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1.
N Z Med J ; 133(1510): 70-82, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community/consumer health councils (CHCs) are a relatively new phenomenon in New Zealand. CHCs are usually established within district health boards (DHBs) to help address gaps in community engagement in the health sector. Little is known about the establishment, structure, roles and functioning of these councils. AIM: To undertake a literature review, including grey literature, related to the structure, roles and functioning of CHCs in New Zealand. METHOD: A document analysis of the New Zealand-focused website materials and newspaper articles related to CHCs was conducted. Data were analysed thematically using a qualitative content analysis approach. RESULTS: The search identified 251 relevant web sources and 118 newspaper articles. The main role of the CHCs appeared to be to advise and make recommendations to their respective DHBs (and DHB governance and management structures) about health service planning, delivery and policy. All CHCs discussed in the identified sources comprised different demographic backgrounds and expertise. Although the CHCs were mainly engaged in information sharing and consultation, their influence on DHB decision-making could not be determined from the sources. CONCLUSION: This is the first study of CHCs throughout New Zealand investigating their roles, structure and type of engagement. As the concept is evolving and more CHCs are being established, this information may be useful for future CHCs. With increasing longevity of CHCs in New Zealand, future studies could usefully investigate CHCs' potential to represent the health interests of their local communities, and their influence on DHB decision-making.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Conselhos de Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel (figurativo)
2.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 113-128, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353136

RESUMO

In the context of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations still remain the sole biological marker that directly condition therapeutic decision. These recommendations aim at updating the use of BCR-ABL1 mutation testing with respect to new available therapeutic options and at repositioning different testing methods at the era of next generation sequencing (NGS). They have been written by a panel of experts from the French Study Group on CML (Fi-LMC), after a critical review of relevant publications. TKD mutation testing is recommended in case of treatment failure but not in case of optimal response. For patients in warning situation, mutation testing must be discussed depending on the type of TKI used, lasting of the treatment, kinetic evolution of BCR-ABL1 transcripts along time and necessity for switching treatment. The kind and the frequency of TKD mutations occasioning resistance mainly depend on the TKI in use and disease phase. Because of its better sensitivity, NGS methods are recommended for mutation testing rather than Sanger's. Facing a given TKD mutation, therapeutic decision should be taken based on in vitro sensitivity and clinical efficacy data. Identification by sequencing of a TKD mutation known to induce resistance must lead to a therapeutic change. The clinical value of testing methods more sensitive than NGS remains to be assessed.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Domínio Catalítico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Substituição de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Biologia Molecular , Domínios Proteicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Papel (figurativo)
3.
Environ Technol ; 41(1): 109-116, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924699

RESUMO

Low H2O2 utilization efficiency is the main problem when Fenton system was used to oxidize NO in flue gas. To understand the behaviour of the free radicals during NO oxidation process in Fenton system is crucial to solving this problem. The oxidation capacity of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on NO in Fenton system was compared and the useless consumption path of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] that caused the low utilization efficiency of H2O2 were studied. A method to enhance the oxidation ability and H2O2 utilization efficiency by adding reducing additives in Fenton system was proposed. The results showed that both of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] were active substances that oxidize NO. However, the oxidation ability of [Formula: see text] radicals was stronger. The vast majority of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was consumed by rapid reaction [Formula: see text] , which was the primary reason for the low utilization efficiency of H2O2 in Fenton system. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride and ascorbic acid could accelerate the conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+, thereby increase the generation rate of ·OH and decrease the generation rate of [Formula: see text]. As a result, the oxidation ability and H2O2 utilization efficiency were enhanced.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Radicais Livres , Oxirredução , Papel (figurativo)
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122375, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734063

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the roles of different humin and heavy-metal resistant bacterial community from composting on heavy metal removal. The results showed that the concentration of Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ decreased with adding the compost-derived humin, but the removal rates were relatively low (<30% on average). The heavy metal resistant bacteria from composting have better metal binding capacities than humin, and the combined addition of humin and bacteria could further stimulate the biosorption of heavy metals with 60-80% removal of metals and improve the diversity and biomass of bacterial community. There was obviously increased synergy between the humin from maturity phase and bacteria for metal biosorption ("1 + 1 > 2"). Structural equation modeling showed that microbial biomass and humin humification are the key factors for the biosorption of heavy metals. Combining humin from maturity phase with heavy-metal resistant bacteria was suggested to control heavy metal pollution in composts.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Bactérias , Substâncias Húmicas , Papel (figurativo) , Solo
5.
Int Endod J ; 53(1): 62-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411737

