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3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 120, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098986

RESUMO

Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reveals a wide array of disease manifestations and behaviors encompassing multiple organ systems in body and immense systemic inflammation, which have been summarized in this review. Data from a number of scientific reviews, research articles, case series, observational studies, and case reports were retrieved by utilizing online search engines such as Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus from December 2019 to November 2020. The data for prevalence of signs and symptoms, underlying disease mechanisms and comorbidities were analyzed using SPSS version 25. This review will discuss a wide range of COVID-19 clinical presentations recorded till date, and the current understanding of both the underlying general as well as system specific pathophysiologic, and pathogenetic pathways. These include direct viral penetration into host cells through ACE2 receptors, induction of inflammosomes and immune response through viral proteins, and the initiation of system-wide inflammation and cytokine production. Moreover, peripheral organ damage and underlying comorbid diseases which can lead to short term and long term, reversible and irreversible damage to the body have also been studied. We concluded that underlying comorbidities and their pathological effects on the body contributed immensely and determine the resultant disease severity and mortality of the patients. Presently there is no drug approved for treatment of COVID-19, however multiple vaccines are now in use and research for more is underway.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076126

RESUMO

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexualidade
7.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066434

RESUMO

Viral pathogens often exploit host cell regulatory and signaling pathways to ensure an optimal environment for growth and survival. Several studies have suggested that 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in the modulation of infection. Traditionally, AMPK is a key energy regulator of cell growth and proliferation, host autophagy, stress responses, metabolic reprogramming, mitochondrial homeostasis, fatty acid ß-oxidation and host immune function. In this review, we highlight the modulation of host AMPK by various viruses under physiological conditions. These intracellular pathogens trigger metabolic changes altering AMPK signaling activity that then facilitates or inhibits viral replication. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the regulation of AMPK signaling following infection can shed light on the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against viral infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/imunologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/imunologia
8.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067054

RESUMO

The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Endossomos/virologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/virologia , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067390

RESUMO

The measures to fight the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic have been concentrated on inviting people to stay at home. This has reduced opportunities to exercise while also shedding some light on the importance of physical health. Based on an online survey, this paper investigated physical activity behaviours of a Belgians sample (n = 427) during the lockdown period between the end of May 2020 and the beginning of June 2020 and found that, during this period, the gap between sufficiently and insufficiently active individuals widened even more. This paper analysed important moderators of physical activity behaviours, such as barriers and benefits to exercise, digital support used to exercise, and individuals' emotional well-being. Descriptive analysis and analyses of variance indicated that, generally, individuals significantly increased their engagement in exercise, especially light- and moderate-intensity activities, mostly accepted the listed benefits but refused the listed barriers, increased their engagement in digital support and did not score high on any affective measures. A comparison between sufficiently active and insufficiently active individuals during the lockdown showed that the former engaged even more in physical activity, whereas the latter exercised equally (i.e., not enough) or even less compared to before the lockdown. By means of a logistic regression, five key factors of belonging to the sufficiently active group were revealed and discussed. Practical implications for government and policies are reviewed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tecnologia Digital , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067534

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Social isolation and lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic have influenced dietary habits and physical activity of all the population, but the obese population is the most vulnerable to weight gain. Material and Methods: A group of 189 patients (166 female and 23 male) from the bariatric surgery waiting list filled in a survey about the influence of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on their dietary habits, physical activity, and the possibility of contact with their bariatric care center. Results: The majority of patients with weight gain declared a decrease in physical activity, compared to half of the patients without weight gain (50.5% vs. 74.5%, p < 0.05). The continuation of bariatric care and the possibility of contact with a bariatric surgeon, dietician, and psychologist had each significant influence on reducing the risk of patients' weight gain (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Maintaining physical activity and contact with bariatric care specialists are important factors in allowing to avoid weight gain in patients waiting for bariatric surgery.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Listas de Espera
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068853

