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7.
Crit Care Resusc ; 22(1): 26-34, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with prolonged cardiac arrest that is not responsive to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation have poor outcomes. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in refractory cardiac arrest has shown promising results in carefully selected cases. We sought to validate the results from an earlier extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) study (the CHEER trial). METHODS: Prospective, consecutive patients with refractory in-hospital (IHCA) or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) who met predefined inclusion criteria received protocolised care, including mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initiation of ECMO, and early coronary angiography (if an acute coronary syndrome was suspected). RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in the study (11 OHCA, 14 IHCA); the median age was 57 years (interquartile range [IQR], 39-65 years), and 17 patients (68%) were male. ECMO was established in all patients, with a median time from arrest to ECMO support of 57 minutes (IQR, 38-73 min). Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed on 18 patients (72%). The median duration of ECMO support was 52 hours (IQR, 24-108 h). Survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological recovery occurred in 11/25 patients (44%, of which 72% had IHCA and 27% had OHCA). When adjusting for lactate, arrest to ECMO flow time was predictive of survival (odds ratio, 0.904; P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: ECMO for refractory cardiac arrest shows promising survival rates if protocolised care is applied in conjunction with predefined selection criteria.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Reperfusão Miocárdica , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 61, 2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantitatively summarize the available epidemiological evidence on the survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases, and the references of retrieved articles were manually reviewed to identify studies reporting the outcome of OHCA patients who received CPR. The overall incidence and outcome of OHCA were assessed using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 141 eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 29.7% (95% CI 27.6-31.7%), the rate of survival to hospital admission was 22.0% (95% CI 20.7-23.4%), the rate of survival to hospital discharge was 8.8% (95% CI 8.2-9.4%), the pooled 1-month survival rate was 10.7% (95% CI 9.1-13.3%), and the 1-year survival rate was 7.7% (95% CI 5.8-9.5%). Subgroup analysis showed that survival to hospital discharge was more likely among OHCA patients whose cardiac arrest was witnessed by a bystander or emergency medical services (EMS) (10.5%; 95% CI 9.2-11.7%), who received bystander CPR (11.3%, 95% CI 9.3-13.2%), and who were living in Europe and North America (Europe 11.7%; 95% CI 10.5-13.0%; North America: 7.7%; 95% CI 6.9-8.6%). The survival to discharge (8.6% in 1976-1999 vs. 9.9% in 2010-2019), 1-month survival (8.0% in 2000-2009 vs. 13.3% in 2010-2019), and 1-year survival (8.0% in 2000-2009 vs. 13.3% in 2010-2019) rates of OHCA patients who underwent CPR significantly increased throughout the study period. The Egger's test did not indicate evidence of publication bias for the outcomes of OHCA patients who underwent CPR. CONCLUSIONS: The global survival rate of OHCA patients who received CPR has increased in the past 40 years. A higher survival rate post-OHCA is more likely among patients who receive bystander CPR and who live in Western countries.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 60, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The knowledge of new prognostic factors in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) that can be evaluated since the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) manoeuvres could be helpful in the decision-making process of prehospital care. We aim to identify metabolic variables at the start of advanced CPR at the scene that may be associated with two main outcomes of CPR (recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurological outcome). METHODS: Prospective observational study of all non-traumatic OHCA in patients older than 17 years assisted by emergency medical services (EMS), with doctor and nurse on board, between January 2012 and December 2017. Venous blood gases were sampled upon initially obtaining venous access to determine the initial values of pH, pCO2, HCO3-, base excess (BE), Na+, K+, Ca2+ and lactate. ROSC upon arrival at the hospital and neurological status 30 days later (Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale) were recorded. RESULTS: We included 1552 patients with OHCA with blood test data in a 6-year period. ROSC was achieved in 906 cases (58.4%), and good neurological recovery at 30 days (CPC I-II) occurred in 383 cases (24.68%). In multivariate analysis, we found a significant relationship between non-recovery of spontaneous circulation (no-ROSC) and low pH levels (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.03 (0.002-0.59), p = 0.020), high pCO2 levels (adjusted OR 1.03 [1.01-1.05], p = 0.008) and high potassium levels (adjusted OR 2.28 [1.43-3.61], p = 0.008). Poor neurological outcomes were associated with low pH levels (adjusted OR 0.06 [0.02-0.18], p < 0.001), high pCO2 (adjusted OR 1.05 [1.03-1.08], p < 0.001), low HCO3- (adjusted OR 0.97 [0.94-0.999], p = 0.044), low BE (adjusted OR 0.96 [0.93-0.98], p < 0.001) and high potassium levels (adjusted OR 1.37 [1.16-1.60], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is a significant relationship between severe alterations of venous blood-gas variables and potassium at the start of CPR of non-traumatic OHCA and low-ROSC rate and neurological prognosis.


