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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50721, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103402

RESUMO

Objetivo: apresentar atualizações para a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes suspeitos e confirmados com COVID-19. Método: revisão compreensiva da literatura, com síntese narrativa das evidências de diretrizes e recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma e National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: as principais atualizações trazem informações sobre especificidades das manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar; preparação do ambiente, recursos humanos e materiais, reconhecimento da parada cardiorrespiratória e ações iniciais; estratégias de ventilação e acesso invasivo da via aérea; ajustes do ventilador mecânico e manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes pronados. Considerações finais: profissionais de saúde envolvidos no atendimento à parada cardiorrespiratória de pacientes suspeitos e/ou confirmados com COVID-19 podem encontrar inúmeros desafios, portanto devem seguir com rigor o protocolo estabelecido para maximizar a efetividade das manobras de ressuscitação e minimizar o risco de contágio pelo vírus e sua disseminação.


Objective: to present updates for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Method: comprehensive literature review with narrative synthesis of the evidence of guidelines and recommendations from World Health Organization, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Results: the main updates bring information about the specifics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers; preparation of the environment and human and material resources, recognition of cardiorespiratory arrest and initial actions; ventilation and invasive airway access strategies; mechanical ventilator adjustments and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in patients in the prone position. Final considerations: health professionals involved in the care of cardiorespiratory arrest of suspected and/or confirmed patients with COVID-19 can face numerous challenges, so they must strictly follow the protocol established to maximize the effectiveness of resuscitation maneuvers and minimize the risk of contagion by the virus and its spread.


Objetivo: apresentar actualizaciones para la reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes sospechos os y confirmados con COVID-19. Método: revisión exhaustiva de la literatura con síntesis narrativa de la evidencia de guías y recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: las principales actualizaciones aportan información sobre los detalles de las maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar; preparación del medio ambiente y recursos humanos y materiales, reconocimiento de paro cardiorrespiratorio y acciones iniciales; estrategias de ventilación y acceso invasivo a las vías aéreas; ajustes del ventilador mecánico y maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes en decúbito prono. Consideraciones finales: los profesionales de la salud involucrados en la atención del paro cardiorrespiratorio de pacientes sospechosos y/o confirmados con COVID-19 pueden enfrentar numerosos desafíos, por lo que deben seguir estrictamente el protocolo establecido para maximizar la efectividad de las maniobras de reanimación y minimizar el riesgo de contagio por el virus y supropagación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Parada Cardíaca/reabilitação , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Equipe de Enfermagem/normas
2.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 295, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being utilized in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the efficacy and the safety remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate clinical courses and outcomes in ECMO-treated patients with acute PE. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with acute PE rescued by ECMO from January 2012 to December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and imaging findings of these patients were reviewed, and the relationship with immediate outcome and clinical course was investigated. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (76.2%) experienced refractory circulatory collapse requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or ECMO support within 2 h after the onset of cardiogenic shock, and none could receive definitive reperfusion therapy before ECMO initiation. Before or during ECMO support, more than 90% of patients had imaging signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. In normotension patients, the computed tomography (CT) value was a valuable predictor of rapid disease progression compared with cardiac troponin I level. Ultimately, in-hospital death occurred in ten patients (47.6%) and 90% of them died of prolonged CPR-related brain death. Cardiac arrest was a significant predictor of poor prognosis (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ECMO appears to be a safe and effective circulatory support in patients with massive PE. Close monitoring in intensive care unit is recommended in patients with RV dysfunction and aggressive use of ECMO may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac arrest and improve clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Morte Encefálica , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Reperfusão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
3.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 771-782, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981616

RESUMO

Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest require complex management. An organized approach to early postarrest care can improve patient outcomes. Priorities include completing a focused diagnostic work-up to identify and reverse the inciting cause of arrest, stabilizing cardiorespiratory instability to prevent rearrest, minimizing secondary brain injury, evaluating the risk and benefits of transfer to a specialty care center, and avoiding early neurologic prognostication.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Prevenção Secundária , Temperatura Corporal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Eletrocardiografia , Eletroencefalografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Anamnese , Transferência de Pacientes , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Exame Físico , Prognóstico , Radiografia Torácica , Respiração Artificial , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 819-839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981620

