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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48249

RESUMO

Nove grupos prioritários estão incluídos na terceira etapa da campanha de vacinação contra a gripe. Com início nesta quarta-feira (9), essa fase vai incluir pessoas com comorbidades, com deficiência permanente, caminhoneiros, portuários, profissionais das forças de segurança e salvamento, das forças armadas, funcionários do sistema de privação de liberdade e população privada de liberdade.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Vacinação , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração
2.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48229

RESUMO

Campanha mundial da OPAS sobre o Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco de 31 de maio de 2021 O tabaco mata mais de 8 milhões de pessoas por ano. Estudos científicos publicados este ano mostram que os fumantes têm maior risco de desenvolver doença grave e morte por COVID-19 do que não-fumantes. A pandemia de COVID-19 levou milhões de usuários de tabaco a quererem largar o cigarro. Veja mais informações acessando o site


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3463, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103497

RESUMO

Numerous reports document the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited information on its introduction before the identification of a local case. This may lead to incorrect assumptions when modeling viral origins and transmission. Here, we utilize a sample pooling strategy to screen for previously undetected SARS-CoV-2 in de-identified, respiratory pathogen-negative nasopharyngeal specimens from 3,040 patients across the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. The patients had been previously evaluated for respiratory symptoms or influenza-like illness during the first 10 weeks of 2020. We identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from specimens collected as early as 25 January 2020, and complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from multiple pools of samples collected between late February and early March, documenting an increase prior to the later surge. Our results provide evidence of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 infections a full month before both the first officially documented case and emergence of New York as a COVID-19 epicenter in March 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , New York/epidemiologia , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(11): e2003503, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105286

RESUMO

While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally- and chemically-diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH-drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV-229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Application of these anionic polymers to frequently touched surfaces in medical, educational, and public-transportation facilities, or personal protection equipment, can provide rapid and repetitive protection without detrimental health or environmental complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Polímeros/química , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1106, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health experts agree that widespread use of safe and effective vaccines will rapidly contain the COVID-19 pandemic. The big question is whether these vaccines can easily be accepted by their end-users. Our study aimed at determining sociodemographic factors associated with acceptance of vaccines and clinical trials of COVID-19 in western Uganda. METHOD: A simplified snowball sampling technique was used to select 1067 respondents of 18-70 years in western Uganda using an online questionnaire from July to September 2020. Vaccine acceptability and risk perception were assessed using odds ratio at 95% confidence interval in R software version 3.6.3. RESULTS: There were 1067 participants in the study. The majority were males (73.2%) and age group 31-40 years (32.6%). The acceptance rate for COVID-19 vaccination was (53.6%; 572/1067) with those aged 18-20 years, males, elites at tertiary level of education (degree or diploma), students, Muslims, married, non-salary earners and rural dwellers having better odds and likeliness to accept vaccination. Only 44.6% (476/1067) showed interest in clinical trials among which; males, primary school leavers, students, Christians, un-married, respondents who didn't earn any salary and rural dwellers had better odds and likelihood to participate in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: There was a low level of vaccine acceptance and clinical trial interest in western Uganda. Minority groups in the study i.e., Muslims, students, primary school leavers, un-married rural dwellers among others showed more interest in vaccination and clinical trials. We anticipated fears in the larger part of this community that health experts need to address through reassurance of the community that vaccines are tested and that they are safe and important if we are to rapidly contain the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda , Vacinação
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645421, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113596

