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4.
Am J Public Health ; 108(1): 36-41, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29161065

RESUMO

Seventy years after the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial, health professionals and lawyers working together after 9/11 played a critical role in designing, justifying, and carrying out the US state-sponsored torture program in the CIA "Black Sites" and US military detention centers, including Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. We analyze the similarities between the Nazi doctors and health professionals in the War on Terror and address the question of how it happened that health professionals, including doctors, psychologists, physician assistants, and nurses, acted as agents of the state to utilize their medical and healing skills to cause harm and sanitize barbarous acts, similar to (though not on the scale of) how Nazi doctors were used by the Third Reich.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Medicina Militar/ética , Prisioneiros de Guerra/história , Tortura/ética , Cuba , Alemanha , Pessoal de Saúde/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Medicina Militar/legislação & jurisprudência , Socialismo Nacional/história , Papel Profissional/história , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Tortura/história , Tortura/legislação & jurisprudência , II Guerra Mundial
5.
Pap. psicol ; 38(3): 185-194, sept.-dic. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168070

RESUMO

El proceso de convergencia con el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior motivó la publicación del Libro Blanco del Título de Grado en Psicología (ANECA, 2005) donde se desglosa un análisis de la situación de los estudios de Psicología en España y se enumera una serie de recomendaciones para adecuar la titulación a los requisitos europeos. El presente trabajo pretende, diez años después, analizar el grado de implementación de las medidas y propuestas incluidas en el Libro Blanco, así como presentar modelos pronósticos en base a las tendencias observadas mediante análisis de series temporales. Los resultados muestran un incremento progresivo y constante de la oferta formativa, del número de nuevos centros donde se imparte el Grado de Psicología así como de otros indicadores estrechamente relacionados con dicho crecimiento. Por último, se discuten los posibles motivos y se reflexiona sobre el impacto en la precariedad laboral, las elevadas tasas de desempleo y las consecuencias nocivas para un modelo sostenible de la profesión


The process of convergence with the European Higher Education Area led to the publication of the White Paper on the qualification of the Degree in Psychology (ANECA, 2005) in which an extensive analysis was carried out of the situation of university studies in psychology in Spain and guidelines were produced to adapt the degree to the European requirements. Ten years later, the present paper aims to analyze the implementation rate of the guidelines included in the White Paper, as well as to develop prognostic models based on the trends observed using time series analyses. The results show a constant and progressive increase in the educational training offered, the number of new faculties, and other closely associated indicators related to this growth. Different explanations and reasons for these results are discussed. We also reflect on the detrimental impact on job security amongst psychologists, the high unemployment rates, and the negative consequences for a sustainable model of professional development


Assuntos
Humanos , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia/educação , Competência Profissional , Papel Profissional/história , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , 24960/métodos , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Análise Estatística , Desemprego/tendências
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 70(5): 1075-1082, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977237

RESUMO

Objective:: To describe the circumstances that determine the creation of the Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses of the Federal District Section and analyze its implications for the reorganization of the field of nursing. Method:: Qualitative, socio-historical, documentary study. The analysis generated the following category: Creation of a new group to guarantee unity: Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses in the Federal District Section. Results:: The economic crisis resulting from the Second World War, the creation of the Paulista Association of Graduate Nurses and the increase in the number of Schools of Nursing in the country were decisive for the Brazilian Association of Graduate Nurses to reformulate its statute as to guarantee its unit. Final considerations:: The creation of the Federal District Section consisted of one of the strategies of the Association to reorganize the field of nursing, in order to ensure the recognition of the profession by the society. Objetivos:: Descrever as circunstâncias que determinam a criação da Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Seção do Distrito Federal e analisar as implicações dessa criação para a reorganização do campo da enfermagem. Método:: Estudo qualitativo, sócio-histórico, documental. A análise gerou a seguinte categoria: Criação de um novo grupo para garantir a unidade: Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Seção do Distrito Federal. Resultados:: A crise econômica, decorrente da Segunda Guerra Mundial, a criação da Associação Paulista de Enfermeiras Diplomadas e o aumento do número de escolas de enfermagem no país foram determinantes para que a Associação Brasileira de Enfermeiras Diplomadas reformulasse seu estatuto, de modo a garantir sua unidade. Considerações finais:: A criação da Seção do Distrito Federal consistiu em uma das estratégias da associação para reorganizar o campo da enfermagem, de modo a assegurar o reconhecimento da profissão pela sociedade.


