 20(R)-Rg3 on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress injury and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that continuous injection of D-galactose with 800[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day for 8 weeks increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). However, such increases were attenuated by the treatment of 20(R)-Rg3 for 4 weeks. Meanwhile, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited D-galactose-caused oxidative stress in liver and kidney. The anti-oxidants, including catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were elevated in the mice from 20(R)-Rg3-treated group compared with that from D-galactose group. In contrast, a significant decrease in levels of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were observed in the 20(R)-Rg3-treated group. These effects were associated with a significant increase of AGEs. More importantly, 20(R)-Rg3 effectively attenuated D-galactose induced apoptosis in liver and kidney via restoring the upstream PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that 20(R)-Rg3 may be a novel and promising anti-oxidative therapeutic agent to prevent aging-related injuries in liver and kidney.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(6): 446-459, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503736

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A mixture of D. officinale and American ginseng has been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, and monocyte/macrophage functions in mice. Here, the effects of a D. officinale and American ginseng mixture on the structure of gut microbial community in dogs were examined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The data revealed that while the mixture did not change the diversity of gut microbial community significantly, differences among individuals were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the mixture-responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) exhibited a phase-dependent expression pattern. Fifty-five OTUs were found to exhibit a mixture-induced expression pattern, among which one third were short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing genera and the others were probiotic genera included Lactobacillus spp., Sutterella, Alistipes, Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Coprococcus, Gordonibacter, Oscillibacter, among others. By contrast, 36% of the OTUs exhibiting a mixture-repressed expression pattern were disease-associated microorganisms, and six genera, namely Actinomyces, Escherichia/Shigella, Fusobacterium, Slackia, Streptococcus and Solobacterium, were associated with cancer. In addition, five genera were closely associated with diabetes, namely Collinsella, Rothia, Howardella, Slackia and Intestinibacter. Our results indicate that this D. officinale and American ginseng mixture may be used as a prebiotic agent to enhance SCFA-producing genera and prevent gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Animais , Cães/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 5816-5829, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418689

RESUMO

Fermented milk is an effective carrier for probiotics, the consumption of which improves host health. The beneficial effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on gut dysbiosis have been reported previously. However, the way in which specific probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics regulate intestinal microbes remains unclear. Therefore, the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus AS 1.2466 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 and the prebiotics xylooligosaccharide and red ginseng extracts were fed to mice to determine their effects on the intestinal microbiota. Then, mice were administered xylooligosaccharide and L. rhamnosus (synthesis) by gavage, and the number of L. rhamnosus was determined in the intestine at different times. The results show that probiotics and prebiotics can quickly reduce the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, inhibit harmful bacteria (such as Klebsiella and Escherichia coli), and accelerate the recovery of beneficial intestinal microorganisms (such as Lactobacillus). In a complex intestinal microecology, different probiotics and prebiotics have different effects on specific intestinal microorganisms that cannot be recovered in the short term. In addition, after 20 d of intragastric xylooligosaccharide addition at 0.12 g/kg of body weight, L. rhamnosus colonization in the mouse ileum was 7.48 log cfu/mL, which was higher than in the low-dose group, prolonging colonization time and increasing the number of probiotics in the intestine. Therefore, this study demonstrated that probiotics and prebiotics can promote the balance of intestinal microbiota by regulating specific microbes in the intestine, and the effects of a suitable combination of synbiotics are beneficial, laying the foundation for the development of new dairy products rich in synbiotics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Simbióticos , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucuronatos/administração & dosagem , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8078, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415270

