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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21452, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for patients following cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythm is debated. We plan to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis with all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to explore the efficacy and safety of TH in in this population. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library will be searched to identify RCTs published from inception through December 2020 without language restriction. Patients following cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythm will be included. The primary outcome is the hospital mortality. The secondary outcome is the favorable neurological outcome. The pooled effects will be analyzed as mean differences using the inverse-variance method for continuous data or as risk ratios using the Mantel-Haenszel method for dichotomous data. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted. The Egger's test and/or the funnel plot will be used to test the publication bias. The grades of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology will be used to assess the quality of evidence. The trial sequential analysis will be used to test whether the meta-analysis is conclusive. RESULTS: The RCTs on the effectiveness of TH for patients following cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythm will be systematically reviewed and advance evidence will be provided. CONCLUSION: Advanced evidence of TH for cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythm will be provided for physicians. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020161823.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 474, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital circumstances, cardiac arrest characteristics, comorbidities and clinical status on admission are strongly associated with outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Early prediction of outcome may inform prognosis, tailor therapy and help in interpreting the intervention effect in heterogenous clinical trials. This study aimed to create a model for early prediction of outcome by artificial neural networks (ANN) and use this model to investigate intervention effects on classes of illness severity in cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: Using the cohort of the TTM trial, we performed a post hoc analysis of 932 unconscious patients from 36 centres with OHCA of a presumed cardiac cause. The patient outcome was the functional outcome, including survival at 180 days follow-up using a dichotomised Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale with good functional outcome defined as CPC 1-2 and poor functional outcome defined as CPC 3-5. Outcome prediction and severity class assignment were performed using a supervised machine learning model based on ANN. RESULTS: The outcome was predicted with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.891 using 54 clinical variables available on admission to hospital, categorised as background, pre-hospital and admission data. Corresponding models using background, pre-hospital or admission variables separately had inferior prediction performance. When comparing the ANN model with a logistic regression-based model on the same cohort, the ANN model performed significantly better (p = 0.029). A simplified ANN model showed promising performance with an AUC above 0.852 when using three variables only: age, time to ROSC and first monitored rhythm. The ANN-stratified analyses showed similar intervention effect of TTM to 33 °C or 36 °C in predefined classes with different risk of a poor outcome. CONCLUSION: A supervised machine learning model using ANN predicted neurological recovery, including survival excellently, and outperformed a conventional model based on logistic regression. Among the data available at the time of hospitalisation, factors related to the pre-hospital setting carried most information. ANN may be used to stratify a heterogenous trial population in risk classes and help determine intervention effects across subgroups.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Hipotermia Induzida , Redes Neurais de Computação , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857778

