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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMO

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Saúde Pública
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Retais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354787

RESUMO

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ansiedade , Estudantes de Odontologia , Depressão , Pandemias , COVID-19
5.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48872

RESUMO

Vitrine do Conhecimento COVID-19 na cidade de São Paulo é um recurso da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) desenvolvido pela Secretaria Municipal da Saúde (SMS-SP), idealizada para apoiar gestores em saúde, formuladores de políticas, pesquisadores, estudantes e a sociedade civil que tenham interesse na temática.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Governo Local
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 507, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify differences and similarities among adolescents and parents in various psychosocial factors influencing meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) vaccination acceptance. Besides, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic was assessed as well as resulting organizational adjustments. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adolescents that attended the appointment for the MenACWY vaccination in South Limburg between May and June 2020, and their parents. Independent t-tests and χ2 test were performed to explore differences in psychosocial and organisational factors between adolescents and parents. RESULTS: In total, 592 adolescents (20%) and 1197 parents (38%) filled out the questionnaire. Adolescents scored lower on anticipated negative affect towards MenACWY vaccination refusal [t (985.688) = - 9.32; ρ < 0.001], moral norm towards MenACWY vaccination acceptance [t (942.079) = - 10.38; ρ < 0.001] and knowledge about the MenACWY vaccination and meningococcal disease [t (1059.710) = - 11.24; ρ < 0.001]. Both adolescents and parents reported a social norm favouring accepting childhood vaccinations, but adolescent scored higher [t (1122.846) = 23.10; ρ < 0.001]. The Covid-19 pandemic did barely influence the decision to accept the MenACWY vaccination. Only 6% of the participants indicated that Covid-19 influenced their decision. In addition, the individual vaccination appointment was rated very positive. Most adolescents (71.5%) and parents (80.6%) prefer future vaccinations to be offered individually rather than having mass vaccinations sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an indication of which psychosocial and organisational factors should be addressed in future MenACWY vaccination campaigns. Individual vaccination appointments for adolescents should be considered, taking the costs and logistical barriers into account.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neisseria meningitidis , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Pandemias , Pais , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
7.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 135, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing and lockdowns were implemented during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Primary care physicians needed to adapt quickly to deliver remote care/telemedicine. METHODS: A cross-sectional, 47-item online Google Survey was distributed through the Israel Association of Family Physicians (IAFP) mailing list between March 31-May 5, 2020. The questionnaire included demographics, physician characteristics, and information on usage and perceived telemedicine quality. Sampling weights by sex and age groups were applied. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine primary care physicians (10.6% of registered IAFP members; 63.5% women; mean age 53.4 ± 10.4 years and median professional experience 21.3 years) replied to the survey. The majority (59.7%) of the participants performed a mixture of in-person along with phone counseling. About 40% had no former telemedicine experience. The majority indicated that telephone and video formats were inferior to in-person consultation (68%, 57.1% online and phone, respectively). The overall counseling quality grade (on a 1-10 scale,)median (IQR)) was 6.2 (3) for telephone and 7(2) for video. While 66.9% reported experiencing no challenges, 10% had technical problems, 10% interpersonal problems, 5.6% scheduling difficulties, and 7.5% other difficulties. Majority of 56.6% physicians indicated they prescribed more antibiotics,16.4% sent more blood tests, 24.5% referred more to experts, and 49.7% referred more to imaging in comparison to usual counseling. Higher phone quality score was significantly associated with physicians who indicated not prescribing more antibiotics during the pandemic (OR = 0.30, 95%CI 0.134-0.688, p = 0.004). Higher online quality score was associated with physicians who indicated not sending more blood tests during the pandemic (OR = 0.06 95%CI 0.008-0.378, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest telehealth holds considerable promise for counseling in the primary care setting. However, interpersonal challenges raised by physicians should be understood in-depth to develop tailored training and further examine it in randomized trials while integrating patient-reported outcomes. Finally, further research on utility, cost, and cost-efficiency during remote counseling with follow-ups, medical prescribing, and additional referrals is needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Antibacterianos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Médicos de Família , Atenção Primária à Saúde
