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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 1-17, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762312

RESUMO

A biophysical survey was conducted in 15 cotton-growing districts of Pakistan. Four hundred cotton growers were approached and inquired about the production technology of Bt cotton. Further, 25 strip tests using combo strips (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa and Cp4, EPSPS gene) were performed at each farmer's field. Out of 10,000 total-tested samples, farmers claimed 9682 samples as Bt and 318 samples as non-Bt. After performing a strip test, 1009 and 87 samples were found false negative and false positive, respectively. Only 53 samples were found positive for Cry2Ab, 214 for EPSPS and none for Vip3Aa gene. Quantification of Cry endotoxin and bioassay studies were performed by taking leaves from upper, middle, and lower canopies, and fruiting parts at approximately 80 days after sowing from 89 varieties. Expression was highly variable among different canopies and fruiting parts. Moreover, Cry endotoxin expression and insect mortality varied significantly among varieties from 0.26 µg g-1 to 3.54 µg g-1 with mortality ranging from 28 to 97%, respectively. Highest Cry1Ac expression (3.54 µg g-1) and insect mortality (97%) were observed for variety FH-142 from DG Khan. Cry endotoxin expression varied significantly across various plant parts, i.e., IUB-13 variety from upper canopy documented 0.34 µg g-1 expression with 37% insect mortality in Layyah to 3.42 µg g-1 expression and 96% insect mortality from DG Khan. Lethal dose, LD95 (2.20 µg g-1) of Cry1Ac endotoxin was optimized for effective control of H. armigera. Our results provided evidence of practical resistance in H. armigera and way forward.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Gossypium , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Paquistão , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 671, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009943

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is an emerging issue faced worldwide owing to rapid urbanization and extensive use of plastic products. The objective of this study was to determine and highlight the spatial distribution of microplastics (MPs) in the top soils of different land use types of an urbanized city, i.e., Lahore, Pakistan, influenced by different human activities. Soil samples (n = 40) were collected from eight different land use groups including agricultural areas, drains, dumping sites, industrial areas, lawns, parks, roadsides, and wastelands to represent the influence of corresponding human actions. After cleaning the samples through wet peroxide digestion and density separation, MPs were identified under a stereomicroscope. The range of MPs in top soils within Lahore district varied from 1750 to 12,200 MPs/kg with an average of 4483 ± 2315 MPs/kg. The highest concentration of MPs was present in the parks while the lowest numbers of MPs were enumerated in soil from dumping sites. About 99% of the identified MPs particles were fibers, sheets, and fragments in shape while foams and beads accounted for the rest. Moreover, among the size ranges, the large size MPs (300-5000 µm) were found in the majority (41.16%) followed by the fine size MPs (50-150 µm; 30.67%) and medium size MPs (150-300 µm; 28.17%). The current level of MPs pollution attracts the attention of researchers for a more comprehensive investigation in the future. It also incites the policy-makers to implement the regulations to prevent plastic pollution and its environmental implications.


Assuntos
Solo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Paquistão , Plásticos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.11, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055876

RESUMO

The new species of a ladybird beetle, Cryptogonus bhalwalnensis Azad Wang sp. nov. is described from Pakistan. Cryptogonus nepalensis bhutanensis Bielawski is recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Both species of Cryptogonus from Pakistan are diagnosed and illustrated; a distribution map is also presented.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Paquistão
4.
Zootaxa ; 4786(1): zootaxa.4786.1.8, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056500

RESUMO

A new, morphologically distinctive lacertid lizard of the genus Eremias (Rhabderemias) is described from the arid mountains of northwestern Balochistan Province in Pakistan. Eremias kakari sp. nov. has an isolated distribution and can be easily distinguished from all other species of mainly desert subgenus Rhabderemias (E. andersoni, E. cholistanica, E. fasciata, E. lineolata, E. pleskei, E. scripta, E. vermiculata). Apart from other differences, E. kakari sp. nov. can be distinguished from geographically close members of the subgenus Rhabderemias (E. cholistanica, E. fasciata, and E. scripta) by having a single row of subdigital lamellae and a complete row of lateral scales and hence three scales around the penultimate phalanx of 4th toe. The new species is morphologically (dorsal pattern) very similar to E. fasciata but can be distinguished from this species for having 22-26 subdigital lamellae under 4th toe, 48-55 dorsal scales across midbody, ventrals in 11-14 oblique longitudinal series across the belly, 17-21 femoral pores and 17-21 scales in the 9th-10th annulus posterior to the postcloacal granules. The new species is currently known only from the type locality situated in the Toba Kakar Range, near to Tanishpa village. However, we expect that Eremias kakari sp. nov. would have a broader range in northwestern Pakistan and southeastern Afghanistan. An identification key for the Pakistani Eremias, together with other remarks to the new species, is presented.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Paquistão
5.
Zootaxa ; 4763(2): zootaxa.4763.2.3, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056865

