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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565143

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a great scarcity of literature in Pakistan investigating the proportion of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) who meet the recommended kidney diseases outcome quality initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), calcium phosphorus product (Ca x P) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Our study aimed to determine frequencies of patients who met the K/DOQI targets for these minerals at a tertiary care hospital's dialysis unit. Methods: 111 ESRD patients on maintenance HD were selected from a tertiary care hospital. Serum Ca and P were assayed on chemistry analyser. PTH was measured through electrochemiluminescence sandwich method. Data were compared with K/DOQI targets and analysed using SPSS-21. Results: The mean age of patients was 55.85 years (SD ± 13.95). Gender distribution was almost equal with 49.5% males and 50.5% females. The patients had mean corrected serum Calcium 9.12 ± 0.64 mg/dL, Phosphorus 4.57 ± 1.54 mg/dL and Parathyroid hormone 333.8 ± 278.4 pg/mL. The patients had achieved K/DOQI target ranges of Ca, P, PTH, Ca x P product and all 4 criteria in 63.1%, 47.6%, 38.7%, 84.7% and 10.8% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of patients on maintenance HD at our institution did not achieve the recommended K/DOQI target ranges. Further studies pertaining to the Asian subcontinent will prove resourceful for comparison of mineral metabolism and dialysis outcome of ESRD patients.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Fósforo/sangue , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Feminino , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190237, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increased use of colistin against infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has resulted in colistin resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene in colistin-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: A total of 146 clinical isolates of A. baumannii (n = 62) and P. aeruginosa (n = 84) were collected from the four largest tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. All bacterial isolates were phenotypically screened for multidrug resistance using the Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin in all isolates was phenotypically performed using dilution methods. mcr-1 gene was detected through polymerase chain reaction and the nucleotide sequence of amplicon was determined using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Approximately 96.7% A. baumannii and 83.3% P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Colistin resistance was found in 9.6% (6/62) of A. baumannii and 11.9% (10/84) of P. aeruginosa isolates. Among 16 colistin resistant isolates, the mcr-1 gene was detected in one A. baumannii (1.61% of total isolates; 16.6% of colistin resistant isolates) and one P. aeruginosa strain (1.19% of total isolates; 10% of colistin resistant isolates). Nucleotide BLAST showed 98-99% sequence similarity to sequences of the mcr-1 gene in GenBank. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports, for the first time, the emergence of plasmid-mediated mcr-1-encoded colistin resistance in multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Further large scales studies are recommended to investigate the prevalence of this mode of resistance in these highly pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Plasmídeos/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16812, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490367