8.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 91, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the experiences of End of Life (EoL) care in UK care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: UK care home staff and family carers of residents in care home took part in remote, semi-structured interviews from October to November 2020, with 20 participants followed-up in March 2021. Interviews were conducted via telephone or online platforms and qualitatively analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Forty-two participants (26 family carers and 16 care home staff) were included in a wider qualitative study exploring the impact on dementia care homes during the pandemic. Of these, 11 family carers and 9 care home staff participated in a follow-up interview. Following descriptive thematic analysis, three central themes concerning EoL care during the pandemic specifically, were conceptualised and redefined through research team discussions: 1) Wasting or losing time; 2) Maintaining control, plans and routine; and 3) Coping with loss and lack of support. Lack of suitable, meaningful visits with people with dementia in care homes resulted in negative feelings of guilt and abandonment with both family carers and care home staff. Where families experienced positive EoL visits, these appeared to breach public health restrictions at that time. CONCLUSION: It is recommended that care homes receive clear guidance from the government offering equitable contact with relatives at EoL to all family members, to support their grieving and avoid subsequent negative impacts to emotional wellbeing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Assistência Terminal , Demência/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Reino Unido
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1077, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Governments have attempted to combat the COVID-19 pandemic by issuing guidelines for disease prevention behavior (e.g., wearing masks, social distancing, etc.) and by enforcing these guidelines. However, while some citizens have complied with these guidelines, others have ignored them or have even participated in large-scale protests. This research aims both to understand the causes of such variation in citizens' adherence to government guidelines on disease prevention behavior and to extend the scientific literature on disease prevention to account for the collective resilience of a society to diseases. Thus, this research draws on the health belief model and collective resilience theory to develop hypotheses about the determinants of a citizen's disease prevention behavior. These hypotheses deal with how citizens' vulnerability, attitudes toward disease prevention, and social orientation are associated with COVID-19 prevention behaviors. METHODS: From March 24 to April 4, 2020, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Bolivia. It included questions on demographic characteristics, chronic health problems, emotional burden, attitudes towards preventive behaviors, trust in public institutions, and culture. Among 5265 participants who clicked on the survey, 1857 at least partially filled it out. After removing data with missing responses to any variable, the final sample consists of 1231 respondents. The collected data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. RESULTS: Regarding a citizen's vulnerability, chronic health problems have a U-shaped association with disease prevention behavior. Moreover, age, female gender, and worries have positive associations with disease prevention behavior, whereas depression showed a negative association. Regarding attitudes toward disease prevention, trust in public institutions, and attitudes toward social distancing, a government-imposed lockdown and the enforcement of this lockdown showed positive associations with disease prevention behavior. Regarding social orientation, individualism and collectivism both have positive relationships with disease prevention behavior. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 pandemic, a citizen's low vulnerability, weak social orientation, and beliefs about low benefits of disease prevention behavior are associated with poor compliance with guidelines on disease prevention behavior. More research on these associations would help generalize these findings to other populations and other public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bolívia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1084, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A national policy for England, published in 2017, entitled 'Transforming Children and Young People's Mental Health Provision' aimed to address the increasing prevalence mental health problems in children and tackle inequalities. In the context of this policy's implementation as ongoing and the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, the need for appropriate, timely and ongoing national government commitment is vital. METHODS: A narrative review using a problem representation evaluation [1], we critiqued the policy and related consultation documents using a social determinants of health perspective. We also reviewed wider policy discourses through engaging with stakeholder responses, providing an innovative methodological contribution to scholarship on public health policy and health inequalities. RESULTS: We found absences and oversights in relation to inequalities (most notably the lack of acknowledgement that mental health can cause inequalities), access, workforce capacity, and the impacts of cuts and austerity on service provision. We suggest these inadequacies may have been avoided if stakeholder responses to the consultation process had been more meaningfully addressed. We illustrate how 'problems' are discursively created through the process of policy development, justified using specific types of evidence, and that this process is politically motivated. Local policy makers have a critical role in translating and adapting national policy for their communities but are constrained by absences and oversights in relation to health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: This narrative review illustrates how policy discourse frames and produces 'problems', and how the evidence used is selected and justified politically. This review contributes to the existing transdisciplinary field of knowledge about how using methods from political and social science disciplines can reveal new insights when critiquing and influencing policy approaches to health inequalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Encaminhamento e Consulta
