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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125851, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492802

RESUMO

This study examines point and non-point sources of air pollution and particulate matter and their associated socioeconomic and health impacts in South Asian countries, primarily India, China, and Pakistan. The legislative frameworks, policy gaps, and targeted solutions are also scrutinized. The major cities in these countries have surpassed the permissible limits defined by WHO for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. As a result, they are facing widespread health problems, disabilities, and causalities at extreme events. Populations in these countries are comparatively more prone to air pollution effects because they spend more time in the open air, increasing their likelihood of exposure to air pollutants. The elevated level of air pollutants and their long-term exposure increases the susceptibility to several chronic/acute diseases, i.e., obstructive pulmonary diseases, acute respiratory distress, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. More in-depth spatial-temporal air pollution monitoring studies in China, India, and Pakistan are recommended. The study findings suggest that policymakers at the local, national, and regional levels should devise targeted policies by considering all the relevant parameters, including the country's economic status, local meteorological conditions, industrial interests, public lifestyle, and national literacy rate. This approach will also help design and implement more efficient policies which are less likely to fail when brought into practice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Índia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Paquistão , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/toxicidade
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468519

RESUMO

There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , China , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Paquistão , Filogenia , Zoonoses
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495149

RESUMO

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucumovirus , Cucumovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Paquistão , Ervilhas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Spinacia oleracea
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495158

RESUMO

Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas , Animais , Florestas , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais , Solo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495160

RESUMO

Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495166

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Praguicidas/toxicidade
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 4985-4998, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497430

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a highly prevalent and under recognized condition in developing countries of South Asia. The presence of malnutrition causes a severe impact on patients with liver cirrhosis. The etiology of cirrhosis differs in the South Asian region compared to the West, with hepatitis B and C still being the leading causes and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increasing over time. Comorbid malnutrition worsens outcomes for cirrhosis patients. Urgent attention to address malnutrition is needed to improve patient outcomes. The etiology and pathophysiology of malnutrition in liver diseases is multifactorial, as reduction in liver function affects both macronutrients and micronutrients. A need for nutritional status assessment for liver disease patients exists in all parts of the world. There are many widely studied tools in use to perform a thorough nutritional assessment, of which some tools are low cost and do not require extensive training. These tools can be studied and evaluated for use in the resource limited setting of a country like Pakistan. Treatment guidelines for proper nutrition maintenance in chronic liver disease exist for all parts of the world, but the knowledge and practice of nutritional counseling in Pakistan is poor, both amongst patients and physicians. Emphasis on assessment for nutritional status at the initial visit with recording of vital signs is needed. Simultaneously, treating physicians need to be made aware of the misconceptions surrounding nutritional restrictions in cirrhosis so that patient education is done correctly based on proper scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Desnutrição , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Paquistão/epidemiologia
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S71-S74, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibody levels (IgM and IgG), using ELISA in suspected patients of COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place & Duration of Study: Real Time PCR Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, from May to July 2020. METHODOLOGY: A total of 94 blood specimens were collected from suspected COVID-19 patients. The antibody levels (IgG and IgM) were determined, using a COVID-19 ELISA IgG and IgM kit. RESULTS: Out of a total 94 serum specimens, specimens were predominantly collected from males (70.2%, n=66) as compared to females (29.8%, n=28). Amongst six different age groups, the majority of the samples were found in the 31-45 years, 16-30 years, and 46-60 years groups, 42.6% (n=40), 23.4% (n=22) and 22.3% (n=21), respectively. Of the 94 suspected COVID-19 patients' serum specimens, IgG and IgM were detected in 29.8% (n=28) and 39.4% (n=37), specimens, respectively. The IgG antibodies were detected more in males (60.0%, n=18) than females (40.0%, n=12) samples. Similarly, IgM antibodies were also found more frequently in males (61.1%, n=22) as compared to females (38.9%, n=14). CONCLUSION: Detection of antibodies in COVID-19 infected patients provides vital clinical information for clinicians and could be used for the identification of suspected cases. Moreover, males were more prone to disease compared to females, and the 31-45 years age group was also more affected. Key Words: Serological assays, IgG, IgM, Peshawar, Pakistan.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S38-S41, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530547