Assuntos
História da Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Papel Profissional/história , Brasil , História do Século XX , Humanos
7.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 72(1): 87-97, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168298

RESUMO

The Dutch physician Pieter Van Foreest (1520-97) included nine books of surgical observations among his large series of case-histories. Although he demanded that all physicians should have a knowledge of surgery, his writings show the limitations of his approach as well as the overlap between physicians and surgeons. Certain conditions were treated by both types of practitioner, but Foreest left invasive and manipulative side treatments to surgeons, while claiming the right as a physician to organise the overall treatment of the patient.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/história , Médicos/história , Papel Profissional/história , Cirurgiões/história , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Países Baixos
9.
Isis ; 108(1): 40-61, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897696

RESUMO

The United States Patent Office of the 1850s offers a rare opportunity to analyze the early gendering of science. In its crowded rooms, would-be scientists shared a workplace with women earning equal pay for equal work. Scientific men worked as patent examiners, claiming this new occupation as scientific in opposition to those seeking to separate science and technology. At the same time, in an unprecedented and ultimately unsuccessful experiment, female clerks were hired to work alongside male clerks. This article examines the controversies surrounding these workers through the lens of manners and deportment. In the unique context of a workplace combining scientific men and working ladies, office behavior revealed the deep assumption that the emerging American scientist was male and middle class.


Assuntos
Invenções/história , Patentes como Assunto/história , Papel Profissional/história , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
11.
Cult. cuid ; 20(45): 35-43, mayo-ago. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-156209

RESUMO

La investigación en historia de la enfermería cuenta con un amplio número de fuentes. Aún por explorar está la documentación existente en los colegios profesionales, fiel reflejo de los cuidados y cuidadores en la etapa de la profesionalización y el desarrollo científico de la disciplina. Con este artículo pretendemos describir, por un lado, el proceso de organización que estamos llevando a cabo en el archivo del colegio de enfermería de Huelva; y por otro, la situación que ofrecen en cuanto a organización de sus archivos el resto de estas instituciones provinciales españolas. La clasificación de esos fondos se realiza para el servicio de la administración colegial que es el órgano que la genera, para los profesionales y sobre todo para la investigación, la difusión cultural y la construcción de ese periodo de la historia de enfermería (AU)


Research on Nursery History has a wide range of sources at its disposal. We must still investigate documents kept in professional colleges, as they are an accurate reflection of care and caregiver in the period of scientific development of the discipline. In this paper we shall describe the process of reorganization in the archive of the Nursery College in Huelva, as well as the situation of most Spanish nursery archives. Their classification aims to serve the College administration, which generates them, as well as the professionals and research, cultural diffusion and the reconstruction of this period of Nursery History (AU)


Pesquisas em história da enfermagem temum grande número de fontes. Inexplorada é a documentação existente nas escolas profissionais, um verdadeiro reflexo de cuidados e cuidadores na fase do desenvolvimento profissional e científica da disciplina. Com esta comunicação pretende-se descrever, por um lado, o processo de organização que estamos realizando no arquivocom o Huelva enfermeira da escola; e em segundo lugar, a situação oferecido em organização de seus arquivos o restante deste instituições provinciais espanhóis. A classificação destes fundos é feito para o serviço da administração da faculdade é o corpo que gera, para os profissionais e, especialmente, para a pesquisa, difusão cultural e construção desse período na história da enfermagem (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Arquivos , História da Enfermagem , Escolas de Enfermagem/história , Educação em Enfermagem/história , Documentação/história , Papel Profissional/história
13.
Dent Hist ; 61(2): 53-69, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894044

RESUMO

Two hundred years ago the occupational boundaries between different medical practitioners were blurred and unspecified, with many practicing in several fields. However the 1815 Apothecaries Act had a major impact on both the emerging pharmaceutical and dental professions. The 1878 and 1921 Dentists Acts enabled pharmacists who did some dentistry to continue practicing dentistry. Changes proposed by the British Dental Association (BDA) resulted in the formation of a Chemists Dental Association in 1910 to defend the interests of this group, which continued in existence until 1951. This paper explores the changing relationship between chemists and dentists from the early nineteenth century through to the early twenty-first century. Sources used include the published work of both dental and pharmaceutical historians, documentary sources, and quotations from oral history interviews.