RESUMO

AIM: To verify whether experimentally induced pulpitis activates the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and c-Fos, both peripherally and centrally. METHODOLOGY: Acute pulpitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via pulp exposure and application of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; n = 13). Saline-treated (n = 13) rats and rats that did not undergo tooth preparation (n = 13) served as control groups. Three days post-CFA or post-saline application, face grooming activity was recorded, and the rats were then euthanized to allow for immunohistochemical analysis of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and spinal trigeminal nucleus. anova with Student's t-test for post-hoc analysis was used to quantify the differences in behavioural tests and immunohistochemical labelling (c-Fos and TRPV1) in TG amongst groups. Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunnett's test for post-hoc analysis was used to compare immunohistochemical labelling (c-Fos and TRPV1) in the brainstem amongst groups. RESULTS: Histological evidence of severe pulp inflammation was found, and there was a significant increase in pain-like behaviour (P < 0.05) in CFA-treated animals. C-Fos labelling and TRPV1 immunoreactivity in the TG were significantly higher (both P < 0.05) in the CFA group than in the control groups. In the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the immunoreactivity for c-Fos was absent in the intermediate region (trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris) in all animals, with comparable expression of TRPV1 amongst all groups. In contrast, neurons in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (TSC) exhibited significant c-Fos immunoreactivity in the CFA group (P = 0.0063). The expression of TRPV1 did not differ amongst the three groups, but the superficial laminae of the TSC exhibited significantly greater expression of TRPV1 than did the deep layers (P = 0.0014). CONCLUSIONS: Following acute pulp inflammation, the TRPV1 channel was significantly involved in nociceptive signal processing in the peripheral nervous system, but not in the CNS. Because pulpitis induced some neuronal activation at the brainstem levels, further studies are needed to identify additional transducers that mediate signal transmission from pulpal afferents to their central targets.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária , Gânglio Trigeminal , Animais , Tronco Encefálico , Inflamação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Papel (figurativo)
6.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 17(1): 123-131, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1051989

RESUMO

La espiritualidad es un concepto que ha permeado el mundo académico, especialmente en los contextos de los cuidados en salud y particularmente en enfermería. Esta se ha asociado a situaciones tales como el afrontamiento de la muerte, al cuidado paliativo, a la vivencia de la cronicidad y a la adultez mayor. El presente texto aborda una reflexión a la luz de la literatura y la experiencia clínica acerca de la relación entre cuidado espiritual y el rol de la enfermería en la práctica en donde se brinda cuidado a las personas a través del ciclo vital. Se hace una aproximación al estado del arte y a los referentes relacionados con la delimitación del constructo cuidado espiritual, proporcionando un marco de referencia útil para la consulta académica y su inclusión en la práctica de la enfermería.


Spirituality is a concept which has permeated the academic world, especially in the contexts of health care, and particularly, nursing. This has been associated to situations such as facing death, palliative care, and living chronicity and adulthood. This text addresses a reflection, to the light of literature and clinical experience, relating to the relationship between spiritual care and the role of nursing in the practice, where care is provided for people throughout their life cycle. An approximation about the state of the art and the referring related to the delimitations of the spiritual care construct is made, providing a frame of reference that is useful for academic review and its inclusion in the nursing practice.


A espiritualidade é um conceito que tem permeado o mundo acadêmico, especialmente nos contextos dos cuidados na saúde e particularmente, na enfermagem. Têm se associado a situações como o afrontamento da morte, o cuidado paliativo, a viven cia da cronicidade e o envelhecimento. O presente texto faz uma abordagem reflexiva à luz da literatura e a experiência clínica, ao redor da relação entre o cuidado espiritual e o rol de enfermagem na prática, onde se presta cuidados as pessoas através do curso de vida. Faz uma aproximação ao existente e os referentes relacionados com a delimitação do constructo cuidado espiritual, proporcionando um marco de referencia útil para a consulta acadêmica e a inclusão da prática enfermeira.