RESUMO

The leafhopper genus Stirellus Osborn Ball is revised from Pakistan with the description and illustrations of a new species Stirellus mankiensis Shah Duan sp. n. and a new record Stirellus tolla n. rec. to Pakistan. A checklist and key for the known species of Stirellus from Pakistan are also given in the present study.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Paquistão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4763(2): zootaxa.4763.2.10, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056872

RESUMO

The tropiduchid genera Epora Walker and Zema Fennah are recorded from Pakistan for the first time and Epora montana Distant is redescribed and illustrated.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Ortópteros , Animais , Montana , Paquistão
7.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.7, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055707

RESUMO

Tettigometra ziaratensis sp. nov. is described from Ziarat, Baluchistan, Pakistan; it is the first record of the genus Tettigometra Latreille, 1804 and the family Tettigometridae from this country. Sequence data for the barcoding region of the mitochondrial gene COI for this new species was obtained and deposited in GenBank.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Paquistão
8.
Zootaxa ; 4834(1): zootaxa.4834.1.10, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056138

RESUMO

Kamendaka saccharivora (Matsumura, 1910), originally described from Taiwan, is newly recorded from Pakistan and India and re-described and illustrated. This species represents the first record of the family Derbidae from Pakistan.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Paquistão
9.
Zootaxa ; 4821(2): zootaxa.4821.2.9, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056327

RESUMO

Ten intertidal sea spider (Pycnogonida) species from five families - Pycnogonidae (1 species), Ammotheidae (3 species), Callipallenidae (3 species), Phoxichilidiidae (2 species) and Endeidae (1 species) - are reported in the present study. Out of these ten species, four are first records from Pakistan, including a new species, Achelia karachiensis sp. nov. Intertidal zoanthid colonies have been found to provide shelter and food to a large and diverse Pycnogonid population at Sandspit and the Buleji, Karachi coast. This study highlights the significance of the intertidal fauna of pycnogonids of these areas and contributes to our understanding of the species diversity from the Karachi coast.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Artrópodes , Animais , Paquistão
10.
Zootaxa ; 4849(1): zootaxa.4849.1.1, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056748

RESUMO

A checklist of the dragonflies and damselflies occurring in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka is presented. In total 588 (including 559 full species) taxa are known to occur in the region of which 251 taxa (species subspecies) are single country endemics. Recent taxonomic changes relevant to the area are summarized. Sixteen taxa are synonymized and a checklist of all synonyms established since 1950 is provided. Information is given on available larval descriptions including a list of genera present in the region for which no larvae have yet been described. Numerous species occurring in the area are still poorly known and a list of genera for which a revision is urgently needed is provided.                The following new synonyms are established: Calicnemia sudhaae Mitra, 1994 = Calicnemia imitans Lieftinck, 1948 syn. nov.; Ceriagrion fallax cerinomelas Lieftinck, 1927 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Ceriagrion fallax pendleburyi Laidlaw, 1931 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Coenagrion kashmirus Chowdhary Das, 1975 = Ischnura forcipata Morton, 1907 syn. nov.; Enallagma insula Fraser, 1920 = Aciagrion occidentale Laidlaw, 1919 syn. nov.; Himalagrion pithoragarhicum Sahni, 1964 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Ischnura bhimtalensis Sahni, 1965 = Ischnura rubilio Selys, 1876 syn. nov.; Onychargia indica Sahni, 1964 = Paracercion calamorum (Ris, 1916) syn. nov.; Anaciaeschna kashmirense Singh Baijal, 1954 = Anaciaeschna martini (Selys, 1897) syn. nov.; Cyclogomphus vesiculosus Selys, 1854 = Cyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, 1954 syn. nov.; Chlorogomphus brittoi Navás, 1934 = Chlorogomphus xanthoptera (Fraser, 1919) syn. nov.; Hylaeothemis indica Fraser, 1946 = Hylaeothemis apicalis Fraser, 1924 syn. nov.; Sympetrum durum Bartenef, 1916 = Sympetrum striolatum commixtum Selys, 1884 syn. nov.; Sympetrum himalayanum Navás, 1934 = Sympetrum hypomelas (Selys, 1884) syn. nov.; Sympetrum haematoneura Fraser, 1924 = Sympetrum speciosum Oguma, 1915 syn. nov.; Sympetrum speciosum taiwanum Asahina, 1951 = Sympetrum speciosum Oguma, 1915 syn. nov.                In addition, Periaeschna lebasi Navás, 1930 is regarded a nomen nudum. The following new combinations are proposed: Onychogomphus acinaces Laidlaw, 1922 is transferred to the genus Melligomphus Chao, 1990 resulting in Melligomphus acinaces (Laidlaw, 1922) comb. nov. Onychogomphus saundersii Selys, 1854 is transferred to the genus Nychogomphus Carle, 1986 resulting in Nychogomphus saundersii (Selys, 1854) comb. nov..