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1081, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic along the U.S.-Mexico border region and evaluate the relationship of COVID-19 related mortality, socioeconomic status, and vaccination. METHODS: We used indirect standardization to age-adjust mortality rates and calculate standardized mortality ratios [SMR] in both countries. To examine the impact of socioeconomic factors, we calculated the Human Development Index (HDI) by county/municipality. We performed linear regression to understand the relationship between mortality, vaccination, and HDI. We used choropleth maps to visualize the trends seen in the region. RESULTS: Between January 22nd, 2020 and December 1st, 2021, surges of cases and deaths were similar in dyad cities along the U.S.-Mexico border visualizing the interconnectedness of the region. Mortality was higher in U.S. counties along the border compared to the national average (SMR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15-1.19). In Mexico, border counties had a slightly lower mortality to the national average (SMR 0.94, 95% CI 0.93-0.95). In U.S. border states, SMR was shown to negatively correlate with human development index (HDI), a socioeconomic proxy, resulting in a higher SMR in the border region compared to the rest of the counties. Conversely in Mexican border states, there was no association between SMR and HDI. Related to vaccination, U.S. counties along the border were vaccinated at a greater percentage than non-border counties and vaccination was negatively correlated with HDI. In Mexico, states along the border had a higher ratio of vaccinations per person than non-border states. CONCLUSIONS: The U.S.-Mexico border is a divide of incredible importance not only to immigration but as a region with unique social, economic, environmental, and epidemiological factors that impact disease transmission. We investigated how the COVID-19 pandemic followed trends of previously studied diseases in the corridor such as tuberculosis, HIV, and influenza H1N1. These data state how targeted intervention along the U.S.-Mexico border region is a necessity when confronting COVID-19 and have implications for future control of infectious diseases in the region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Tuberculose , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1072, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food security, malnutrition, and poverty are some of the challenges that most of the sub-Saharan African countries have been historically facing. With the coming of Covid-19 pandemic, the sustainability of the Village Savings and Loans Association which are formed to counter fight these challenges is questioned. AIM: This study aimed to assess factors associated with the Sustainability of VSLAs amidst Covid-19 and its impacts on households' income levels. METHODS: An online cross-sectional design was conducted from November to January 2021, targeting VSLAs members in Mzuzu. A snowball and respondent-driven sampling technique were used to recruit the needful participants using a referral approach. IBM SPSS version 23 was used to perform descriptive statistics, Chi-Square, and binary logistic regression with unstandardized Beta (ß), Odds Ratios (OR), and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) being taken into account with P-value set at 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. RESULTS: Our study finds that household income declined by 54% for those earnings belonged to ˂ MK5,000, as compared to 38% and 15% for medium (MK5,000 ≥ MK10,000) and higher (> MK10,000) income bands respectively. Our study shows that gender (ß = 0.437, p = 0.094), age-group (ß = 1.317, p = 0.000), education (ß = 2.181, p = 0.047), share contributions (ß = 1.035, p = 0.008), meetings (ß = 0.572, p = 0.021), occupation (ß = -0.453, p = 0.106), and frequency of meeting (ß = -0.507, p = 0.049) were positively and negatively statistically significant predictors. CONCLUSION: According to the findings of this study, households with lower income earners, which is one of the indicators of poverty, are more affected by the pandemic than their counterparts. We urge that the Malawi governments should maintain and, if they haven't already, implement programs that support low-income households, such as transfer payments, which have been shown to uplift people out of income poverty in many developing countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Malaui/epidemiologia , Pandemias
13.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 140, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whilst children and young people have not often been at forefront of the immediate Covid-19 pandemic health response there has been concern about the indirect consequences of Covid-19 on children's physical and mental health and what the effect of the pandemic will be throughout their lifetimes. Early adolescence is a time of transition and reorientation. This study considers the impact of the first UK Covid-19 lockdown on early adolescents. METHODS: The study topic was identified through a consultation process which aimed to provide appropriate evidence to local decision makers in Bradford, UK and plan for future interventions. A group of children and their parents from the longitudinal Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort study were randomly selected and then purposively sampled by ethnicity, age, sex and deprivation. The BiB cohort is made up of 13,776 children and their families and were recruited at Bradford Royal Infirmary between 2007 and 2011. 