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mental health of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment during the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak in Xi'an, China. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was administered to women undergoing ART treatment during the outbreak period (599 women in February 2020) and the control period (892 women in May 2020) at the Northwest Women's and Children's Hospital, Xi'an, China. Results: Both the ART-treated women surveyed during the outbreak period and those surveyed during the control period had high scores on the fear dimension (0.88, 0.51). The total scores for mental health among the participants during the control period were lower than those during the outbreak period (difference = -0.22; 95% CI = -0.25, -0.18). Lower scores were also seen during the control period, compared to those in the outbreak period, for depression (difference = -0.18; 95% CI = -0.23, -0.13), neurasthenia (difference = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.25), fear (difference = -0.37; 95% CI = -0.43, -0.31), compulsion anxiety (difference = -0.13; 95% CI = -0.16, -0.09), and hypochondriasis (difference = -0.09; 95% CI = -0.12, -0.06). Conclusions: During the COVID-19 global pandemic, the mental health of women undergoing ART treatment in Xi'an, China, was primarily manifested as fear. As the pandemic was brought under control, the mental health of ART-treated women improved. As evidenced by these results, the COVID-19 pandemic influences the mental health of women undergoing ART treatment, and clinicians should be aware of this for similar future situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement. METHODS: Ninety-seven university teachers (51.5% women; most represented age group 60-69 years range, 40.2%) responded to an anonymous online cross-sectional survey between July 15 - September 30, 2020, on the advantages and disadvantages of DE, developed by one online teacher focus group. The emotional conditions were assessed by a short version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The internal consistency reliability survey and the 10-item BDI-II were measured by Cronbach's alpha. A correlation analysis (r-Pearson) was conducted between the overall evaluation of the experience of DE and the variables included in the study. RESULTS: Teachers reported difficulties in technical aspects, and in psychological factors, as the discomfort of "speaking in the void" (64.7%). The absence of "face-to-face" eye contact with the students was complained by 81% of teachers. Significant impairments in sleep patterns and loss of energy were reported, with female teachers having greater difficulty concentrating than their male colleagues. A quarter of teachers showed depressive symptoms of varying severity. The most satisfied teachers were those most stimulated by DE (r = 0.752, p < 0.000), who showed a lower impact of depressive symptoms (r = - 0.289, p = 0.005). The teaching load in hours influenced the perception of disadvantages (r = 0.214, p = 0.035) and contributed to a lower appreciation of the challenges of DE. The more significant the manifestation of depressive symptoms during the lockdown was, the greater the subjective recovery of a good emotional condition once the domestic confinement was over (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), despite maintaining DE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the impact of technical, didactic, and psychological difficulties of DE, reported by our teachers. The appreciation of their new learning promoted by DE seemed related to better emotional well-being of university teachers accepting this "challenge" in their important role in the high-education system, influencing good learning and promoting students' professional success.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades
13.
Virol J ; 18(1): 120, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098986

RESUMO

Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reveals a wide array of disease manifestations and behaviors encompassing multiple organ systems in body and immense systemic inflammation, which have been summarized in this review. Data from a number of scientific reviews, research articles, case series, observational studies, and case reports were retrieved by utilizing online search engines such as Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus from December 2019 to November 2020. The data for prevalence of signs and symptoms, underlying disease mechanisms and comorbidities were analyzed using SPSS version 25. This review will discuss a wide range of COVID-19 clinical presentations recorded till date, and the current understanding of both the underlying general as well as system specific pathophysiologic, and pathogenetic pathways. These include direct viral penetration into host cells through ACE2 receptors, induction of inflammosomes and immune response through viral proteins, and the initiation of system-wide inflammation and cytokine production. Moreover, peripheral organ damage and underlying comorbid diseases which can lead to short term and long term, reversible and irreversible damage to the body have also been studied. We concluded that underlying comorbidities and their pathological effects on the body contributed immensely and determine the resultant disease severity and mortality of the patients. Presently there is no drug approved for treatment of COVID-19, however multiple vaccines are now in use and research for more is underway.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary empirical data indicates a substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being and mental health. Individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities are at a higher risk of experiencing such negative changes in their well-being. The objective of this study was to compare levels of well-being among cis-heterosexual individuals and individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data obtained in a cross-sectional online survey between April 20 to July 20, 2020 (N = 2332), we compared levels of well-being (WHO-5) across subgroups (cis-individuals with minoritized sexual identities, individuals with minoritized gender identities and cis-heterosexual individuals) applying univariate (two-sample t-test) and multivariate analysis (multivariate linear regression). RESULTS: Results indicate overall lower levels of well-being as well as lower levels of well-being in minoritized sexual or gender identities compared to cis-heterosexual individuals. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that living in urban communities as well as being in a relationship were positively associated with higher levels of well-being. Furthermore, a moderation analysis showed that being in a relationship reduces the difference between groups in terms of well-being. CONCLUSION: Access to mental healthcare for individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities as well as access to gender-affirming resources should be strengthened during COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare services with low barriers of access such as telehealth and online peer support groups should be made available, especially for vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Identidade de Gênero , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019) was identified. As there is no any drug to treat this pandemic, the healthcare professionals are disproportionately at higher risk. The mental health outcome is expected to be high. Anxiety is expected to have a significant impact on health professionals, especially among those who work without adequate resources for self-protection. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research was to assess self-reported anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Ethiopian healthcare professionals in the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We have conducted an online cross-sectional study to collect information from healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during the early stage of the outbreak from April 7, 2020 to May 19, 2020. GAD-7 was used for measurement of anxiety. We have used a cut of point of 10 and above to report anxiety symptoms. We have used Google Forms for online data collection and SPSS-22 for analysis. To determine associated factors for anxiety, a binary logistic regression model was used. Variables with p-value < 0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression were exported for further analysis in the multivariable binary logistic regression. Finally, variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthcare professionals filled the online questionnaire; Majority (71.1%) were males. Significant number of respondents (78.9%) reported lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) at the work place. The prevalence of anxiety was 26.8%. Being female (AOR: 1.88; 95% C.I:1.11, 3.19), visiting/treating 30-150 patients per day (AOR: 3.44; 95% C.I:1.51, 7.84), those employed at private healthcare institutions (AOR: 2.40; 95% C.I:1.17, 4.90), who do not believe that COVID-19 is preventable (AOR: 2.04; 95% C.I:1.04, 4.03) and those who reported lack of PPE (AOR: 1.98; 95% C.I:1.04, 3.79) were more likely to be anxious. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety prevalence among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during early stage of COVID-19 pandemic was high. This study shows that lack of preventive equipment, being female, contact with many patients, low self-efficacy and working in private health facilities were risk factors for anxiety. Anxiety prevention among health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic requires a holistic approach including provision of sufficient PPE, improving self-efficacy and addressing problems both at public and private institutions and focusing more on female health professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
20.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 273-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103921