Assuntos
Idoso , Espiritualidade , Papel (figurativo) , Família , Cuidados de Enfermagem
7.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(8): 970-973, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797856

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in clinico-pathologically confirmed oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral cancer and clinically diagnosed tobacco pouch keratosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, comparative study was carried out in a tertiary healthcare centre located in Loni from October 2013 to January 2014. A total of 120 patients were separated into 4 groups depending upon the clinical diagnosis as follows. Group I: healthy control (with no addictions and diseases). Group II: oral cancer. Group III: oral submucous fibrosis. Group IV: habitual tobacco chewers (tobacco addiction without any disease). Substantiation was done using biopsy. The samples were inspected for salivary LDH levels by the technique in line with the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry with the help of Erba Chem semi auto analyser. RESULTS: The mean salivary LDH levels in the control, oral cancer OSMF and habitual tobacco chewer group were 86.12 ± 7.05 IU/L, 592.09 ± 28.57 IU/L, 350.43 ± 5.90 IU/L and 125.19 ± 13.42 IU/L, respectively. Out of 4 groups, LDH activity was increased in saliva of patients with tobacco pouch keratosis, OSMF, and oral cancer consistently. Notable difference was found in the mean salivary levels of the above groups. Results were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis: one-way ANOVA, Student's unpaired t test for group-wise comparison followed by post hoc Tukey's test. CONCLUSION: We observed congruous higher levels of salivary LDH in oral precancer and cancer, and hence it could be a future marker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Biomarcadores , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase , Estudos Prospectivos , Papel (figurativo) , Tabaco
8.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 20(8): 987-993, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797859

RESUMO

Since a long time, the preservation of the socket is emphasized for various reasons. Many studies have suggested the ridge preservation through socket grafting using various bone graft substitute materials (GSMs). But none of the studies suggested the material of choice for the grafting. So, the systematic review was planned to analyze the outcomes of synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) graft material for socket preservation. The review was aimed to determine the existing evidence for the use of SHA GSM for grafting and its usefulness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature search was performed for the studies published in the English language independently by all four authors (search team) in the Medline database through the PubMed search engine for the past 5 years. The study involved predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria for the search. The final lists of clinical trials were analyzed to determine the existing evidence and suggested the mechanism of action. REVIEW RESULTS: The search resulted in 117 titles. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of seven studies were found eligible for this systematic review. Out of seven, two studies were found eligible for meta-analysis whereas remaining included for the systematic review. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis favors socket grafting compared to control in terms of preservation of existing bone height and width. The SHA grafting showed successful bone regeneration with less connective tissue component. The histomorphometric evaluation showed a good bone regeneration associated with SHA than xenograft. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, the synthetic GSM can be used for socket grafting. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In the wake of increasing graft materials in the market and different origin raw material sources for the preparation of graft materials, clinicians are in dilemma for selection and its use. The success of grafting depends on the selection of appropriate material with a suitable calcium/phosphate (Ca/P) ratio. The review provided available evidence for the use of SHA.


Assuntos
Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar , Durapatita , Regeneração Óssea , Transplante Ósseo , Xenoenxertos , Papel (figurativo) , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental
9.
Science ; 366(6470)2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806787

RESUMO

Hesselmann et al question one of our conclusions: the suppression of Fermi velocity at the Gross-Neveu critical point for the specific case of vanishing long-range interactions and at zero energy. The possibility they raise could occur in any finite-size extrapolation of numerical data. Although we cannot definitively rule out this possibility, we provide mathematical bounds on its likelihood.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Papel (figurativo)
11.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593289

RESUMO

The medical and nursing care of preterm infants has improved over the last decades, including the involvement of parents in the daily care. Previously parents could only visit a few scheduled hours per day but today most neonatal units in Sweden strive to let the parents be the primary caregivers, with the right to stay at the unit during the entire hospitalization period. Despite this development, there is still need for a number of improvements, not only in the neonatal care but also during the complicated pregnancy.


Assuntos
Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Poder Familiar , Nascimento Prematuro , Papel (figurativo) , Aleitamento Materno , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Mães , Alta do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Gravidez , Apoio Social , Suécia
12.
Hand Clin ; 35(4): 449-455, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585606

RESUMO

Global outreach in hand surgery can be exceptionally rewarding for volunteers and their organizations, patients and their communities, and the host medical community. Success can be defined by individual cases that restore function and provide opportunities for a patient and family to contribute to society; however, the broader missions of medical collaboration, education, cultural exchange, and personal growth are critical factors toward building trust and establishing continuity of care for long-term success. Each outreach site and brigade encounters challenges; however, careful planning facilitates optimal conditions and reasonable expectations for enhancing outcomes.