Assuntos
Ética Odontológica/história , Odontologia Geral/história , Promoção da Saúde/história , História da Odontologia , História da Farmácia , Papel Profissional/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Reino Unido
14.
Dynamis ; 36(2): 443-66, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112350

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to reconstruct the professional identity of the practicante (male assistant in medicine and surgery) by analyzing three professional journals of this collective in Zaragoza (Aragón). The discourse of practicantes on their profession insists that they were the only assistants for physicians with technical qualities. This affirmation constituted a key element in shaping their identity, contributing in turn to establish the moral and social legitimization of practicantes and their professional authority. This was constructed in counterpoint to the profile, qualifications and gender identity of the other professional healthcare assistant, the nurse. Despite achieving a clear discourse on their professional identity and developing certain professional infrastructures through the work of institutions and key figures, practicantes were not able to consolidate a collective project of upward social mobility that would improve their status and enhance social recognition of the profession. This led to the construction of a group identity that was largely characterized by apathy, frustration and disunion, elements that eventually weakened the profession.


Assuntos
Assistentes Médicos/história , Papel Profissional/história , Identificação Social , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/história , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Cirurgia Geral/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Assistentes Médicos/psicologia , Espanha
15.
Soc Work ; 61(4): 297-304, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664255

RESUMO

During the profession's first decades, social workers tried to improve their clients' financial capability (FC). This article describes the methods used by early social workers who attempted to enhance the FC of their clients, based on contemporary descriptions of their practice. Social workers initially emphasized thrift, later adding more sophisticated consideration of the cost of foods, rent, and other necessities. Social work efforts were furthered by home economists, who served as specialists in nutrition, clothing, interior design, and other topics related to homemaking. Early home economists included specialists in nutrition and family budgeting; these specialists worked with social services agencies to provide a financial basis for family budgets and assisted clients with family budgeting. Some agencies engaged home economists as consultants and as direct providers of instruction on home budgets for clients. By the 1930s, however, social work interest in family budget problems focused on the psychological meaning of low income to the client, rather than in measures to increase client FC. Consequently, social workers' active engagement with family budget issues­engagement that characterized earlier decades­faded. These early efforts can inform contemporary practice as social workers are once again concerned about improving their clients' FC.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal/história , Renda/história , Propriedade/história , Autonomia Pessoal , Papel Profissional/história , Serviço Social/história , Orçamentos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Propriedade/economia , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 36(2): 443-466, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157174

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo es reconstruir la identidad profesional del practicante a través del análisis de tres revistas profesionales del colectivo en Zaragoza (Aragón). El discurso que hacían los practicantes sobre su profesión insistía en que de entre las auxiliares de la medicina, era la única que poseía un carácter técnico. Esta afirmación constituyó el elemento configurador clave de su identidad, contribuyendo a su vez a afianzar la legitimación moral y social del practicante así como su autoridad profesional. Este discurso fue construyéndose en contraposición al perfil, titulación e identidad de género de la otra profesión sanitaria auxiliar, la enfermera. A pesar de que los practicantes institucionalmente o a través de figuras destacadas, conformaron un discurso identitario profesional claro y desarrollaron ciertas infraestructuras profesionales, no alcanzaron a consolidar un proyecto colectivo de movilidad social ascendente que implicase una mejora en su estatus y el reconocimiento social de la profesión. Ello se tradujo en la construcción de una identidad grupal que en buena medida se caracterizó por una cierta apatía, frustración y desunión, elementos que terminaron por debilitar la profesión (AU)