RESUMO

Neuroprotective strategies in the treatment of stroke have been attracting a great deal of attentions. Our previous clinical and basic studies have demonstrated that protopanaxadiol ginsenoside-Rd (Rd), a monomer compound extracted from Panax ginseng or Panax notoginseng, has neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke, probably due to its ability to block Ca2+ overload, an usual consequence of the overactivation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR). As an extending study, we explored here whether Rd exerted its neuroprotection as a novel NMDAR blocker. Our whole-cell patch-clamp results showed that Rd reduced NMDAR currents of cultured rat cortical neurons (EC50 = 7.7 µM) dose-dependently by acting on extrasynaptic NMDAR NR2b subunit. However, unexpectedly, cell transfection and radioligand binding assays revealed that Rd did not bind to the NMDAR channel directly. Alternatively, it inhibited the phosphorylation of NR2b at Ser-1303, a target of death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1). Moreover, cell-based and cell-free enzymatic assays showed that Rd did not inhibit the activity of DAPK1 directly, but blocked the activity of calcineurin, a key phosphatase for activating DAPK1. Importantly, other protopanaxadiol ginsenosides were also found to have potential inhibitory effects on calcineurin activity. Furthermore, as expected, calcineurin inhibition by cyclosporin A could mimic Rd's effects and protect against NMDA-, oxygen glucose deprivation- or transient ischemic stroke-induced neuronal injury. Therefore, our present study provided the first evidence that Rd could exert an inhibitive effect on NMDAR-triggered currents and sequential excitotoxicity through mitigation of DAPK1-mediated NR2b phosphorylation by attenuating calcineurin activity.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Calcineurina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/genética , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/farmacologia , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Panax/química , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
8.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101173, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Existing evidence on the possible effects of ginseng on liver function has not been fully established. Therefore, the present review was undertaken to evaluate the overall effects of ginseng supplementation on liver enzymes in adults. METHODS: A systematic computerized literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google scholar databases was conducted up to May 2019. All RCTs using ginseng supplements in adults were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 14 randomized trials (with 20 arms) including 992 subjects were identified. Pooled analysis did not illustrate any significant changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin (ALB) levels, however, it showed a minor significant increase in bilirubin (BIL) levels. Subgroup analysis by dosage and study population revealed significant increase of bilirubin after ginseng supplementation ≥3 g/day or in unhealthy individuals. CONCLUSION: Ginseng appears to have neither hepatoprotective nor hepatotoxic effects in conventional doses and duration. It is noteworthy that this seems applicable only for individuals with healthy liver function. Further largescale studies are warranted to confirm present findings.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Exsudatos de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatase Alcalina/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Bilirrubina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , gama-Glutamiltransferase/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 631-650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329640

RESUMO

The loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a serious consequence of chronic diseases and aging. BST204 is a purified ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) extract that has been processed using ginsenoside-ß-glucosidase and acid hydrolysis to enrich ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 from the crude ginseng. BST204 has a broad range of health benefits, but its effects and mechanism on muscle atrophy are currently unknown. In this study, we have examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of BST204 on myotube formation and myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). BST204 promotes myogenic differentiation and multinucleated myotube formation through Akt activation. BST204 prevents myotube atrophy induced by TNF-α through the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling and down-regulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1, and Atrogin-1. Furthermore, BST204 treatment in atrophic myotubes suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates mitochondrial transcription factors such as NRF1 and Tfam, through enhancing the activity and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α). Collectively, our findings indicate that BST204 improves myotube formation and PGC1α-mediated mitochondrial function, suggesting that BST204 is a potential therapeutic or neutraceutical remedy to intervene muscle weakness and atrophy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Atrofia/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fator 1 Nuclear Respiratório/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 398-404, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237324

RESUMO

Ginseng has been used to treat Qi-deficiency syndrome up to now, while the therapeutic mechanism is still unclear. In order to explore the mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of Qi-deficiency constitution, the untargeted metabonomics with blood was studied based on rapid resolution high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(RRLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the results, 13 potential biomarkers were found and identified, which mainly involved in the body's antioxidant and immune functions and energy, glycerol, fatty acid, sugar metabolism and bile acid metabolism. The results of blood biochemical analysis also indicated that ginseng could regulate the body's energy metabolism, immune functions and antioxidant capacity in spleen-Qi deficiency constitution. This study revealed the mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of spleen-Qi deficiency using the blood metabonomics, which could provide technological support and scientific basis for further research on ginseng treatment of Qi-deficiency.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Metabolômica , Panax/química , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qi , Baço
11.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224881