RESUMO

The present meta-analysis was based on the available studies to determine the potential role of the initial and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) in monitoring the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and predicting the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Three electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify the studies that investigated the role of rSO2 on ROSC in CA patients throughout May 2018. The weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to estimate the pooled effect using a random-effects model. Sensitivity, subgroup analyses, and publication bias were conducted. A total of 13 studies involving 678 CA patients (300 in-hospital (IH) patients, and 378 out-hospital (OH) patients) were included. The summary WMD suggested that ROSC patients were associated with higher initial rSO2 (WMD: 10.10%; 95% CI: 5.66-14.55; P<0.001) and mean rSO2 (WMD: 14.16%; 95% CI: 10.51-17.81; P<0.001) levels during CA and ROSC as compared to the non-ROSC. The results of meta-regression suggested that the male percentage and the location of cardiac arrest might bias the initial or mean rSO2 and the incidence of ROSC. These significant differences were observed in nearly all subsets. The findings of this study suggested that high initial or mean rSO2 levels were both associated with an increased incidence of ROSC in CA patients undergoing CPR. These correlations might be affected by the percentage of males or the location of cardiac arrest, thereby necessitating further large-scale studies to substantiate whether these correlations differ according to gender and the location of cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Oximetria/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Oxigênio/sangue , Prognóstico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(8): e428-e436, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases an individual's chance of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but the frequency of bystander CPR is low in many communities. We aimed to assess the cumulative effect of CPR-targeted public health interventions in Singapore, which were incrementally introduced between 2012 and 2016. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of adult, non-traumatic OHCAs, through the Singapore registry. National interventions introduced during this time included emergency services interventions, as well as dispatch-assisted CPR (introduced on July 1, 2012), a training programme for CPR and automated external defibrillators (April 1, 2014), and a first responder mobile application (myResponder; April 17, 2015). Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we modelled the likelihood of receiving bystander CPR with the increasing number of interventions, accounting for year as a random effect. FINDINGS: The Singapore registry contained 11 465 OHCA events between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2016. Paediatric arrests, arrests witnessed by emergency medical services, and healthcare-facility arrests were excluded, and 6788 events were analysed. Bystander CPR was administered in 3248 (48%) of 6788 events. Compared with no intervention, likelihood of bystander CPR was not significantly altered by the addition of emergency medical services interventions (odds ratio [OR] 1·33 [95% CI 0·98-1·79]; p=0·065), but increased with implementation of dispatch-assisted CPR (3·72 [2·84-4·88]; p<0·0001), with addition of the CPR and automated external defibrillator training programme (6·16 [4·66-8·14]; p<0·0001), and with addition of the myResponder application (7·66 [5·85-10·03]; p<0·0001). Survival to hospital discharge increased after the addition of all interventions, compared with no intervention (OR 3·10 [95% CI 1·53-6·26]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: National bystander-focused public health interventions were associated with an increased likelihood of bystander CPR, and an increased survival to hospital discharge. Understanding the combined impact of public health interventions might improve strategies to increase the likelihood of bystander CPR, and inform targeted initiatives to improve survival from OHCA. FUNDING: National Medical Research Council, Clinician Scientist Award, Singapore and Ministry of Health, Health Services Research Grant, Singapore.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Singapura/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520938

RESUMO

STUDY AIM: Rates of out of hospital cardiac arrest are higher in deprived communities. Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (BCPR) can double the chance of survival but occurs less often in these communities in comparison to more affluent communities. People living in deprived communities are, therefore, doubly disadvantaged and there is limited evidence to explain why BCPR rates are lower. The aim of this paper is to examine the barriers to administering BCPR in deprived communities. METHOD: Mixed method qualitative study with ten single sex focus groups (n = 61) conducted in deprived communities across central Scotland and 18 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders from the UK, Europe and the USA. RESULTS: Two key themes related to confidence and environmental factors were identified to summarise the perceived barriers to administering BCPR in deprived communities. Barriers related to confidence included: self-efficacy; knowledge and awareness of how, and when, to administer CPR; accessing CPR training; having previous experience of administering BCPR; who required CPR; and whether the bystander was physically fit to give CPR. Environmental barriers focused on the safety of the physical environment in which people lived, and fear of reprisal from gangs or the police. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to administering BCPR identified in the general population are relevant to people living in deprived communities but are exacerbated by a range of contextual, individual and environmental factors. A one-size-fits-all approach is not sufficient to promote 'CPR readiness' in deprived communities. Future approaches to working with disadvantaged communities should be tailored to the local community.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/psicologia , Primeiros Socorros/psicologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medo , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Características de Residência , Segurança , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(32): 3045-3054, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562486