41 interviews (with 20 families: 20 parents and 21 children) were carried out between August and September 2020. Interview data was analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The transitional age of the children interviewed had an important influence on their experience Covid-19 and the first UK lockdown. Their age combined with lockdown and school closures meant that they missed out on key learning and social opportunities at a crucial time in their lives. Covid-19 and lockdown also disrupted their daily mental wellbeing and led to increased anxiety, lethargy and low moods, during a period of personal change and social transition. CONCLUSION: For children at the start of their adolescence undergoing change and formation, the experiences and feelings Covid-19 has set in motion will likely have an impact on their mental and cognitive functioning as they develop further. It is important to acknowledge these early adolescent experiences and continue to monitor and provide targeted support to this group of young people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 718, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been impacting the need, utilization, and delivery of mental health services with greater challenges being faced by clients and providers. With many clients facing reduced access to services and social isolation, a focus on suicide risk assessment and prevention is critical. Concern is particularly increased for clients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders given data show suicide rates are disproportionately high for those with psychosis in comparison to the general population. Provider perspectives of challenges in service delivery are needed to inform efforts to improve access, feasibility, and quality of mental health care throughout the evolving pandemic. This study explored mental health provider perspectives of client challenges in service utilization and provider challenges in service delivery, including remote engagement, suicide risk assessment, and treatment of psychosis. METHODS: Data were collected from social work mental health providers (n = 12) in United States community mental health setting. Providers consented to participate and responded to questions about service delivery experiences in late 2020 and in relation to COVID-19. Demographic and practice-related provider data were explored descriptively using SPSS and qualitative data using open coding and grounded theory methods in Dedoose. RESULTS: Among the 9 providers who engaged in remote service delivery, 7 (77.8%) experienced challenges in remote engagement with clients and 8 (88.9%) experienced challenges in treatment of psychosis. Among the 7 providers who engaged in remote suicide assessment, 4(57%) experienced challenges. Qualitative themes emerged including logistic (e.g., technology access and use), engagement (e.g., virtual rapport-building and limited remote services), and clinical (e.g., difficulty assessing suicide risk, internal stimuli, abnormal involuntary movement, and affect) challenges in service delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Provider perspectives are essential to inform efforts to build resources and problem-solve challenges and barriers that both providers and clients face throughout various shifts in mental health service delivery. Findings emphasize the need to troubleshoot client access to technology, bolster support for providers to prevent burnout, and greater provider training to improve skills in remote engagement, assessment, and treatment, particularly in relation to psychosis and suicide prevention. Study implications are not only critical for the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, but also in preparation for ongoing shifts in service delivery as technology evolves.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Psicóticos , Suicídio , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Medição de Risco , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
15.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 24, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused four waves of infection in Israel until October 2021. Israel was the first country to offer vaccinations to all the adult population followed by boosters. This study addresses how mortality rates reflect the effects of the pandemic. METHODS: Total mortality rates and rates of mortality without COVID-19 deaths (non-COVID-19 mortality) between March 2020 and October 2021 were compared with the average pre-COVID-19 rates in 2017-2019 by month, population group and by age group. In addition, a cohort vaccinated at least once by 31 March 2021 was followed up for mortality in the following seven months compared to the corresponding months in 2017-2019. RESULTS: A small number of excess deaths was found in the first wave and a greater excess in the following waves. The monthly mortality rate ratio was highest in October 2020, 23% higher than the average in 2017-2019, followed by August 2021 (22%), September 2021 (20%) and September 2020 (19%). Excess mortality in the Arab population was greater than for Jews and Others, and they had 65% and 43% higher mortality in September and October, 2020, 20-44% higher mortality between December 2020 and April 2021 and 33%, 45% and 22% higher mortality in August, September and October 2021, respectively. In most months of the pandemic, the non-COVID-19 mortality rates were not significantly different from those in 2017-2019. However, between November 2020 and March 2021, they were significantly lower for the total population and Jews and Others. They were significantly higher for the total population only in August 2021, and particularly for the Arab population. Non-COVID-19 mortality was also lower for most sex/age groups over the total study period. In a cohort of 5.07 million Israeli citizens vaccinated at least once by 31 March, 2021, age adjusted and age specific mortality rates for the following 7 months were lower than the average rates in 2017-2019 for these months, CONCLUSION: Israel has seen significant excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in the Arab sector. Following lockdowns and administration of vaccinations excess mortality was reduced, and no excess mortality was seen amongst the vaccinated in the months after the vaccination campaign. These findings highlight the importance of public health measures such as mandating mask wearing and population vaccinations to control infection and reduce mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Pandemias