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated pruritus is one of the most common symptoms found in patients who undergo dialysis for CKD, leading to a compromised quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the association between CKD-associated pruritus and the quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Pakistan.A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out from July 2016 to April 2017 in 2 tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Patients aged 18 years and above of both genders, undergoing hemodialysis, understood the Urdu language, and were willing to participate; were included.Of 354 recruited patients with a response rate of 100%, majority (66.1%) of the patients were males. The median (intra-quartile range [IQR]) age of patients was 42.0 [34.0-50.0] years. The prevalence of pruritus was 74%. The median [IQR] score for pruritus was 10.0 (out of possible 25) [8.0-12.0]. Multivariate linear regression revealed a statistically significant association between CKD-associated pruritus with age of patients (ß = 0.031; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002-0.061; P = .038), duration of CKD (ß = -0.013; 95% CI = -0.023 --0.003; P = .014) and quality of life (ß= -0.949; 95% CI = -1.450; -0.449). The median [IQR] score for health-related quality of life was 52.00 [43.00-58.00].Prevalence of CKD-associated pruritus was reported to be 74% and it negatively affected the patient's quality of life. Patients with moderate to severe CKD-associated pruritus have poor quality of life. With an increase in intensity of pruritus, the QOL score decreased among the patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Prurido/epidemiologia , Prurido/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel interactive and pictorial health education tool named Diabetes Conversation Map (DCM) might be effective for the improvement of diabetes management self-efficacy (DMSE) and diabetes distress (DD) among diabetic patients in lower middle-income setting. This study protocol will assess the effectiveness of DCM as compared to routine care (RC) to improve DMSE, decrease DD and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: This will be two arms randomized controlled trial, conducted at national institute of diabetes and endocrinology (NIDE) in Karachi, Pakistan. A sample of 120 T2DM patients of age 30-60 years with suboptimal diabetes control will be screened through eligibility criteria and DD screening tool. Patients who fulfill the eligibility criteria and have diabetes distress will be randomized into interventional and control arm. The intervention arm will receive four education sessions (40 min each) using DCM for 4 weeks duration of enrollment. Controlled arm will receive RC. DMSE and DD will be measured using the validated Likert tools at baseline and after 3 months of enrollment. Latest results of HbA1c will be retrieved from the respective medical record files at baseline and 3 months. Change in DMSE, DD scores and HbA1c levels within groups (pre-post) and between the groups after 3 months of enrollment will be compared. Multivariable linear regression will be conducted to adjust for any potential confounders. DISCUSSION: In a study in UK, 70% of the patients with diabetes reported DCM had helped them in controlling their diabetes and recommended this method to teach other patients with diabetes also. In China, a study found that patients with diabetes who received DCM based education had significantly lower DD and significantly higher diabetes empowerment score after six months of the intervention as compared to the traditional counselling. A cross sectional study conducted in Pakistan also demonstrated that teaching based on DCM was useful in improving the knowledge, attitude and practices of patients with T2DM. Besides, no other study has evaluated the effectiveness of these novel tools for DMSE and diabetes distress DD in well-designed, sufficiently powered clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03747471 . Date of registration: Nov 20. 2018. Version and Date of Protocol: Version 1, IRB Approval date 28 June 2018.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autoeficácia , Autogestão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , China , Comunicação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 620, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli lineage ST131 predominates across various spectra of extra-intestinal infections, including urinary tract infection (UTI). The distinctive resistance profile, diverse armamentarium of virulence factors and rapid global dissemination of ST131 E. coli makes it an intriguing pathogen. However, not much is known about the prevalence and genetic attributes of ST131 lineage in Pakistan. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and genetic attributes of E. coli ST131 isolates causing UTI among 155 randomly selected samples. Samples were analyzed for phylogenetic grouping, O-typing and fumC/fimH typing. Isolates were further tested for the ESBL and virulence factors using PCR. RESULTS: Overall, 59% of the UPEC isolates belonged to the phylogenetic group B2, followed by D = 28%, B1 = 8% and A = 5%. Among 18 different Sequence-types, ST131 was the dominant lineage (n = 71; 46%) out of which 72% of the isolates were assigned to the phylogenetic group B2, while 61% adhered to the serogroup O25b. FumC/fimH typing confirmed 49% of the ST131 as H30 sub-types. In this study, significant numbers of the identified ST131 isolates were MDR and 42% showed ESBL phenotypes, out of which 37% carried bla-CTX-M-15. Moreover, different virulence factors were detected in following percentages: fimH,155(100%), iutA 86 (55%), feoB 76 (49%), papC 75 (48%), papGII 70 (45%), kpsMTII 40 (26%), papEF 37 (24%), fyuA 37 (24%), usp 22 (14%), papA 20 (13%), sfa/foc20 (13%), hlyA 18 (12%), afa 15 (10%), cdtB 11 (7%), papGI 6 (4%), papGIII 6 (4%), kpsMTIII 4 (3%) and bmaE2 (1%). CONCLUSION: Conclusively, this study provides important insight into the genetic and virulence attributes of pandemic MDR ST131 strains involved in UTIs. It also highlights higher prevalence of ST131-O25b-H30 UPEC isolates in patients, which was previously unreported from this part of globe.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/classificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/classificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/classificação , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 587, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years Pakistan has faced frequent measles outbreaks killing hundreds of children despite the availability of vaccine for decades. This study was undertaken to determine the persistence of maternal transferred measles antibody levels in infants before measles vaccination with relation to their feeding practices. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at district Islamabad over 1 year between 1st October 2013 to 30th Sept. 2016. Any infant less than 9 months of age, not suffering from an acute or debilitating illness and not vaccinated was enrolled in the study. After taking written informed consent from parents / guardians, information was collected on a pretested questionnaire. About 3 cc venous blood was taken to quantify any measles IgG antibodies. Data was analyzed by using Epi Info 7.2 version. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-four infants were enrolled and were divided into three age groups, 1-90, 91-180 and 181-270 days age groups. Mean age of infants was 4.4 months ±3.2 SD. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. A level of maternal measles IgG antibodies ≥12 U/ml was taken as protective. Of total 384 infants, 91(24%) had protective measles antibody titters (> 12 U/ml). and 65 (73%) of them were on breast milk. Highest antibody levels were found in 1-90 days age group. Analysis showed that 181-270 days aged infants had 3.1875 more odds of having unprotected/ low levels of antibodies against measles than children aged less than 180 days. Age group < 180 days found to be statistically significant with protective IgG levels (OR: 3.1875, P value: < 0.000063). CONCLUSION: Measles protective antibodies were found in infants < 180 days age group. Breast feeding provides early protection against measles. Levels drop down to low levels immediately after birth and then after 06 months. It is, therefore, recommended that measles vaccination should be considered for administration at 6 months or even earlier if measles immunity is desired.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aleitamento Materno , Sarampo/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Placenta/imunologia , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 8(4): 324-329, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The measurement of corneal thickness by corneal pachymetry provides valuable information in the setting of corneal disease; however, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-based assessment of different corneal sectors has been scarce in Pakistan. DESIGN: We aimed to obtain a whole-corneal thickness map using SD-OCT and to evaluate its correlation with age, sex, and axial length. METHODS: Our study included 214 subjects with healthy corneas; each eye was scanned with an SD-OCT covering a 9-mm diameter, and reproducibility was evaluated in a subset of 50 participants by means of an identical scan protocol repeated by 2 different OCT operators. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed corneal thickness to be thinnest inferotemporally whereas thickest in the superior and superonasal quadrants. No statistically significant differences could be detected between male and female participants with respect to corneal thickness, age, intraocular pressure, axial length, and refractive errors. However, we identified a significant negative correlation between age and corneal thickness in all corneal sections, excluding the inner and middle superior, inner superonasal, and inner and middle superotemporal quadrants. Conversely, the correlation between axial length and corneal thickness was found to be positive in the central region (P = 0.03, R = 0.149), the outer inferotemporal quadrant (P = 0.012, R = 0.171), throughout the temporal quadrant (P = 0.024, R = 0.154 for inner; P = 0.025, R = 0.153 for middle; P = 0.006, R = 0.186 for outer), and in the inner superotemporal quadrant (P = 0.018, R = 0.162). CONCLUSIONS: Different corneal sectors may interact heterogeneously with patient-related characteristics. This may provide incentive to evaluate whole-corneal thickness as a distinct parameter for clinical identification of disease processes.