Assuntos
Gasometria , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(1): 49-56, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185854

RESUMO

Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad, en relación al retorno a circulación espontánea, la supervivencia al alta y la supervivencia al alta con buen estado neurológico, del acceso intraóseo frente al acceso venoso en la resucitación en parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria. Método. Se realiza una revisión sistemática y metanálisis en las bases de datos Medline (PubMed), Embase, Web of Science y Cochrane Library. Se incluyeron estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos registrados en las bases de datos mencionadas desde el 1 de enero de 1950 hasta el 31 de mayo de 2019, en los que la población incluida fueran pacientes adultos en situación de parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria y que tuvieran canalizado un acceso intraóseo o intravenoso. La evaluación del riesgo de sesgo se realizó mediante la herramienta de evaluación de sesgo de Cochrane y la herramienta GRADE. Resultado. Se identificaron 434 referencias de las que 5 se incluyen en la síntesis cualitativa y cuantitativa. El acceso intraóseo se relaciona con una peor tasa de retorno a circulación espontánea [OR 0,69 (IC 95%: 0,57-0,83), p = 0,02, I2 = 65%] y una peor supervivencia al alta hospitalaria [OR 0,65 (IC 95%: 0,51-0,83); p < 0,01, I2 = 30%] en comparación con el acceso venoso. Conclusiones. El acceso intraóseo en pacientes en situación de parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria se relaciona con peores resultados en términos de retorno a circulación espontánea y supervivencia al alta hospitalaria


Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of intraosseous access versus venous access in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital discharge with or without favorable neurologic status. Methods. Systematic review and meta-analysis of articles indexed in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Other terms adapted to the language of each index were also used. We included observational studies and clinical trials published from January 1, 1950, to May 31, 2019, if the study population included adult patients in cardiac arrest outside the hospital and in whom an intraosseous or intravenous catheter was inserted. Risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) tools. Results. We identified 434 papers to include in the qualitative review and 5 studies for meta-analysis. Intraosseous access was related to a lower rate of ROSC (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.83; P = .02; I2 = 65%) and worse survival to discharge (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.83); P<.01, I2 = 30%). Conclusion. Intraosseous access in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is related to poorer outcomes in terms of ROSC and survival at hospital discharge


Assuntos
Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Morte Súbita , Fibrilação Ventricular , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Razão de Chances
11.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 46-53, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956145

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), dispatcher assistance (DA), and location of arrest on survival and outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).From a nationwide population-based registry of OHCA patients in Japan, we enrolled adult patients with bystander-witnessed OHCA of medical origin between 2013 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was a neurologically favorable outcome, defined by cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bystander CPR and DA by location of arrest. A total of 104,621 cases were included (15,984 bystander CPR without DA [15.3%], 40,087 bystander CPR with DA [38.3%], and 48,550 no bystander CPR [46.4%]). In public locations, both the bystander-CPR-with-DA group (22.9% [1,068/4,665]; adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-1.85) and the bystander-CPR-without-DA group (25.8% [918/3,557]; AOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.65) had neurologically favorable outcomes compared with the no-bystander-CPR group (9.9% [610/6,133]). In residential locations, the AORs were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.22-1.70) in the bystander-CPR-without-DA group and 1.60 (95% CI, 1.45-1.77) in the bystander-CPR-with-DA group. However, in nursing homes, bystander CPR was not associated with improved outcomes of OHCA, regardless of the implementation of DA.Bystander CPR with or without DA had better outcomes after OHCA in residential and public locations but not in nursing homes.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18658, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914051