The objective of this study was to reconstruct the professional identity of the practicante (male assistant in medicine and surgery) by analyzing three professional journals of this collective in Zaragoza (Aragón). The discourse of practicantes on their profession insists that they were the only assistants for physicians with technical qualities. This affirmation constituted a key element in shaping their identity, contributing in turn to establish the moral and social legitimization of practicantes and their professional authority. This was constructed in counterpoint to the profile, qualifications and gender identity of the other professional healthcare assistant, the nurse. Despite achieving a clear discourse on their professional identity and developing certain professional infrastructures through the work of institutions and key figures, practicantes were not able to consolidate a collective project of upward social mobility that would improve their status and enhance social recognition of the profession. This led to the construction of a group identity that was largely characterized by apathy, frustration and disunion, elements that eventually weakened the profession (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistentes Médicos/história , Assistentes de Enfermagem/história , História da Enfermagem , Papel Profissional/história , Competência Profissional , Relações Médico-Enfermeiro
18.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 55(6): 578-586, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26453992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of pharmacists portrayed in a positive, negative, or neutral light in films and television shows available in the United States from January 1970 to July 2013. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacist characters as heroes, villains, or victims; assess pharmacist characters' demographics; and determine the presence of pharmacist characters in medical-themed television shows. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, descriptive study. SETTING: A review of available U.S. film and television from January 1970 to July 2013 at an academic institution. PARTICIPANTS: 214 television episodes or films that contained at least one pharmacist portrayal. INTERVENTION: Electronic inquiries requesting submissions of known pharmacist portrayals were distributed to pharmacy professionals in national and state-affiliated pharmacy organizations and to faculty, staff, and students at the University of South Carolina. Electronic databases and search engines (Internet Movie Database [IMDb], Bing, and Google) were consulted and used to further research possible pharmacist portrayals. The study investigators developed an algorithm incorporating social norms, common pharmacist practices, and viewer perceptions to determine positive, negative, or neutral status for each pharmacist portrayal. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Year and genre of media, demographics of identified pharmacist characters, portrayal status of identified pharmacist characters, and number of pharmacist characters and appearances per each television show reviewed. RESULTS: In the films and television shows reviewed, there were 231 pharmacist portrayals, with 160 unique pharmacist characters. Of the 231 portrayals, 145 (63%) were negative, 30 (13%) were positive, and 56 (24%) were neutral. Of the 160 unique characters, 121 (76%) were male, 120 (75%) were Caucasian, and 86 (54%) were younger than 50 years old. The name of the character was provided for 70 (44%) of the pharmacists portrayed. CONCLUSION: The portrayal of pharmacists in U.S. film and television is primarily negative. Pharmacists and pharmacy organizations are encouraged to be vocal proponents of the profession and educate trainees on the importance of an enhanced public perception.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos , Percepção , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Opinião Pública , Televisão , Algoritmos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Assistência Farmacêutica/história , Farmacêuticos/história , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Papel Profissional/história , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Opinião Pública/história , Estudos Retrospectivos , Televisão/história , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 42(3): 419-32, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26333632

RESUMO

Hospitalists work in 90% of US hospitals with over 200 beds. With over 48,000 practicing hospitalists nationwide, the field of hospital medicine has grown rapidly in its 20 years of existence. Obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) hospitalists are uncovering similar drivers for their growth. Obstetricians cannot be in both the hospital and the office at the same time, they face an increased acuity of hospitalized patients demanding a full time presence, and hospitals are searching for physicians aligned with their goals. OBGYN hospitalists are at a similar point today at which hospital medicine was in the late 1990s.


Assuntos
Ginecologia/história , Obstetrícia/história , Papel Profissional/história , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/história , Competência Clínica , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Ginecologia/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Médicos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Médicos Hospitalares/tendências , Humanos , Obstetrícia/tendências , Política Organizacional , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Estados Unidos
20.
Telemed J E Health ; 21(12): 1030-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171617

RESUMO

The U.S. healthcare system is changing and is becoming more patient-centered and technology-supported, with greater emphasis on population health outcomes and team-based care. The roles of healthcare providers are changing, and new healthcare roles are developing such as that of the patient advocate. This article reviews the history of this type of role, the changes that have taken place over time, the technological innovations in service delivery that further enable the role, and how the role could increasingly be developed in the future. Logical future extensions of the current typical patient advocate are the appearance of a virtual or avatar-driven care navigator, using telemedicine and related information technologies, as healthcare provision moves increasingly in a hybrid direction, with care being given both in-person and online.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Papel Profissional/história , Telemedicina , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internet , Estados Unidos
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