Assuntos
Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico , Paquimetria Corneana/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Doenças da Córnea/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 511, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346790

RESUMO

Arsenic is one of the naturally occurring heavy metal that has been reported to cause damaging effects on different body organs. This study was aimed to determine the arsenic level in different water sources and investigate the effect of arsenic exposure on risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human participants and experimental animals. We recruited 150 participants to investigate the arsenic exposure in their urine and from drinking water. We found that males contained significantly higher (P < 0.001) concentrations of urinary arsenic as compared with that of their female counterparts. Similarly, urinary arsenic concentration was high and showed significant association in the age of ≥ 60 years (P < 0.05), illiterate (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.0001), and diabetic (P < 0.0001) participants. Moreover, urinary arsenic exposure was also associated with higher levels of fasting (P < 0.001) and random blood glucose (P < 0.001), HbA1c (P < 0.001), AST, ALT, MDA, IL-6, CRP, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in arsenic-exposed diabetics as compared with that of unexposed diabetics. Further, we also exposed the white albino rats with arsenic in drinking water for 30 days and their blood glucose was measured at 15th and 30th days of treatment that was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. Similarly, arsenic-exposed animals failed to tolerate exogenously administered glucose (P < 0.001) as compared with that of unexposed animals. Likewise, insulin and glutathione concentrations were also significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in arsenic-exposed animals as compared with that of unexposed animals. The alterations in normal values of glucose, insulin, and glutathione exhibited the damaging effects of arsenic exposure in experimental rats. This study showed that arsenic exposed to human beings and animals through drinking water resulted in the disruption of pancreatic ß-cell functioning that provoked the risk factor for development of DM. This study also suggested that long-term arsenic exposure induces hyperglycemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress that may lead to the onset of development of DM.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23480-23490, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201697

RESUMO

Environmental degradations are mainly caused by the use of different energy resources for economic growth. This research examined the influence of energy consumption (coal consumption, oil consumption, and gas consumption) and economic growth on environmental degradation in Pakistan. This research used newly developed method dynamic ARDL simulations to scrutinize the actual influence of positive and negative change in the use of coal consumption, oil consumption, and gas consumption for energy and economic growth on environmental degradation in Pakistan. The examined results of dynamic ARDL indicate that economic growth, coal consumption, oil consumption, and natural gas consumption have positive impact on the environmental degradations in Pakistan both in short run and long run. It is suggested that environmental degradations can be reduced by promoting renewable energy sources for energy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Carvão Mineral , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Paquistão
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22494-22511, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161545

RESUMO

In this study, we proposed integrated tools to evaluate the wind power potential, economic viability, and prioritize 15 proposed sites for the installation of wind farms. Initially, we used modified Weibull distribution model coupled with power law to assess the wind power potential. Secondly, we employed value cost method to estimate per unit cost ($/kWh) of proposed sites. Lastly, we used Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (F-TOPSIS) to rank the best alternatives. The results indicate that Pakistan has enormous wind power potential that cost varies from 0.06 $/kWh to 0.58 $/kWh; thus, sites S12, S13, S14, and S15 are considered as the most economic viable locations for the installation of wind power project, while remaining sites are considered to be less important, due to other complexities. The further analysis using Fuzzy-TOPSIS method reveals that site S13 is the most optimal location followed by S12, S14, and S14 for the development of wind power project. We proposed that government should formulate wind power policy for the implementation of wind power projects in order to meet energy demand of the country.


Assuntos
Energia Renovável/economia , Vento , Análise Custo-Benefício , Lógica Fuzzy , Governo , Paquistão , Políticas , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22783-22793, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175570

RESUMO

Dependence of rural population on traditional fuel sources namely biomass has increased because of easy accessibility and affordability. The use of biomass fuels results in many environmental and health-related hazards. Rural households have little awareness about the ill effects of using biomass energy sources. This study investigated the patterns of rural household energy use and identified the role of information on the effects of biomasses on human health, in addition to other factors influencing households' choices of energy sources. For this purpose, primary data from 196 households were collected from four districts of the Punjab province in Pakistan. Results showed that use of clean energy sources was limited to basic appliances and 90% of the respondents depended on biomass fuels. Estimates of the multivariate probit model showed that awareness about adverse impacts of biomass fuels as energy sources were significantly related with the choice of energy sources. Further, household head's education level, household income, landholding, children under the age of 5 years and higher number of adult females were significantly related with the cleaner energy source choices. Distance to market increased the probability of the use of biomass energy sources. The study concluded that awareness campaigns regarding the benefits of using clean energy sources should be launched through print and electronic media while targeting rural women.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomassa , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
14.
Chemosphere ; 233: 652-659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195269