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis is closely connected with the outbreak of psychiatric disorders with colitis. Bifidobacteria-fermented red ginseng (fRG) increases the absorption of ginsenoside Rd and protopanxatriol into the blood in volunteers and mice. fRG and Rd alleviates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Therefore, to understand the gut microbiota-mediated mechanism of fRG against anxiety/depression, we examined the effects of red ginseng (RG), fRG, ginsenoside Rd, and protopanaxatriol on the occurrence of anxiety/depression, colitis, and gut dysbiosis in mice. Mice with anxiety/depression were prepared by being exposed to two stressors, immobilization stress (IS) or Escherichia coli (EC). Treatment with RG and fRG significantly mitigated the stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors in elevated plus maze, light-dark transition, forced swimming (FST), and tail suspension tasks (TST) and reduced corticosterone levels in the blood. Their treatments also suppressed the stress-induced NF-κB activation and NF-κB+/Iba1+ cell population in the hippocampus, while the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and BDNF+/NeuN+ cell population were increased. Furthermore, treatment with RG or fRG suppressed the stress-induced colitis: they suppressed myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation, and NF-κB+/CD11c+ cell population in the colon. In particular, fRG suppressed the EC-induced depression-like behaviors in FST and TST and colitis more strongly than RG. fRG treatment also significantly alleviated the EC-induced NF-κB+/Iba1+ cell population and EC-suppressed BDNF+/NeuN+ cell population in the hippocampus more strongly than RG. RG and fRG alleviated EC-induced gut dysbiosis: they increased Bacteroidetes population and decreased Proteobacteria population. Rd and protopanaxatriol also alleviated EC-induced anxiety/depression and colitis. In conclusion, fRG and its constituents Rd and protopanaxatriol mitigated anxiety/depression and colitis by regulating NF-κB-mediated BDNF expression and gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Depressão , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Panax/química , Panax/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 51-62, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common symptom and has a negative impact on prognosis in cancer patients. CRF could be improved by Korean red ginseng (KRG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this randomised and double-blinded trial, colorectal cancer patients who received mFOLFOX-6 were randomly assigned to either KRG 2000 mg/day (n = 219) or placebo (n = 219) for 16 weeks. CRF was evaluated using the mean area under the curve (AUC) change from baseline of brief fatigue inventory (BFI) as the primary endpoint. Fatigue-related quality of life, stress, and adverse events were evaluated as secondary endpoints. RESULTS: In the full analysis group, KRG up to 16 weeks improved CRF by the mean AUC change from baseline of BFI compared to placebo, particularly in "Mood" and "Walking ability" (P = 0.038, P = 0.023, respectively). In the per-protocol group, KRG led to improved CRF in the global BFI score compared with the placebo (P = 0.019). Specifically, there were improvements in "Fatigue right now," "Mood," "Relations with others," "Walking ability," and "Enjoyment of life" at 16 weeks (P = 0.045, P = 0.006, P = 0.028, P = 0.003, P = 0.036, respectively). In subgroups of female patients, ≥60 years old, with high compliance (≥80%) or more baseline fatigue, the beneficial effects of KRG were more enhanced than that of placebo. Although neutropenia was more frequent in KRG than placebo, the incidence of all adverse events was similar. CONCLUSIONS: KRG could be safely combined with mFOLFOX-6 chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients, and reduced CRF compared with placebo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
13.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 2714257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149156