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Despite increasing number of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) protocol for patients with LVAD, especially in out-of-hospital settings are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 41-year-old LVAD implanted man became cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital setting. Bystander CPR was started and the patient was brought to our hospital without noticing LVAD. Upon arrival, the medical staff noted the LVAD and that the battery of the LVAD was exhausted. DIAGNOSIS: Cardiac arrest on LVAD. INTERVENTIONS: It took 50 minutes to change the battery, then the patient has become ventricular fibrillation; hence, we introduced extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and defibrillated the patient. After the sinus rhythm was restored, the LVAD started working uneventfully. OUTCOMES: The patient became brain dead. LESSONS: There are several difficulties in treating these patients. First, hemodynamic collapse is difficult to diagnose. Second, chest compression for LVAD implanted patients remains controversial. Third, education to first responders who are not familiar with LVAD are not enough. Appropriate education for those issues is needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Cardioversão Elétrica , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Fibrilação Ventricular/etiologia , Fibrilação Ventricular/terapia
14.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 67-69, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789819

RESUMO

The patient was a 5-year-old boy who was found in a state of cardiorespiratory arrest in the tub of a washing machine without water with the door closed. The autopsy findings included severe facial congestion and petechiae of the facial skin and palpebral conjunctiva. Several organs exhibited congestion. Hemorrhagic spots were seen on the serous membranes of various organs, with particularly marked hemorrhagic spots seen on the lungs. The heart contained fluid blood without soft clots. There were no findings indicative of marked trauma, intoxication, or hyperthermia. The examination results suggested that asphyxia had occurred in this case. However, there were no findings indicative of cervical compression, oronasal obstruction, or the presence of a foreign body in the respiratory tract. Image analysis showed the child could make postural changes inside the washing machine tub. Consequently, impaired thoracic movement and postural asphyxia were considered unlikely to have occurred. The results of blood gas analysis showed no evidence of marked hypercapnia. We, therefore, concluded that the cause of the child's death was asphyxia due to hypoxia caused by being in a closed space, that is, a washing machine tub.