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Action, not fear, is the path forward in the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since early 2020, the world's nations have faced conundrums over severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections resulting in COVID-19 resulting in national closures, and thus, a clear understandable plan that nations can implement is required to reopen. The healthcare benefits of reopening a nation more likely than not exceed the benefits of continued pandemic-related closure. Pandemic-related closures have resulted in countless delayed or avoided urgent care evaluations. Furthermore, routine care of acute and chronic illnesses, including evaluations, diagnoses, and treatments, has also been delayed. Isolation, loss of income, and fear have resulted in mental health conditions or exacerbated existing conditions. The magnitude of untoward ramifications is unknown and may ultimately represent an inestimable degree of danger and morbidity, and even death. The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has created an atmosphere of fear of COVID-19 that has directly and indirectly injured the world's population. Since this has resulted in increasing morbidity and mortality, creating economic chaos, and near systemic collapse of educational systems with no well described plan forward, it is the purpose of this study to provide guidelines that provide a path forward to safely open a nation. Physicians often equipped by their education, training, and experiences across disciplines are uniquely positioned to comprehend, coordinate, and teach other physicians, business owners, and municipal and government leaders from guidelines. As such, physicians may take the lead in a path forward to reopening a nation, including opening businesses, educational facilities, and religious establishments, while minimizing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: Reviews of the literature among the disciplines of environmental air, sanitation, social interaction, medical testing, vaccination, protection, and disease prevention and safety allowed for the conceptualization and eventual genesis of identifiable interventions which either reduce the viral load in the environment or inactivate the virus from replication. Each of the guidelines was selected based on the principle that it involved the elimination or inactivation of the viral particle. With a reduction in viral load or inactivation of replication, the implementation of these guidelines is expected to allow for reopening a nation with an increased level of safety. Results: The guidelines identified, including air exchange (ventilation), air filtration, personal protective filtering devices (masks), hand hygiene, social distancing, screening and testing, vaccines, high-risk patient protection, medical management, and adjunctive therapies, are described and referenced. Conclusions: In that the pandemic is primarily a public health issue, the path forward is best coordinated by local, regional, and national physicians. Many physicians with a breadth of experiences are uniquely positioned to coordinate the implementation of these interdisciplinary guidelines. Using these guidelines as a planned, coordinated action, not fear, is a path forward. Nations have a decision to make: closuring versus opening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070713

RESUMO

This paper explores how trust in formal information sources (government and media) and informal information sources (interpersonal) about COVID-19 influences compliance with preventive measures. This cross-sectional study uses convenience sampling of 478 adult participants. Data analyses using structural equation modeling with multigroup comparisons examine hypothesized relationships between trust in information sources and preventative behaviors and social distancing. Results suggest that understanding of COVID-19 causes is related to trust in formal information sources, but not to trust in informal information. Self-efficacy for prevention is related to trust in informal information sources, but not to trust in formal information sources. Worry about contracting COVID-19 is related to trust in formal information sources, but not to informal ones. Engaging in preventive measures is linked to both self-efficacy for prevention and worry, while social distancing was related only to worry. These findings have important implications for public health policy guidelines centered on clear and truthful media messages. The findings also facilitate comparative analyses of reactions to information sources across a decade of evolving attitudes toward media and government, between two cultures (Hong Kong vs. the USA), and between two different global pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, more than ever, optimal influenza vaccination coverage among healthcare workers (HCWs) is crucial to avoid absenteeism and disruption of health services, as well as in-hospital influenza outbreaks. The aim of this study is to analyze the 2020 influenza vaccination campaign, comparing it with the previous year's in a research and teaching hospital in Northern Italy. METHODS: adopting an approach based on combined strategies, three interventions were deployed: a promotional and educational campaign, vaccination delivery through both ad hoc and on-site ambulatories, and a gaming strategy. Personal data and professional categories were collected and analyzed using univariate logistic regression. Vaccinated HCWs were asked to fill in a questionnaire to describe their reasons for vaccination adherence. RESULTS: the vaccination coverage rate (VCR) was 43.1%, compared to 21.5% in 2019. The highest increase was registered among administrative staff (308.3%), while physicians represent the most vaccinated category (n = 600). Moreover, residents (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.20), as well as intensive care (PR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.69) and newborn workers (PR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.20-1.65) were, respectively, the categories most frequently vaccinated for the first time. CONCLUSION: the significant increase in vaccination coverage rate confirms the suitability of the combined strategy of delivering the flu vaccination campaign and represents a first step towards reaching WHO recommended vaccination rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071661

RESUMO

The use of face masks has assumed a leading spot among nonspecific prevention measures during the coronavirus pandemic. The effectiveness of this protective measure depends on the specifics of individual use. The purpose of our study was to analyze the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) by medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The evaluation of face mask use was based on the results of a survey of medical students at Sechenov University. There were 988 participants in the study: 97.5% used RPE during the pandemic, 89.1% used disposable medical and hygienic face masks, 27.4% used reusable cloth face masks, and 13.2% used respirators. The majority of respondents (75.2%) were found to wear face masks correctly. However, 17.0% of the respondents were found to cover only their mouths with a face mask, while 7.8% reported often shifting their face mask under the chin due to perceived discomfort. Only 25.1% of respondents changed their disposable face mask after 2-3 h of wearing, while 13.0% decontaminated and used it several times. Most cloth face mask users (93.7%) decontaminated their marks, but only 55.7% of respondents did so daily. Face masks were most often worn in medical organizations (91.5%), and 1.4% of respondents did not use respiratory protection anywhere. In conclusion, we consider it necessary to introduce a special module on nonspecific prevention in the discipline of hygiene.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009583, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081744