RESUMO

COVID-19 sepsis is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a consequence of pulmonary tropism of the virus and endothelial heterogeneity of the host. ARDS is a phenotype among patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to disseminated vascular microthrombotic disease (VMTD). In response to the viral septicemia, the host activates the complement system which produces terminal complement complex C5b-9 to neutralize pathogen. C5b-9 causes pore formation on the membrane of host endothelial cells (ECs) if CD59 is underexpressed. Also, viral S protein attraction to endothelial ACE2 receptor damages ECs. Both affect ECs and provoke endotheliopathy. Disseminated endotheliopathy activates two molecular pathways: inflammatory and microthrombotic. The former releases inflammatory cytokines from ECs, which lead to inflammation. The latter initiates endothelial exocytosis of unusually large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers and FVIII from Weibel-Palade bodies. If ADAMTS13 is insufficient, ULVWF multimers activate intravascular hemostasis of ULVWF path. In activated ULVWF path, ULVWF multimers anchored to damaged endothelial cells recruit circulating platelets and trigger microthrombogenesis. This process produces "microthrombi strings" composed of platelet-ULVWF complexes, leading to endotheliopathy-associated VMTD (EA-VMTD). In COVID-19, microthrombosis initially affects the lungs per tropism causing ARDS, but EA-VMTD may orchestrate more complex clinical phenotypes, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-like syndrome, hepatic coagulopathy, MODS and combined micro-macrothrombotic syndrome. In this pandemic, ARDS and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) have often coexisted. The analysis based on two hemostatic theories supports ARDS caused by activated ULVWF path is EA-VMTD and PTE caused by activated ULVWF and TF paths is macrothrombosis. The thrombotic disorder of COVID-19 sepsis is consistent with the notion that ARDS is virus-induced disseminated EA-VMTD and PTE is in-hospital vascular injury-related macrothrombosis which is not directly  related to viral pathogenesis. The pathogenesis-based therapeutic approach is discussed for the treatment of EA-VMTD with antimicrothrombotic regimen and the potential need of anticoagulation therapy for coinciding macrothrombosis in comprehensive COVID-19 care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemostasia/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Sepse/metabolismo , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/metabolismo
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