Assuntos
Missões Médicas/organização & administração , Ortopedia , Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Competência Cultural , Documentação/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Registros Médicos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade , Papel (figurativo) , Segurança , Visitas com Preceptor , Confiança
13.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103455, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Popular indivuals are usually academically high achiveving and also often leaders. Children with developmental disabilities are usually not popular among their peers. In dyadic cooperative tasks, the popular member is often the leader, as shown by self-reports and observational research. It is unknown whether this macro-level behaviour is reflected in micro-level synchronisation patterns of the movements of dyads who are engaged in a cooperative task. AIMS: The goal of the present study was to investigate whether popularity differentially affected the leading-following behaviour of dyads consisting of children with and without developmental disabilities. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Children with (n = 106) and without (n = 183) developmental disabilities performed a tangram puzzle task individually and cooperatively. While performing the task, they stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that registered their postural sway. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Although we found some similarities between dyads with and without a developmental disability based on both popularity and task performance, the most striking difference occurred in low performing dyads. In those, dyads with a developmental disability had no clear leader or follower. CONCLUSION: Especially in dyads with developmental disabilities it is important that there are clear roles, since the worst performance was observed when roles were absent.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Liderança , Papel (figurativo) , Desejabilidade Social , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
15.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(4): 358-363, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377224

RESUMO

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often exhibit a complex coronary anatomy, making coronary revascularization challenging. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is currently considered the preferred revascularization method in patients with DM and multivessel disease. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has advanced with new stent generations having been developed in the recent years, but they have not yet been adequately compared against CABG in the population with DM. Comorbidities, such as renal disease and heart failure, lead to worse prognosis following a revascularization procedure and require especial consideration when choosing between CABG versus PCI. The presence of significant left main disease may also impose additional challenges to coronary revascularization, particularly when accompanied by the involvement of multivessel disease. Most of the evidence regarding revascularization in patients with DM is compiled from studies enrolling patients with stable ischemic heart disease, and trials with patients in the acute coronary syndrome setting are lacking.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Papel (figurativo) , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102922, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446312

RESUMO

The effect of forgetting cues on maintenance rehearsal in item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm was explored from behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. In Experiment 1, maintenance rehearsal was induced by a maintenance cue. Specifically, after the studied word, a maintenance (M) cue was presented before the presentation of a remembering/forgetting cue. When an M cue appeared, participants were required to wait for the following remembering (M-R) or forgetting (M-F) cue to determine whether the word needs to be remembered or not, and words were kept in short-term memory with maintenance rehearsal until the presentation of M-R/M-F cues. Four conditions were utilized: maintain-remembering (M-R), maintain-forgetting (M-F), maintenance (M), and forgetting (F). The results showed that, 1) superior recognition was found for the M-R relative to the M-F words, revealing a typical DF effect; 2) No recognition difference was found between M and M-F words, indicating that M-F cues showed little effect in promoting forgetting; 3) Inferior recognition was found for F than M words, indicating that the maintenance rehearsal might cease or be reduced by the presentation of F cues. In Experiment 2, event related potentials time-locked to cue (M-R, M-F, M, and F cues) onset during study phase. An enhanced fronto-central P3a component was evoked for F relative to M cues, indicating a more intensive attention orienting or attentional inhibition process triggered by F cues. These results demonstrated that forgetting cues might trigger an inhibition process to terminate the maintenance rehearsal process.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Papel (figurativo) , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1077-1082, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447466

RESUMO

Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have an increased risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) when compared with patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, CIN prevention measures are less frequently applied in PPCI than in elective PCI. At present, no preventive strategy has been recommended by the current guidelines for patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.Published research was scanned by formal searches of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1966 to July 2018. Internet-based sources of information on the results of clinical trials in cardiology were also searched.A total of three randomized trials involving 924 patients were included in the present meta-analysis, of whom 462 received hydration with isotonic saline (hydration group) and 462 received no hydration (control group). Periprocedural hydration with isotonic saline was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of CIN (16.9% in the hydration group versus 26.4% in the control group; summary risk ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.82, P = 0.0005). There was no difference in the rate of postprocedural hemodialysis or death between the groups.Intravenous saline hydration during PPCI reduced the risk of CIN without significantly altering the rate of requirement for renal replacement therapy or mortality.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Papel (figurativo) , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(192): 208-214, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185176