RESUMO

AIMS: An increase in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) incidence has been reported in the very early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic, but a clear demonstration of a correlation between the increased incidence of OHCA and COVID-19 is missing so far. We aimed to verify whether there is an association between the OHCA difference compared with 2019 and the COVID-19 epidemic curve. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all the consecutive OHCAs which occurred in the Provinces of Lodi, Cremona, Pavia, and Mantova in the 2 months following the first documented case of COVID-19 in the Lombardia Region and compared them with those which occurred in the same time frame in 2019. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 from 21 February to 20 April 2020 in the study territory was 956 COVID-19/100 000 inhabitants and the cumulative incidence of OHCA was 21 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with a 52% increase as compared with 2019 (490 OHCAs in 2020 vs. 321 in 2019). A strong and statistically significant correlation was found between the difference in cumulative incidence of OHCA between 2020 and 2019 per 100 000 inhabitants and the COVID-19 cumulative incidence per 100 000 inhabitants both for the overall territory (ρ 0.87, P < 0.001) and for each province separately (Lodi: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Cremona: ρ 0.98, P < 0.001; Pavia: ρ 0.87, P < 0.001; Mantova: ρ 0.81, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The increase in OHCAs in 2020 is significantly correlated to the COVID-19 pandemic and is coupled with a reduction in short-term outcome. Government and local health authorities should seriously consider our results when planning healthcare strategies to face the epidemic, especially considering the expected recurrent outbreaks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Am Heart J ; 225: 129-137, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retrospective studies have shown conflicting benefit of utilizing targeted temperature management (TTM) in cardiac arrest (CA) patients with a non-shockable rhythm and presently there is only one randomized trial in this realm. We sought to determine trends and outcomes of TTM utilization in these patients from a large nationally representative United States population database. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were derived from National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from January 2006 to December 2013. All patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Patients with evidence of shockable rhythm (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular flutter and ventricular fibrillation) were excluded. Trends in TTM utilization and mortality were assessed over our study period. Various outcomes were measured in patients receiving TTM and no TTM in unmatched and propensity matched cohorts. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine predictors of mortality. A total of 1,185,479 CA patients were identified in whom cause of arrest was a non-shockable rhythm. Overall, there was a steady increase in TTM utilization over our study period. In propensity-matched groups, mortality was higher in patients in whom TTM was utilized compared to non-TTM group (72.9% vs 68.7%, P < .01). In adjusted analysis, TTM remains an independent predictor of increased mortality in our group. Mortality remained high with TTM utilization regardless of location of CA. CONCLUSIONS: TTM utilization was associated with increased mortality in CA patients with a non-shockable rhythm. These findings merit further confirmation in a large randomized trial before application into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Temperatura Corporal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(3): 215-218, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recent high school graduates' opinions on mandatory cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training in the high school curriculum as a solution to improving bystander CPR rates. METHODS: Participants completed questionnaires assessing their CPR training history during their high school education, their willingness to learn CPR during their high school years and their opinion on making CPR training mandatory for high school curricula. RESULTS: Of the 178 participants in this study, 60% had undertaken CPR training during their high school education. Of those who had not undertaken CPR training, 75% reported that they would have been willing to learn CPR had they been provided with the opportunity. A total of 97% of participants were in support of mandatory CPR training in high school education. CONCLUSION: Implementing mandatory CPR training in high school education would be embraced by students. Implications for public health: Findings of this study support our recommendation to implement mandatory CPR training in the high school curriculum. This will likely increase the number of bystanders in the community who would spontaneously administer CPR, thereby improving outcomes for patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413089

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to test the association between the place-provider-matrix (PPM) of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: Adult patients with OHCA with a cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2017 in Korea were analyzed, excluding patients who had unknown information on place, type of bystander, or outcome. The PPM was categorized into six groups by two types of places (public versus home) and three types of providers (trained responder (TR), family bystander, and layperson bystander). Outcomes were survival to discharge and good cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1 or 2. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to test the association between PPM group and outcomes with adjustment for potential confounders to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (reference = Public-TR). RESULTS: A total of 73,057 patients were analyzed and were categorized into Public-TR (0.6%), Home-TR (0.3%), Public-Family (1.8%), Home-Family (79.8%), Public-Layperson (9.9%), and Home-Layperson (7.6%) groups. Compared with the Public-TR group, the AORs (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.61 (0.35-1.05) in the Home-TR group, 0.85 (0.62-1.17) in the Public-Family group, 0.38 (0.29-0.50) in the Home-Family group, 1.12 (0.85-1.49) in the Public-Layperson group, and 0.42 (0.31-0.57) in the Home-Layperson group. The AORs (95% CIs) for good CPC were 0.58 (0.27-1.25) in the Home-TR group, 0.88 (0.61-1.27) in the Public-Family group, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) in the Home-Family group, 1.20 (0.87-1.65) in the Public-Layperson group, and 0.42 (0.30-0.59) in the Home-Layperson group. CONCLUSION: The OHCA outcomes of the Home-Family and Home-Layperson groups were worse than those of the Public-TR group. This finding suggests that OHCA occurring in private places with family or layperson bystanders requires a new strategy, such as dispatching trained responders to the scene to improve CPR outcomes.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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