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1.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437221

RESUMO

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Pandemias/história , /patogenicidade , /imunologia , /transmissão , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Medo , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mortalidade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , /isolamento & purificação
2.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 48(1): 9-10, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337435

RESUMO

The winter solstice marks the astronomical moment when the sun is aligned over the Tropic of Capricorn. On December 21, those who live in the Northern Hemisphere had the shortest day and longest night of the year. This was accompanied in 2020 by a rare alignment of Jupiter and Saturn, which appeared as a singular bright point of light in the night sky for the first time since the Middle Ages. Although many cultures celebrate the winter solstice, the solstice is mostly overlooked in the United States, largely because of the multitude of other holidays around this time of the year. However, the shortest day and longest night seems like a metaphor of sorts for a year like no other in the memory of most-a fitting end and a pause. From the stillness, we can reflect in the space between the past and the future, reviewing the year behind us while appreciating the challenges to be faced in 2021.


Assuntos
/história , Enfermagem Oncológica/história , Enfermagem Oncológica/organização & administração , Pandemias/história , /epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333995

RESUMO

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Viroses/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Ebolavirus , Feminino , HIV , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Saúde Pública , Vírus da SARS , Viroses/fisiopatologia
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 03.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332041

RESUMO

The plague epidemics wiped out large parts of the city population from the 15th to the 17th century in the Netherlands. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) is transmitted to humans through infected rats and fleas and has been transferred from China to Europe via the trade routes over land and sea. Meetings were banned, plague victims were isolated at home or in pest houses, and ships quarantined. In the densely populated, poor neighborhoods of the cities, however, isolation and keeping distance were not feasible, which allowed the plague to rapidly spread. The lessons we have learned from the plague epidemics are timeless. Isolation, keeping your distance and quarantine were key principles and now apply again in the approach to the current Covid-19 pandemic. How effective these measures are depends on the social context in which they are applied.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Peste , Quarentena , Animais , /prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Peste/microbiologia , Peste/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/história , Quarentena/métodos , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidade
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27703-27711, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077604

RESUMO

Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague of 1665, we estimate that the epidemic growth rate increased fourfold. Currently available data do not provide enough information to infer the mode of plague transmission in any given epidemic; nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates of epidemic parameters suggest that the observed slow growth rates in the 14th century are inconsistent with direct (pneumonic) transmission. We discuss the potential roles of demographic and ecological factors, such as climate change or human or rat population density, in driving the observed acceleration.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Animais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História Medieval , Humanos , Londres , Peste/transmissão , Densidade Demográfica , Ratos
7.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(2): 180-195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112103

RESUMO

Until the 19th century, the factor causing epidemics was not known, and the escape from a place where it occurred as well as isolation of patients was considered to be the only effective way to avoid illness and death. Quarantine in a sense similar to modern times was used in 1377 in Ragusa, today's Dubrovnik, during the plague epidemic. It was the first administratively imposed procedure in the world's history. It was later used in Venice and other rich port cities in the Mediterranean. On the territory of today's Poland, quarantine measures were used by the so-called Mayor of the Air - LukaszDrewno in 1623 during the plague epidemic in Warsaw. The quarantine left its mark on all areas of human activity. It affected all humanity in a way that is underestimated today. Throughout history, it has been described and presented visually. It is omnipresent in the world literature, art and philosophy. However, the isolation and closure of cities, limiting trade, had an impact on the economic balance, and the dilemma between the choice of inhabitants' health and the quality of existence, i.e. their wealth, has been the subject of discussions since the Middle Ages. Since the end of the 19th century, quarantine has lost its practical meaning. The discovery of bacteria and a huge development of medical and social sciences allowed limiting its range. In the 20th century isolation and quarantine no longer had a global range, because the ability to identify factors causing the epidemic, knowledge about the incubation period, carrier, infectiousness, enabled the rational determination of its duration and territorial range. The modern SARS COV 2 pandemic has resulted in a global quarantine on a scale unprecedented for at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the history of quarantine from its beginning to the present day, including its usefulness as an epidemiological tool.


Assuntos
Pandemias/história , Peste/história , Quarentena/história , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Surtos de Doenças/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Medieval , Humanos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5347, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093464

RESUMO

In 1970, the seventh pandemic of cholera (7 P) reached both Africa and Europe. Between 1970 and 2011, several European countries reported cholera outbreaks of a few to more than 2,000 cases. We report here a whole-genome analysis of 1,324 7 P V. cholerae El Tor (7 PET) isolates, including 172 from autochthonous sporadic or outbreak cholera cases occurring between 1970 and 2011 in Europe, providing insight into the spatial and temporal spread of this pathogen across Europe. In this work, we show that the 7 PET lineage was introduced at least eight times into two main regions: Eastern and Southern Europe. Greater recurrence of the disease was observed in Eastern Europe, where it persisted until 2011. It was introduced into this region from Southern Asia, often circulating regionally in the countries bordering the Black Sea, and in the Middle East before reaching Eastern Africa on several occasions. In Southern Europe, the disease was mostly seen in individual countries during the 1970s and was imported from North and West Africa, except in 1994, when cholera was imported into Albania and Italy from the Black Sea region. These results shed light on the geographic course of cholera during the seventh pandemic and highlight the role of humans in its global dissemination.


Assuntos
Cólera/história , Pandemias/história , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Migração Humana/história , Humanos , Filogenia , Ribotipagem , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Vibrio cholerae/classificação , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMO

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Transportes/história
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMO

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Assuntos
Cólera/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiologia , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Pandemias/história , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade
17.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(4): E689-E708, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755302

RESUMO

Much more serious than the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks, the novel SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread speedily, affecting 213 countries and causing ∼17,300,000 cases and ∼672,000 (∼+1,500/day) deaths globally (as of July 31, 2020). The potentially fatal coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by air droplets and airborne as the main transmission modes, clearly induces a spectrum of respiratory clinical manifestations, but it also affects the immune, gastrointestinal, hematological, nervous, and renal systems. The dramatic scale of disorders and complications arises from the inadequacy of current treatments and absence of a vaccine and specific anti-COVID-19 drugs to suppress viral replication, inflammation, and additional pathogenic conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of actions and the urgent need of prospecting for new or alternative treatment options. The main objective of the present review is to discuss the challenging issue relative to the clinical utility of plants-derived polyphenols in fighting viral infections. Not only is the strong capacity of polyphenols highlighted in magnifying health benefits, but the underlying mechanisms are also stressed. Finally, emphasis is placed on the potential ability of polyphenols to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection via the regulation of its molecular targets of human cellular binding and replication, as well as through the resulting host inflammation, oxidative stress, and signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/história , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/história , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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