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Bangladesh , Butão , Índia , Insetos , Nepal , Paquistão , Sri Lanka
11.
Zootaxa ; 4780(1): zootaxa.4780.1.7, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055760

RESUMO

Members of the dwarf geckos of the genus Microgecko Nikolsky, 1907 are distributed from western Iran to northwestern India, with seven currently recognized species. Three taxa have been reported from Pakistan, M. depressus, M. persicus persicus and M. p. euphorbiacola. The former is the only endemic species restricted to Pakistan. Herein, we describe a new species, Microgecko tanishpaensis sp. nov., on the basis of four specimens collected from the remote area of the Toba Kakar Range in northwestern Balochistan. The type locality lies in an isolated valley in mountainous terrain known for the occurrence of other endemic reptile species, including geckos. Microgecko tanishpaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the morphologically similar species M. depressus by possessing larger size, five scales bordering the nostril, internasals (supranasals) scales in contact with nostril, two large pairs of postmentals, higher numbers of interorbitals (27-30), scales around midbody (76-84), ventral scales from the postmental to vent (144-156) and scales along dorsal midline from axilla to groin (75-86). A morphological comparison of M. tanishpaensis sp. nov. with other species of the genus and an updated identification key for the genus Microgecko are presented.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Paquistão
12.
Zootaxa ; 4778(2): zootaxa.4778.2.11, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055829

RESUMO

The genus Olidiana McKamey, 2006 is reported for the first time from Pakistan based on the new species Olidiana pakistanica sp. nov. Photographic illustrations and a description are provided for the habitus and male genitalia of this new species. A partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence is also provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Paquistão
13.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.9, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056087

RESUMO

The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 is reported from Pakistan for the first time. Two new species of the Pholcus nenjukovi species-group are described: Pholcus hamuchal Yao Li sp. nov. (Gilgit Baltistan, male and female) and Pholcus kalam Yao Li sp. nov. (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, male and female). Type material is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão
14.
Zootaxa ; 4790(1): zootaxa.4790.1.13, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055864

RESUMO

A new species of the leafhopper genus Pseudosubhimalus Ghauri (Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Cicadulini), Pseudosubhimalus pakistanicus sp. n., is described from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Figures for habitus and genitalic characters are given for this new species and newly recorded species from Pakistan. A key to all the known species of the genus Pseudosubhimalus is provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Genitália , Paquistão
15.
Zootaxa ; 4789(1): zootaxa.4789.1.13, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056455

RESUMO

The leafhopper genus Batracomorphus Lewis, 1834 is reported for the first time from Pakistan. A new species Batracomorphus pakistanicus sp. nov. is described with photographic illustrations.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Paquistão
16.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.6, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056880

RESUMO

The peculiar lebiine genus Disciferella gen. n. is described as a representative of the subtribe Dromiusina Bonelli, 1810. The genus is very distinct habitually and could be easily recognized among other lebiines already by its appearance. In combination of its distinctive features, it is most similar to the enigmatic monotypic genus Brachynopterus, but distinguished from it by several sufficient characters, including the shape of the gonocoxite which is very characteristic (elongate and slightly arcuate) in the latter genus and typical for Dromiusina (short and wide) in Disciferella gen. n. The new genus includes two newly described species: D. kabakovi sp. n. (type species) from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and D. psammophila sp. n. from south-eastern Iran. The very characteristic habitus of the two new species with their wide discoidal elytra is similar to that of some species of the genera Discoptera Semenov, 1889 and Graphipterus Latreille, 1802 living in sandy habitats. This resemblance suggests a similar specialized mode of life, most likely in sandy deserts and dunes. The systematic position of the new genus is discussed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Afeganistão , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão
17.
Zootaxa ; 4759(3): zootaxa.4759.3.4, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056907