RESUMO

On July 27, 2003, a spill of approximately 31,000 tons of Iranian light crude oil affected the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Approximately 11 years after the spill, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues (alkyl-PAHs) as the indicators to evaluate the residual effect of oil spill to the sediment along the Karachi coast. The total concentrations (dry weight) of parent PAHs and alkyl-PAHs ranged from 121.9 to 735.4 and 42.3-1149.9 ng/g, respectively. The estuary and harbor were the two regions with the highest levels of PAHs in the sediment. Conversely, sedimentary PAHs in the oil spill areas and remote coastal areas showed significantly lower levels. Although the results of the source identification indicated the up to 75.2% of the contribution from petroleum and its derivatives, this could only reflect the direct impact of the Karachi city on the presence of PAHs in the coastal sedimentary environment and did not indicated that the oil spill continues to stay 11 years later. Compared with 11 years ago, the sharply reduced PAH content, great changed composition, and the degradation driven trend of diagnostic ratios all indicated a sharp decrease in the influence of PAHs caused by the oil spill. Finally, the ecological risk caused by the PAH residual in the marine sedimentary ecosystem had disappeared along the Karachi coasts, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão , Petróleo/análise
15.
Chemosphere ; 233: 705-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195275

RESUMO

Speciation and isotopic analyses of mercury (Hg) detected at high concentration (11-107 mg total Hg/kg) in the hair samples of Pakistani subjects were carried out to analyze whether the source of Hg was the skin cream or the soap they used. Liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometric speciation analysis revealed that the Hg in the hair was primarily inorganic. This result supported our assumption that skin care products were the source of the high concentration of Hg in hair, which was based on the statistical association found in our previous study because it is known that inorganic Hg compounds are added to some skin care products sold in some countries. Stable isotope ratios of the Hg in the hair samples of 6 subjects and 3 skin cream samples, which were reported to be used by the subjects, were measured by multi-collector ICP mass spectrometry after acid digestion. A comparison of the isotopic compositions of Hg in hair and skin cream in two subjects revealed that the composition in both samples matched in one subject, hence confirming that the products were the source of high Hg concentration in hair. However, the isotopic compositions of Hg in hair and skin cream did not match in the other subject demonstrating the presence of other exposure source(s).


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Humanos , Isótopos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Paquistão
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2213-2221, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183599

RESUMO

The Centrorhynchidae (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) is a cosmopolitan family commonly found in various avian and mammalian hosts. Within Centrorhynchidae, species of the genus Sphaerirostris Golvan, 1956 are usually parasitic in the digestive tract of various passerine birds. In the present study, adult specimens of Sphaerirostris picae (Rudolphi, 1819), the type species of this genus, were recovered from the small intestine of Acridotheres tristis (Sturnidae) and Dendrocitta vagabunda (Corvidae) in Pakistan. Molecular data from the nuclear or mitochondrial genome is either very limited or completely absent from this phylogenetically understudied group of acanthocephalans. To fill this knowledge gap, we sequenced and determined the internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) and the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of S. picae. The ITS rDNA of S. picae was 95.2% similar to that of Sphaerirostris lanceoides which is the only member of the Centrorhynchidae whose ITS rDNA is available in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree based on the amino acid sequences of 12 mt protein-coding genes (PCGs) placed S. picae close to Centrorhynchus aluconis in a monophyletic clade of Polymorphida which also contain members of the families Polymorphidae and Plagiorhynchidae on separate branches. The mt gene arrangement, nucleotide composition and codon usage of 12 PCGs were discussed and compared with those of other acanthocephalan mt genomes. Within the Centrorhynchidae, S. picae and C. aluconis showed 67.7-86.8% similarity in the nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rRNAs, where nad4L is the most conserved gene while atp6 is the least conserved. The similarity in amino acid sequences ranged from 68.1 to 91.8%, where cox1 was recorded as the most conserved gene, while atp6 is highly variable among 12 PCGs. This novel mt genome of S. picae provides genetic resources for further studies of phylogenetics and molecular epidemiology of acanthocephalans.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Paquistão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética
17.
J Environ Manage ; 245: 348-357, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158687