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic reveals a major gap in global biosecurity infrastructure: a lack of publicly available biological samples representative across space, time, and taxonomic diversity. The shortfall, in this case for vertebrates, prevents accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of emerging pathogens and their reservoir host(s) and precludes extended investigation of ecological, evolutionary, and environmental associations that lead to human infection or spillover. Natural history museum biorepositories form the backbone of a critically needed, decentralized, global network for zoonotic pathogen surveillance, yet this infrastructure remains marginally developed, underutilized, underfunded, and disconnected from public health initiatives. Proactive detection and mitigation for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) requires expanded biodiversity infrastructure and training (particularly in biodiverse and lower income countries) and new communication pipelines that connect biorepositories and biomedical communities. To this end, we highlight a novel adaptation of Project ECHO's virtual community of practice model: Museums and Emerging Pathogens in the Americas (MEPA). MEPA is a virtual network aimed at fostering communication, coordination, and collaborative problem-solving among pathogen researchers, public health officials, and biorepositories in the Americas. MEPA now acts as a model of effective international, interdisciplinary collaboration that can and should be replicated in other biodiversity hotspots. We encourage deposition of wildlife specimens and associated data with public biorepositories, regardless of original collection purpose, and urge biorepositories to embrace new specimen sources, types, and uses to maximize strategic growth and utility for EID research. Taxonomically, geographically, and temporally deep biorepository archives serve as the foundation of a proactive and increasingly predictive approach to zoonotic spillover, risk assessment, and threat mitigation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/provisão & distribuição , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Redes Comunitárias/provisão & distribuição , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Geografia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Contramedidas Médicas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
16.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems across the world. The rate of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions during the pandemic has varied significantly. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the pandemic on ACS hospital admissions and to determine whether this is related to the number of COVID-19 cases in each country. METHOD: Search engines including PubMed, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar were searched from December 2019 to the 15 September 2020 to identify studies reporting ACS admission data during COVID-19 pandemic months in 2020 compared with 2019 admissions. RESULTS: A total of 40 studies were included in this multistudy analysis. They demonstrated a 28.1% reduction in the rate of admission with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared with the same period in 2019 (total of 28 613 patients in 2020 vs 39 225 in 2019). There was a significant correlation between the absolute risk reduction in the total number of ACS cases and the number of COVID-19 cases per 100 000 population (Pearson correlation=0.361 (p=0.028)). However, the correlation was not significant for each of the ACS subgroups: non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (p=0.508), STEMI (p=0883) and unstable angina (p=0.175). CONCLUSION: There was a significant reduction in the rate of ACS admission during the COVID-19 pandemic period compared with the same period in 2019 with a significant correlation with COVID-19 prevalence.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia
18.
AIDS Rev ; 23(2): 115-116, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097375

RESUMO

The arrival of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Europe exploded initially in North Italy and soon thereafter at several other major European cities, including Madrid. Indeed, Madrid was the epicenter of SARSCoV-2 infection in Spain, with a dramatic surge of cases since mid-March 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097719

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Knowledge and attitude influence compliance and individuals' practices. The risk and protective factors associated with high compliance to these preventive measures are critical to enhancing pandemic preparedness. OBJECTIVE: This survey aims to assess differences in mental health, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of preventive measures for COVID-19 amongst healthcare professionals (HCP) and non-healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Multi-national cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May-June 2020. SETTING: Multi-national survey was distributed across 36 countries through social media, word-of-mouth, and electronic mail. PARTICIPANTS: Participants ≥21 years working in healthcare and non-healthcare related professions. MAIN OUTCOME: Risk factors determining the difference in KAP towards personal hygiene and social distancing measures during COVID-19 amongst HCP and non-HCP. RESULTS: HCP were significantly more knowledgeable on personal hygiene (AdjOR 1.45, 95% CI -1.14 to 1.83) and social distancing (AdjOR 1.31, 95% CI -1.06 to 1.61) compared to non-HCP. They were more likely to have a positive attitude towards personal hygiene and 1.5 times more willing to participate in the contact tracing app. There was high compliance towards personal hygiene and social distancing measures amongst HCP. HCP with high compliance were 1.8 times more likely to flourish and more likely to have a high sense of emotional (AdjOR 1.94, 95% CI (1.44 to 2.61), social (AdjOR 2.07, 95% CI -1.55 to 2.78), and psychological (AdjOR 2.13, 95% CI (1.59-2.85) well-being. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: While healthcare professionals were more knowledgeable, had more positive attitudes, their higher sense of total well-being was seen to be more critical to enhance compliance. Therefore, focusing on the well-being of the general population would help to enhance their compliance towards the preventive measures for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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