RESUMO

A new species of a ladybird beetle, Sasajiscymnus nigritus sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Pakistan. An identification key to Pakistani species of Sasajiscymnus Vandenberg is provided. A preliminary checklist of species of Sasajiscymnus in Asia is also included.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Paquistão
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 715, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079243

RESUMO

The release of natural radioactive materials with the emission of fly ash as a result of coal burning in power generation plants is considered amongst the sources that elevate the technologically environmental radioactivity level. This research mainly concerns the assessment of various radiological parameters including excess lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactive contents associated with fly ash emitted to the surrounding environment from the stack of 1320 Mw Sahiwal coal-fuelled power generation plant (CFPP). For this purpose, fifty-four soil samples were collected in a radius of 4 Km from CFPP and a highly background radiation-shielded HPGe system is used to measure radioactivity in the collected samples. The activity concentrations of radium-226, potassium-40, and thorium-232 in collected samples was found to be in the range of 20 to 138, 43 to 860, and 27 to 127 Bq/kg with average values of 66, 409, and 67 Bq/kg respectively. Activity concentrations of radium-226 and thorium-232 were observed significantly higher than UNSCEAR reported typical global average values. A significant decrease in the level of the aforementioned radionuclides in the collected soil samples was observed with increasing distance from the power plant, which is a clear indication for the elevation of radioactivity concentrations in the surrounding environment as a result of the operation of the CFPP. To assess the radiation dose delivered to the occupational workers and inhabitants living next to Sahiwal CFPP, absorbed γ-dose rate (Dγ), outdoor annual effective dose rate (EOutdoor), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were estimated and these were found higher than the UNSCEAR recommended values of 59 nGy/h, 0.07 mSv/y, and 2.9 × 10-4 respectively. The outcome of this first systematic study is the assessment of potential radiological health risk to the occupational workers as well as the inhabitants living in the proximity of this CFPP.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Radioatividade , Carvão Mineral/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Paquistão , Centrais Elétricas , Doses de Radiação
19.
Zootaxa ; 4767(2): zootaxa.4767.2.6, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056567

RESUMO

Two specimens of a species herein identified as Holothuria (Lessonothuria) insignis Ludwig, 1875 and a single specimen identified as Holothuria (Lessonothuria) lineata Ludwig, 1875, were collected from the intertidal zone at low tide from two coastal localities in Karachi (Buleji and Sunahri). This paper briefly documents their morphology and habitat characteristics and formally resurrects H. (L.) insignis from the synonymy of H. (L.) pardalis Selenka, 1867, based on the observations of the ossicles assemblage deduced from current material, syntype, some material at the NHMUK (Natural History Museum,UK), and literature. H. pardalis is also commented on and compared with its related congeners in Pakistan, in tabular form. A key is presented of all species of the Lessonothuria group currently recognized in WoRMS.


Assuntos
Holothuria , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Equinodermos , Museus , Paquistão
20.
Zootaxa ; 4845(2): zootaxa.4845.2.11, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056780

RESUMO

The territory of Pakistan has been influenced by biota from different geographic directions, and is divided zoogeographically into the Palearctic and Oriental regions (Khan 2006; Masroor 2012). This makes Pakistan one of the important territories in Eurasia in the understanding of past biodiversity dynamics. Well-known examples of Oriental elements among its amphibian fauna are observed in all four families of toads and frogs currently known from Pakistan: Bufonidae, Microhylidae, Megophryidae, and Dicroglossidae. In this short contribution, we focused on the species status and the origins of the genus Microhyla (Microhylidae), known from the north-eastern part (Punjab, Islamabad, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir; Masroor 2012) of the country. However, Sarkar (1984), also reported Microhyla from Bhuj in Gujarat, India, very close to the southern Pakistani province of Sindh. This genus has not yet been reported from the Palearctic region of the country and all currently known localities are from the Oriental parts of Pakistan (i.e. eastward of the Indus River). The genus is represented in the country by M. ornata (Duméril Bibron, 1841), originally reported as Oxyglossus lima (Khan 1968). However, in view of the overall distribution and diversity of the genus based on genetic data (Garg et al. 2018, 2019; Gorin et al. 2020), it appears that populations from Pakistan could possibly have a different evolutionary history and be different taxon (see the currently scattered range of the genus between northern and western India and Pakistan; Fig. 1). Therefore, we tested this assumption using mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (n) DNA data.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
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