Assuntos
Asfixia/etiologia , Espaços Confinados , Hipóxia/etiologia , Lavanderia/instrumentação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Acidentes Domésticos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual , Masculino
15.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(1): 53-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Bystander assistance is decisive to enhance the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Despite an increasing number of basic life support (BLS) training methods, the most effective formula remains undefined. To identify a gold standard, we performed a systematic review describing reported BLS training methods for laypeople and analyzed their effectiveness. METHODS: We reviewed the MEDLINE database from January 2006 to July 2018 using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, considering all studies training adult laypeople in BLS and performing practical skill assessment. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of the studies using the MERSQI (Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument) scale. RESULTS: Of the 1263 studies identified, 27 were included. Most of them were nonrandomized controlled trials and the mean quality score was 13 out of 18, with substantial agreement between reviewers. The wide heterogeneity of contents, methods and assessment tools precluded pooling of data. Nevertheless, there was an apparent advantage of instructor-led methods, with feedback-supported hands-on practice, and retraining seemed to enhance retention. Training also improved attitudinal aspects. CONCLUSIONS: While there were insufficiently consistent data to establish a gold standard, instructor-led formulas, hands-on training with feedback devices and frequent retraining seemed to yield better results. Further research on adult BLS training may need to seek standardized quality criteria and validated evaluation instruments to ensure consistency.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos
16.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(1): 43-51, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to ILCOR (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation) recommendations (released in 2003), use of therapeutic hypothermia is recommended for unconscious adult patients who have survived a cardiac arrest regardless of the initial monitored cardiac rhythm. Thereby, the treatment goal is to achieve and maintain a body temperature of 32-34 °C for a period of 12-24 h. According to the October 2015 recommendations of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC), targeted temperature management (TTM) remains part of treatment, but, as an option, it is advised that the targeted body temperature be 36 °C rather than 32-34 °C. PATIENT POPULATION AND METHODS: For a non-randomized retrospective observational study, a total of 149 patients were treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) between May 1999 and September 2009. For the first 4 days after CPR, data associated with demography, resuscitation, therapy (temperature course, neuron-specific enolase [NSE]) and clinical-neurological development (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]) were collected. In the study, patients receiving mild hyperthermia were compared with those who did not receive hypothermia. RESULTS: Of the 149 patients included, 90 were treated with mild hypothermia (as decided by the attending physician), while 59 received no hypothermia therapy. Assessment reveals that mild hypothermia positively influences clinical-neurological progression, but not survival. On day three and four, patients with an unfavorable neurological progression exhibited significantly increased serum levels of NSE (day 4: 108.7 ± 137.3 ng/ml versus 25.5 ± 15.4 ng/ml). Patients receiving hypothermia showed lower average NSE levels compared with persons not receiving hypothermia. Furthermore, during the first 4 days, their NSE values tended to increase slower (NSE value at day 4: 55.9 ± 64.9 ng/ml versus 129.9 ± 174.9 ng/ml). The best cut-off-value for an unfavorable neurological result was 74.2 ng/ml at day four (specificity 100%, sensitivity 48.6%). For the group of patients who received hypothermia, the best cut-off-value was 74.2 ng/ml at day four (specificity 100%, sensitivity 40.9%), and, for the comparison group, best cut-off-value was 25.5 ng/ml at day three (specificity 100%, sensitivity 88.2%). CONCLUSION: After out-of-hospital resuscitation, there is a trend for improved clinical-neurological progression with mild hypothermia but it does not influence the prognostic significance of serum NSE. After assessment of available data, it is not possible to recommend uniform cut-off values for patients who received mild therapeutic hypothermia and for those who did not receive hypothermia treatment.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase , Adulto , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/análise , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2255-2262, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80% of public-access defibrillation attempts do not result in sustained return of spontaneous circulation in patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and a shockable heart rhythm before arrival of emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. Neurological and survival outcomes in such patients have not been evaluated. We aimed to assess the neurological status and survival outcomes in such patients. METHODS: This is a retropective analysis of a cohort study from a prospective, nationwide, population-based registry of 1 299 784 patients who had an OHCA event between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2015 in Japan. The primary outcome was favourable neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2) at 30 days after the OHCA and the secondary outcome was survival at 30 days following the OHCA. This study is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN000009918. FINDINGS: We identified 28 019 patients with bystander-witnessed OHCA and shockable heart rhythm who had received CPR from a bystander. Of these, 2242 (8·0%) patients did not achieve return of spontaneous circulation with CPR plus public-access defibrillation, and 25 087 (89·5%) patients did not achieve return of spontaneous circulation with CPR alone before EMS arrival. The proportion of patients with a favourable neurological outcome was significantly higher in those who received public-access defibrillation than those who did not (845 [37·7%] vs 5676 [22·6%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] after propensity score-matching, 1·45 [95% CI 1·24-1·69], p<0·0001). The proportion of patients who survived at 30 days after the OHCA was also significantly higher in those who received public-access defibrillation than those who did not (987 [44·0%] vs 7976 [31·8%]; adjusted OR after propensity score-matching, 1·31 [95% CI 1·13-1·52], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the benefits of public-access defibrillation and greater accessibility and availability of automated external defibrillators in the community. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Desfibriladores , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Logradouros Públicos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
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