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization is changing the existing patterns of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) globally which is consequently increasing the Land Surface Temperature (LST) in many regions. Present study was focused on estimating the current and simulating the future LULC and LST trends in the alpine environment of lower Himalayan region of Pakistan. Past patterns of LULC and LST were identified through the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and multi-spectral Landsat satellite images during 1987-2017 data period. The Cellular automata (CA) model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were applied to simulate future (years 2032 and 2047) LULC and LST changes, respectively, using their past patterns. CA model was validated for the simulated and the estimated LULC for the year 2017 with an overall Kappa (K) value of 0.77 using validation modules in QGIS and IDRISI software. ANN method was validated by correlating the observed and simulated LST for the year 2017 with correlation coefficient (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE) values of 0.81 and 0.51, respectively. Results indicated a change in the LULC and LST for instance the built-up area was increased by 4.43% while agricultural area and bare soil were reduced by 2.74% and 4.42%, respectively, from 1987 to 2017. The analysis of LST for different LULC classes indicated that built-up area has highest temperature followed by barren, agriculture and vegetation surfaces. Simulation of future LULC and LST showed that the built-up area will be increased by 2.27% (in 2032) and 4.13% (in 2047) which led 42% (in 2032) and 60% (in 2047) of the study area as compared to 26% area (in 2017) to experience LST greater than 27 °C. A strong correlation between built-up area changes and LST was thus found signifying major challenge to urban planners mitigating the consequent of Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. It is suggested that future urban planning should focus on urban plantation to counter UHI phenomena in the region of lower Himalayas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Ilhas , Paquistão , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22907-22921, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177417

RESUMO

The transport infrastructure plays an imperative role in a country's progress. At the same time, it causes environmental degradation due to extensive use of fossil fuels. The transport system of Pakistan is largely dependent on nonrenewable energy sources (oil, coal, and gas), which are hazardous to environmental quality. This research uses an autoregressive distributive lag model (ARDL) to examine the impact of oil prices, energy intensity of road transport, economic growth, and population density on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of Pakistan's transport sector during the 1971-2014 period. The ARDL bounding test examines the cointegration and long-run relationships among the variables, and the directions of causal relationships are found through the Granger causality vector error correction model (VECM). The long-run results indicate that increases in oil prices and economic growth help to reduce the transport sector's CO2 emissions, while rising energy intensity, population concentration, and road infrastructure increase them, with population playing a dominant role. The findings of this study can help authorities in Pakistan to develop suitable energy policies for the transport sector. Among other recommendations, the study recommends investment in renewable energy projects and energy-efficient transport systems (e.g., light train, rapid transport system, and electric busses) and environmental taxes (subsidies) on the vehicles that use fossil fuels (renewable energy).


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Energia Renovável/economia , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Carvão Mineral , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eletricidade , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Combustíveis Fósseis , Investimentos em Saúde , Paquistão
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 23002-23009, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183751

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to find the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in feed, drinking water, and their residues in meat and internal organs in broilers at three different locations in Charsadda. For this purpose, a total of 48 representative water and feed samples and 240 meat and internal organs of broilers were collected. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Zn and Mn were found in feed samples. In water samples assessed for heavy metals, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Pb was observed at Umerabad and Kula Dher as compared with Nisatta whereas a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Ni was recorded at Umerabad as compared with Nisatta and Kula Dher. Similarly, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Mn in water was recorded at Kula Dher as compared with Nisatta and Umerabad. The concentration of Pb in water at all locations and the concentration of Ni at Umerabad were above the maximum permissible limits. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Pb in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles and a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Mn in the liver, gizzard, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers were recorded at Kula Dher. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn was recorded in the liver as compared with the gizzard, breast, and thigh muscles. It was concluded from the present study that broiler farms near the roadside/canal and waste disposal site/wastewater drains cause accomulaiton of high concentrations of some heavy metals in meat and internal organs of broiler birds.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Manganês/análise , Carne , Metais Pesados/química , Níquel/análise , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Águas Residuárias , Zinco/análise
20.
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