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1087, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid introduction of teleworking due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to concerns about increases in cyberbullying (CB) worldwide. However, little is known about workplace CB in non-Western countries. The first objective was to clarify the prevalence and characteristics regarding workplace CB victimization in Japan. The second objective was to demonstrate the psychological outcomes of CB victimization in combination with traditional bullying (TB). METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey targeting regular employees in Japan (N = 1200) in January 2021. We investigated CB victimization using the Inventory of Cyberbullying Acts at Work and TB victimization by using the Short Negative Act Questionnaire. Possible explanatory factors for TB/CB victimization were sociodemographic variables, personality trait, chronic occupational stress, organizational climate, and gratitude at work. We also measured psychological distress, insomnia, and loneliness to assess adverse effects of workplace bullying. Two-step cluster analysis was used in determining the patterns combined with TB and CB victimization. Hierarchical binomial logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: In total, 8.0% of employees reported experiencing CB on a weekly basis. CB victimization was associated with younger age, managerial position, higher qualitative workload, and active information dissemination via the Internet, and frequency of teleworking. Three clusters based on TB and CB victimization patterns were identified: those who belong to the first cluster suffered neither from TB and CB (81.0%), the second cluster suffered only from TB (14.3%), and the third cluster suffered from both TB and CB (4.8%). The third cluster exhibited higher odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for psychological distress (OR = 12.63, 95% CI = 4.20-38.03), insomnia (OR = 6.26, 95% CI = 2.80-14.01), and loneliness (OR = 3.24, 95% CI = 1.74-6.04) compared to the first cluster. CONCLUSIONS: These findings firstly clarify the prevalence and correlated factors of CB victimization among employees in Japan. Further, we showed that psychological wellbeing can be impaired by the coexistence of TB and CB. Our research could be the first step to develop the effective countermeasures against workplace CB.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cyberbullying , Estresse Ocupacional , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 413, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic UK medical schools facilitated the early graduation of their final-year medical students to 'Foundation interim Year 1 (FiY1) doctors' through amendments made to curricula and final assessment. Such changes gave opportunity for evaluation. This study therefore aimed to explore 1) graduate perspective on the implementation of FiY1 and 2) how changes to course structures have affected self-reported preparedness for work. METHODS: Questionnaire surveys using Likert scale and free-text responses (n = 45), and semi-structured interviews (n = 7) were conducted with FiY1s from two UK medical schools contrasting in the amendments made to course structures. Data were analysed using quantitative methods and thematic analysis; 44% (n = 20) of respondents believed that governing health bodies had not communicated sufficiently prior to starting work. RESULTS: Graduates who had sat modified practical and written examinations reported 'legitimacy' and feeling more prepared compared to having not sat examinations (practical 100%, n = 17; written 88.3%, n = 15). Graduates from both schools agreed that carrying out assistantships as originally scheduled would have made them feel more prepared (91.1%, n = 41). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of FiY1 was largely well received by graduates yet assistantship programmes may fulfil a similar role in normal times. Medical schools and governing bodies must ensure effective communication channels exist with students in order to better prepare them for their first posts, especially in times of crisis. Additionally, final examinations contribute to feelings of preparedness for work and instil a sense of legitimacy, a finding which is relevant to working within the current programmatic assessment structure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Pandemias , Faculdades de Medicina
18.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 141, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642046

RESUMO