RESUMO

Ensuring quality and safe care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic offers a challenge to already strained health systems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Pakistan with less shock-absorbing capacities. There is a dearth of evidence on mechanisms to provide optimum quality care to COVID-19 patients in the resource-constrained healthcare environment. The lessons learned from the Ebola virus outbreak for the deficient health systems and quality improvement are considered to propose strengthening the health systems response to deliver quality-assured care to patients during the current pandemic. In this regard, the World Health Organization (WHO) health systems framework can serve as a guiding principle towards providing quality-assured and safe healthcare services during the ongoing pandemic in Pakistan by ensuring the availability of an adequate workforce, medical supplies and equipment, strong governance, active information system, and adequate health financing to effectively manage COVID-19. Research evidence is needed to be better prepared for an effective and coordinated health systems response to offer quality and safe care to patients. Key Words: Health systems approach, COVID-19 pandemic, Quality of healthcare, Safe care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sistemas
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468516

RESUMO

The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan's herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468526

RESUMO

Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants. Malaria-positive microscopy isolates were spotted on filter papers for future Plasmodial molecular detection by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes specific primers. Since reconfirming the nPCR, a malariometric study of 762 patients found 679 positive malaria cases. Plasmodium vivax was 523 (77%), Plasmodium falciparum 121 (18%), 35 (5%) were with mixed-species infection (P. vivax plus P. falciparum), and 83 were declared negative by PCR. Among the five agencies of FATA, Khyber agency has the highest malaria incidence (19%) with followed by P. vivax (19%) and P. falciparum (4.1%). In contrast, Kurram has about (14%), including (10.8%) P. vivax and (2.7%) P. falciparum cases, the lowest malaria epidemiology. Surprisingly, no significant differences in the distribution of mixed-species infection among all five agencies. P. falciparum and P. vivax were two prevalent FATA malaria species in Pakistan's war-torn area. To overcome this rising incidence of malaria, this study recommends that initiating malaria awareness campaigns in school should be supported by public health agencies and malaria-related education locally, targeting children and parents alike.


Assuntos
Plasmodium , Criança , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468530

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation's i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Acetilcisteína , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Paquistão , Árvores
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468536

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to determine incidence of overweight and obesity in Pakistani servicemen with reference to their area of duty, feeding habits and also to identify risk factors. Accordingly, 2,501 servicemen selected from all over Pakistan using multiple stage stratified sampling protocol. Nutrition assessment performed using body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and dietary assessment using food frequency questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using the SPSS version 25. Regression was used to find risk factors of obesity and WHR. Results indicated that about 1/4th of servicemen were smokers. Approximately, 1/5th of them were overweight and about one quarter were eating fruits and vegetables for <3 days/ week and <4 days/week, respectively. Only 1/3rd of them were physically active for at least <40 minutes per day. Age and fruits intake were significantly predicting BMI with a direct relation and vegetable intake was negatively correlated to BMI of the servicemen. Age and rank were significant predictors of WHR while, physical activity was negatively correlated to WHR. It is concluded and suggested from our study that there is a need to modify eating patterns and habits as well as improving physical activity on daily basis for healthy and long life of the servicemen.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Paquistão , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 4)(8): S6-S10, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of index testing approach to test the parents and siblings of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children, and identify HIV-positive individuals. Methods: The study was conducted at Ratodero, Pakistan. Study participants were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2020. The list of HIV-positive persons was provided by the Sindh AIDS Control Programme. Families of 706 HIV-positive persons were approached and all of them agreed to participate. The first test was performed by trained outreach workers. All those with a reactive first test were transported to the nearest health facility for further testing and confirmation. Mothers and siblings were tested at home while additional visits were carried out to reach the fathers. RESULTS: A total of 1766 persons were tested through HIV index testing. Biological siblings accounted for 81% of the contacts. We were able to test 413/463 (89.2%) mothers, 232/413 (56.2%) fathers and 1121/1392 (80.5%) siblings. Out of these, 7 mothers (1.7%) and 22 siblings (2.0%) were confirmed to be HIV-positive, while no one was found to be positive among the fathers. The overall HIV prevalence was 1.6% (29/1766). All HIV-positive persons were guided for treatment and care. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that index-testing approach is feasible in Pakistan to expand HIV testing services through home visits.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Criança , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pais
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 4)(8): S11-S15, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a community-based cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women in taluka Ratodero, Larkana, and two adjacent talukas: Sajawal, district Kambar Shahdadkot and Garhi Yasin, district Shikarpur. Methods: The study was conducted among pregnant women in the three talukas of rural Sindh: Ratodero, Garhi Yasin, and Sajawal, from October 16, 2020 - December 23, 2020. A total of 1,157 pregnant women were interviewed at their homes and tested using the AlereTM HIV Combo rapid finger prick test. The study captured women's sociodemographic, economic, and health characteristics, including age, education, employment, number of children, home or hospital delivery, antenatal care use, antenatal trimester, history of blood transfusion, and HIV test result. Descriptive statistics were calculated: percentages for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables. RESULTS: It was found that 0.35% (4/1,157) of women were HIV-positive, of which 3 were in Ratodero, Larkana, and 1 was in Garhi Yasin, Shikarpur. The average age of women was 28.7 ± 4.0 years. Most of the women (n=1067; 92.2%) did not attend a school, and 99.0% (n=1145) had never had a formal job. The average gestational age was 7.6 (±2.2) months. More than three-quarters of the women participating in the study (n=894; 77.3%) were not registered with a formal healthcare facility for antenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: Considering several HIV sub-epidemics in Larkana in the past decade, HIV infection among pregnant women has remained low in Larkana and adjacent districts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 4)(8): S22-S25, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469424