RESUMO

Pseudorabies is an important infectious disease of swine, and immunization using attenuated pseudorabies virus (aPrV) vaccine is a routine practice to control this disease in swine herds. This study was to evaluate a saline solution containing ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) and sodium selenite (Se) as a vaccine adjuvant for its enhancement of immune response to aPrV vaccine. The results showed that aPrV vaccine diluted with saline containing GSLS-Se (aP-GSe) induced significantly higher immune responses than that of the vaccine diluted with saline alone (aP-S). The aP-GSe promoted higher production of gB-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a, neutralizing antibody titers, secretion of Th1-type (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12), and Th2-type (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) cytokines, and upregulated the T-bet/GATA-3 mRNA expression when compared to aP-S. In addition, cytolytic activity of NK cells, lymphocyte proliferation, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio was also significantly increased by aP-GSe. More importantly, aP-GSe conferred a much higher resistance of mice to a field virulent pseudorabies virus (fPrV) challenge. As the present study was conducted in mice, further study is required to evaluate the aP-GSe to improve the vaccination against PrV in swine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Panax/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Relação CD4-CD8 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Vacinas contra Pseudorraiva/imunologia , Saponinas/química , Selênio/química , Soluções , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Suínos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(4): 783-792, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in humans, it has been hypothesized that enhancing adaptive thermogenesis may improve obesity. Although many studies have found that ginseng can improve obesity, the beneficial effects of ginsenoside Rd on obesity and its mechanisms have not been studied. METHODS: High-fat diet-induced obese mice were used as the study subjects, with intraperitoneal injection of Rd daily at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Body weight and energy metabolism were observed. The effects of Rd on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and cold tolerance were tested. The expression of genes associated with thermogenesis was analyzed. Finally, the mechanisms by which Rd regulates adaptive thermogenesis were studied. RESULTS: Rd ameliorated obesity and insulin resistance. Rd increased cold tolerance through enhancing thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue and increased the browning of white adipose tissue induced by cold stress. Rd increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content. Decreasing intracellular cAMP levels by an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase SQ22536 abolished the promoting effects of Rd on the expression of thermogenic genes. CONCLUSIONS: Rd improves obesity and insulin resistance. The upregulation of thermogenesis by Rd is dependent on the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4967, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188912

RESUMO

Aging is associated with increased prevalence of skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders, such as sarcopenia and cardiac infarction. In this study, we constructed a compendium of purified ginsenoside compounds from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which is a traditional Korean medicinal plant used to treat for muscle weakness. Skeletal muscle progenitor cell-based screening identified three compounds that enhance cell viability, of which 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 showed the most robust response. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 increased viability in myoblasts and cardiomyocytes, but not fibroblasts or disease-related cells. The cellular mechanism was identified as downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) via upregulation of Akt1/PKB phosphorylation at serine 473, with the orientation of the 20 carbon epimer being crucially important for biological activity. In zebrafish and mammalian models, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 enhanced muscle cell proliferation and accelerated recovery from degeneration. Thus, we have identified 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 as a p27Kip1 inhibitor that may be developed as a natural therapeutic for muscle degeneration.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/citologia , Panax/química , Saponinas/química , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração , Peixe-Zebra
16.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 215-223, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191576

RESUMO

Anti-obesity activities of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGS) and/or Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract (GG) were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice. RGS and GG extracts were mixed at a mass ratio of 3:1 (SG31), 1:1 (SG11), or 1:3 (SG13). SG31 showed the highest anti-obesity activity among the three different mass ratios of RGS and GG extracts. SG31 showed higher inhibition efficiency on triglyceride (TG) accumulation than either single extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and without any cytotoxicity. It also decreases the expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes such as C/EBPα and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c). In the obese induced mouse model, SG31 significantly reduced white adipose tissue weight and body weight, attenuated dyslipidemia, and decreased serum TG levels. In some indices, the activity of SG31 was even higher compared with Garcinia Cambogia water extract, a positive control. The possible mechanism by which SG31 causes the above results was by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in adipose tissue to regulate energy metabolism balance, inhibit TG formation, and promote ß-oxidation of fatty acids. Therefore, SG31 may have efficacy as an anti-obesity functional food or raw material if the results can be confirmed in human studies.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Glycyrrhiza/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/análise , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204525

RESUMO

Ginseng roots, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, obtained from cultivated ginseng grown in the Kaesong province (North Korea) and Primorye (Russia) were extracted using the supercritical CO2 extraction method. The extracts were subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry identification. The results showed the spectral peaks of typical ginsenosides with some other minor groups, and major differences were observed between the spectra of the two ginseng samples. The use of a pressure of 400 bar and higher allowed an increase in the yield of ginsenosides in comparison with similar previous studies.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Ginsenosídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Federação Russa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107873, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165146