RESUMO

Objetivos: Determinar el tipo de personal médico, las prioridades y actividades para la protección y promoción de la salud de las Federaciones Nacionales de Natación (FNN) según su nivel económico y determinar si aplicaban los programas relacionados con la salud de la Federación Internacional de Natación (FINA).Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta confidencial distribuida a las 208 FNN adscritas a la FINA. La encuesta fue validada y se obtuvo su fiabilidad estadística (coeficiente α de Cronbach de 0,8642 para n = 15). Las FNN se dividieron según su nivel económico en FNN de países desarrollados (n=66) y FNN de países en desarrollo (n = 142) siguiendo la clasificación de la Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2016). Análisis: Se realizó una comparación estadística de las medias mediante la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Respondieron 80 FNN en desarrollo (56,3 %) y 55 desarrolladas (83,6 %). Hubo diferencias en la presencia de fisioterapeutas (FNN en desarrollo: 31,2%, desarrolladas: 58,1%, p < 0,005) y psicólogos (11,2% vs 21,8%; p = 0,096). La máxima prioridad para ambos grupos fue el Máximo rendimiento de los nadadores de élite, aunque Aumentar el número de nada-dores de élite era de mayor importancia para las FNN en desarrollo (4,1 vs 3,95; p < 0.05). Los Programas de Prevención de ahogamiento fueron los más frecuentes en ambos grupos, pero con diferencias significativas entre ellos (FNN En desarrollo: 58,7% vs FNN Desarrolladas: 74,5%; p = 0,058). Conclusiones: Las FNN no disponían del personal necesario para promover la salud de sus nadadores. La mayor prioridad de las FNN en desarrollo era Aumentar el número de atletas de élite, pero tenían bajos niveles de Prevención de lesiones, Vuelta a competir tras una lesión y de Exámenes médicos preparticipación, aunque en las FNN desarrolladas también eran bajos. La Prevención de ahogamiento fueron los programas más frecuentes pero la Salud de la población en general, la del atleta recreativo y el "Deporte Seguro" (sin acoso sexual) eran cuestiones de baja prioridad para todas


Purposes: To determine the profile of the medical personnel, the priorities and the activities/ researches of the National Swimming Federations of Developing and Developed countries with respect to the athletes' health protection and the promotion of health in the general population. Method: A descriptive transversal study through a confidential survey that was circulated to the 208 FINA National Member Federations. A statistical validity and reliability was obtained (Cronbach α coefficient of 0.8642 for n = 15). The NFs were divided based on their economic level, NFs of developed (n = 66) and developing countries (n = 142) following the classification of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, (2016). Analysis: A statistic comparison of measures with the test U of Mann- Whitney was executed. Results: 80 of the NFs from developing countries (56.3%) responded and 55 NFs from developed countries (83.6%). Evident differences were found in Presence of physiotherapists (Developing NFs: 31.2%, Developed NFs: 58.1%; p<0.005) and psycho-logists (11.2% vs 21.8%; p = 0.096). Top priority for both groups was Performance of the elite athletes, however Increasing the numbers of elite athletes was of major importance for the Developing NFs (4.1 vs 3.95, p < 0.05). The programs based around drowning prevention are the most prevalent of the programs run by both (58.7% vs 74.5%; p = 0.058). Conclusion: The NFs did not have the necessary personnel to promote the health of their athletes. Top priority for the Developed NFs was to Increase the numbers of elite athletes but they have low levels of Prevention of injuries programs. Coming back after an injury and Medical examination preparation were also low in Developed and in Developing NFs. Prevention of drowning program was the most frequent program/activity for health of general population, for the recreational athlete and "Save Sport" (without sexual abuse) they were questions of low priority for all of them


Assuntos
Natação/normas , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Organizações de Normalização Profissional/normas , Esportes/normas , Natação/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Coalizão em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Estudos Transversais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Papel (figurativo)
20.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348799

RESUMO

We present a lab-in-the-field experiment and surveys of marginalised Roma children in Slovakia to examine whether reminding Roma of their ethnicity reduces their performance in a cognitive task. Research on social identity and stereotypes has documented that when individuals feel that their social group is negatively stereotyped in a domain, their performance declines, which can reinforce discrimination. In an effort to break the cycle of negative stereotypes, we remind Roma subjects of either Roma or non-Roma role models. We find that the activation of a Roma's ethnicity reduces cognitive performance. In contrast, Roma exposed to Roma role models outperform those reminded of their ethnicity and of non-Roma role models. We then attempt to understand the channels through which social identity and role models affect performance. We show that priming the identity of a Roma has a direct effect on confidence, decreasing performance.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Roma/psicologia , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Papel (figurativo) , Eslováquia/etnologia , Identificação Social
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