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the problem of unlicensed practitioners and quacks in Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 districts of Sindh province in Pakistan from December 2019 to January 2020. Initial data available with Sindh Health Department about locations where quacks were practicing was used to identify unlicensed practitioners. A structured questionnaire was developed which contained information about certification of practitioners and an observational checklist was developed to assess infection prevention and control practices (IPC) and injection safety. RESULTS: A total of 4315 private practitioners were inspected out of which 3022 (70%) were unlicensed health practitioners belonging to different categories. Within the six surveyed divisions of Sindh, the highest proportion of unlicensed practitioners were documented in Shaheed Benazirabad division (n=739; 24.5%) followed by Hyderabad (n=599; 19.8%). In Mirpur Khas, there were 510 (16.9%), in Karachi 310 (10.3%), in Sukkur 484 (16%) and in Larkana there were 380 (12.6%) unlicensed practitioners. Poor IPC was observed in 89.4% (3861/4315) of all health providers. Reuse of syringes and intravenous drip sets was observed among 78.7% (1916/2432) of the untrained providers across the province. It was also found that 155 MBBS doctors had given their names on rent to be used as a signboard outside the clinics of some of the unlicensed practitioners. Conclusion: The problem of quackery is widespread in the Sindh province. It can be proactively addressed by shutting down all unlicensed practitioners and educating the community to avoid visiting them in order to reduce the probability of exposure to unsafe healthcare practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Charlatanismo , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
19.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(Suppl 4)(8): S26-S29, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the probability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission from different key HIV population groups using probabilistic modelling. Methods: This study was conducted in December 2020. A probabilistic model was used to estimate the probability of HIV-1 transmission from different key HIV population groups in Larkana. Our model was run on three probabilistic assumptions: 1) each replication gave two conceivable results: 'true' or 'false'; 2) the chance of giving a 'true' result is the same for each replication; and 3) the replications are independent - 'true' in one will not impact the likelihood of 'true' in another. RESULTS: The results estimated the probability of HIV transmission in key HIV population groups in Larkana to range between 0.42-0.54 per trial, where the highest probability of transmission was predicted for men who have sex with men (MSM; 0.54 per trial), followed by transgender (TG; 0.46 per trial) and people who inject drugs (PWID; 0.457 per trial). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is a high likelihood of HIV transmission by key population groups in Larkana, such as MSM, TG, and PWID. Mathematic models, such as one proposed in our study can aid the HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) control programmes in evaluating and optimising the strategies in controlling transmission of HIV from the key population groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690820, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485222

RESUMO

The world is currently gripped by the fear of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that attacks humans without prejudice, and primarily targets the respiratory system. Pakistan is a developing country with a large population and a weak economy. Currently, it is facing a major challenge to cope with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially the third wave. This fatal virus has increased its presence many folds in Pakistan. On average, 100 deaths per day were being recorded in the late spring of 2021. Delay in the acquisition of vaccine has slowed down the vaccination program for this disease. This in turn will accelerate the spreading of virus, and thus will lead to a lockdown situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
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