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rh2 and cucurbitacin-B (CuB) are secondary metabolites of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Cucurbitaceae plants respectively. We assessed the anticryptosporidial activity of these two functional compounds in a cell culture model of cryptosporidiosis. The highest concentration of each compound that was not toxic to the host cells was used to assess the activity against C. parvum during infection/invasion and growth in HCT-8 cell monolayers. Monolayers were infected with pre-excysted C. parvum oocysts. Infected monolayers were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of each test compound. A growth resumption assay was performed by incubating infected monolayers in the presence of compounds for 24 h followed by a second 24-h incubation in the absence of compound. To screen for invasion inhibiting activity, freshly excysted C. parvum sporozoites were pre-treated with different concentrations of compounds prior to adding them to the cell monolayers. Paromomycin, a known inhibitor of C. parvum, and DMSO were used as positive and negative control, respectively. The level of infection was initially assessed using an immunofluorescent assay and quantified by real-time PCR. Both compounds were found to strongly inhibit C. parvum intracellular development in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 values of 25 µM for a 24 h development period and 5.52 µM after 48 h development were measured for Rh2, whereas for CuB an IC50 value of 0.169 µg/ml and 0.118 µg/ml were obtained for the same incubation periods. CuB also effectively inhibited resumption of growth, an activity that was not observed with Rh2. CuB was more effective at inhibiting excystation and/or host cell invasion, indicating that this compound also targets extracellular stages of the parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitacinas/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cryptosporidium parvum/citologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/química , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Panax/química , Paromomicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solventes
19.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(13): e8788, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196768

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG), which contains polysaccharides and ginsenosides as the major bioactive components, has been used to promote health and treat diseases for thousands of years in China. Total ginsenosides were extracted from a decoction of Panax ginseng (GD), which included both ginsenosides and polysaccharides, and dissolved in water to obtain a total ginsenosides aqueous solution (TGAS). To study their absorption and metabolism, the pharmacokinetics (PK) and metabolites of ginsenosides in vivo were investigated after the administration of GD and TGAS. METHODS: Rat and mice plasma samples were collected after the administration of GD and TGAS. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used with the UNIFI platform to identify metabolites in the plasma sample. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental method in the Drug and Statistics software package. RESULTS: Thirty ginsenoside metabolites were identified in mice plasma, of which only seven were found in the rat plasma after the administration of GD. The PK of ginsenosides Rb1 , Rc, and Rd were also determined after the oral administration of GD and TGAS and showed significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in the biotransformation pathways after the oral administration of GD and TGAS, indicating that there was no influence of polysaccharides on the biotransformation of ginsenosides in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters were different after the administration of GD and TGAS, possibly because of the polysaccharides in GD. This study should be of significance in exploring the basis of PG bioactivities and lays the foundation for the further development of new drugs using PG.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax/química , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/administração & dosagem , Ginsenosídeos/sangue , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(5): 428-435, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188797

RESUMO

Ginseng (G) and Prepared Rehmannia Root (PRR) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for blood supplementation. This study aimed to study G and PRR with different compatibility ratios changes in chemical composition and inhibition of cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. HPLC was used to determine the chemical constituents of 13 ginsenosides, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and verbascoside in different proportions of G-PRR. Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide (CTX) to induce bone marrow suppression. The effects of different proportions of G-PRR on peripheral blood, bone marrow nucleated cells, thymus and spleen index of myelosuppressed mice were analyzed. The results showed that the compatibility of G and PRR can promote the dissolution of ginsenosides, and the content of conventional ginsenosides decreased, and the content of rare ginsenosides increased. Different proportions of G-PRR increased the number of peripheral blood and bone marrow nucleated cells in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression mice (p < 0.01), increased thymus index (p < 0.01), decreased spleen index (p < 0.01). Different proportions of G-PRR can improve the myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in mice, and the combined effect of G-PRR is better than the single decoction of G and PRR. Among them, G-PRR 2 : 3 and G-PRR 1 : 2 were better than the other groups. These results indicate that different proportion of G-PRR can improve bone marrow suppression, and the combined decoction of G-PRR is better than the separate Decoction in improving bone marrow suppression. This improvement may be related to the changes of the substance basis and active ingredients of G-PRR.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Rehmannia/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Furaldeído/química , Furaldeído/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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