Mental health conditions related to trauma among American children are a concern, particularly because of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Children, as students, carry the trauma they encounter with them into the classroom. Students impacted by trauma learn differently due to effects on the brain that relate to several impairments, causing them to perform poorly in school. However, teachers may not always understand this issue. This case study shows how certain dynamics within the EST layers impacted one school during the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers at the school experienced a trauma-informed online PD and SEL program intended to improve student outcomes, teacher perceptions, and teacher-student relationships. The six participants included teachers in a K-8 low-income, minority population charter school. The assessment tools used were the Teacher-Student Relationship Scale, Teacher Perception Scale, and Student Outcomes Survey. The teachers' outlook on SEL improved, particularly online. This improvement helped the teachers implement community circles and SEL infused with mindfulness in their online classrooms, which may have helped them maintain their relationships with the students and may have helped the students with academic and stress outcomes. During unprecedented times, the maintenance, rather than the deterioration, of student outcomes and teacher-student relationships is an accomplishment and an area that necessitates further research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Ecossistema , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia
19.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 94, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally COVID-19 has had a profound impact on the provision of healthcare, including palliative care. However, there is little evidence about the impact of COVID-19 on delivery of out-of-hours specialist palliative care services in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the delivery of out-of-hours community-based palliative care services. METHODS: A national online census survey of managers of adult hospices in the United Kingdom was undertaken. Survey were emailed to managers of adult hospices (n = 150) who provided out-of-hours community palliative care services. Fifteen questions related specifically to the impact of COVID-19. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analysed using descriptive content analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-one responses to the survey were returned (54% response rate); 59 were complete of which 47 contained COVID-19 data. Findings indicated that COVID-19 impacted on out-of-hours community-based palliative care. To meet increased patient need, hospices reconfigured services; redeployed staff; and introduced new policies and procedures to minimize virus transmission. Lack of integration between charitably and state funded palliative care providers was reported. The interconnected issues of the use and availability of Personal Protective Equipment (n = 21) and infection control screening (n = 12) resulted in changes in nursing practices due to fear of contagion for patients, carers and staff. CONCLUSIONS: Survey findings suggest that due to increased demand for community palliative care services, hospices had to rapidly adapt and reconfigure services. Even though this response to the pandemic led to some service improvements, in the main, out-of-hours service reconfiguration resulted in challenges for hospices, including workforce issues, and availability of resources such as Personal Protective Equipment. These challenges were exacerbated by lack of integration with wider healthcare services. More research is required to fully understand the implications of such changes on the quality of care provided.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico , COVID-19 , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 58, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are among those regions most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health systems in the region. In this context of severe healthcare resource constraints, there is a need for systematic priority-setting to support decision-making which ensures the best use of resources while considering the needs of the most vulnerable groups. The aim of this paper was to provide a critical description and analysis of how health systems considered priority-setting in the COVID-19 response and preparedness plans of a sample of 14 LAC countries; and to identify the associated research gaps. METHODS: A documentary analysis of COVID-19 preparedness and response plans was performed in a sample of 14 countries in the LAC region. We assessed the degree to which the documented priority-setting processes adhered to established quality indicators of effective priority-setting included in the Kapiriri and Martin framework. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the degree to which the reports addressed the quality parameters for each individual country, as well as a cross-country comparison to explore whether parameters varied according to independent variables. RESULTS: While all plans were led and supported by the national governments, most included only a limited number of quality indicators for effective priority-setting. There was no systematic pattern between the number of quality indicators and the country's health system and political contexts; however, the countries that had the least number of quality indicators tended to be economically disadvantaged. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the literature by providing the first descriptive analysis of the inclusion of priority-setting during a pandemic, using the case of COVID-19 response and preparedness plans in the LAC region. The analysis found that despite the strong evidence of political will and stakeholder participation, none of the plans presented a clear priority-setting process, or used a formal priority-setting framework, to define interventions, populations, geographical regions, healthcare setting or resources prioritized. There is need for case studies that analyse how priority-setting actually occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic and the degree to which the implementation reflected the plans and the parameters of effective priority-setting, as well as the impact of the prioritization processes on population health, with a focus on the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atenção à Saúde , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , América Latina
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