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiac arrest is a relatively rare but devastating presentation in infants and children. In contrast to adult patients, in whom a primary cardiac dysrhythmia is the most likely cause of cardiac arrest, pediatric patients experience cardiovascular collapse most frequently after an initial respiratory arrest. Aggressive treatment in the precardiac arrest state should be initiated to prevent deterioration and should focus on support of oxygenation, ventilation, and hemodynamics, regardless of the presumed cause. Unfortunately, outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest, whether in hospital or out of hospital, continue to be poor.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotermia/complicações , Hipotermia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pais , Exame Físico , Envenenamento/terapia , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Taxa Respiratória , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Sepse/terapia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
5.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 891-901, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981624

RESUMO

Evaluating and treating traumatic cardiac arrest remains a challenge to the emergency medicine provider. Guidelines have established criteria for patients who can benefit from treatment and resuscitation versus those who will likely not survive. Patient factors that predict survival are penetrating injury, signs of life with emergency medical services or on arrival to the Emergency Department, short length of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac motion on ultrasound, pediatric patients, and those with reversible causes including pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax. Newer technologies such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, selective aortic arch perfusion, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may improve outcomes, but remain primarily investigational.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta , Oclusão com Balão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ressuscitação , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Toracotomia , Ultrassonografia
6.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 903-917, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981625

RESUMO

Care of the critically ill pregnant patient is anxiety-provoking for those unprepared, as the emergency physician must consider not only the welfare of the immediate patient, but of the fetus as well. Familiarity with the physiologic changes of pregnancy and how they affect clinical presentation and management is key. Although some medications may be safer in pregnancy than others, stabilizing the pregnant patient is paramount. Emergency physicians should target pregnancy-specific oxygen and ventilation goals and hemodynamics and should be prepared to perform a perimortem cesarean section, should the mother lose pulses, to increase chances for maternal and fetal survival.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Gasometria , Cesárea , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Estado Terminal , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Monitorização Fetal , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Intubação Intratraqueal , Troca Materno-Fetal , Ventilação não Invasiva , Circulação Placentária , Gravidez/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Choque/terapia
7.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117087, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has led to challenges in provision of care, clinical assessment and communication with families. The unique considerations associated with evaluation of catastrophic brain injury and death by neurologic criteria in patients with Covid-19 infection have not been examined. METHODS: We describe the evaluation of six patients hospitalized at a health network in New York City in April 2020 who had Covid-19, were comatose and had absent brainstem reflexes. RESULTS: Four males and two females with a median age of 58.5 (IQR 47-68) were evaluated for catastrophic brain injury due to stroke and/or global anoxic injury at a median of 14 days (IQR 13-18) after admission for acute respiratory failure due to Covid-19. All patients had hypotension requiring vasopressors and had been treated with sedative/narcotic drips for ventilator dyssynchrony. Among these patients, 5 had received paralytics. Apnea testing was performed for 1 patient due to the decision to withdraw treatment (n = 2), concern for inability to tolerate testing (n = 2) and observation of spontaneous respirations (n = 1). The apnea test was aborted due to hypoxia and hypotension. After ancillary testing, death was declared in three patients based on neurologic criteria and in three patients based on cardiopulmonary criteria (after withdrawal of support (n = 2) or cardiopulmonary arrest (n = 1)). A family member was able to visit 5/6 patients prior to cardiopulmonary arrest/discontinuation of organ support. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to evaluate patients with catastrophic brain injury and declare brain death despite the Covid-19 pandemic, but this requires unique considerations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Apneia/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Exame Neurológico , Relações Profissional-Família , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Revelação da Verdade
8.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(2): 177-178, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778633

RESUMO

Neurological complications from novel coronavirus is becoming more common. These patients usually have primary pulmonary problem of acute lung injury. Presentation in the form of encephalitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and seizures are noted. It is also noted that SARS-CoV-2 has predilection for brain stem leading to patient not feeling extensive pulmonary injury. Here we share another neurological presentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipóxia Encefálica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia Encefálica/etiologia , Conforto do Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S75-S80, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737237

RESUMO

Death is defined biologically as the irreversible loss of the functioning of the organism as a whole, which typically occurs after the loss of cardiorespiratory function. In 1968, a Harvard committee proposed that death could also be defined neurologically as the irreversible loss of brain function. Brain death has been considered to be equivalent to cardiorespiratory arrest on the basis of the belief that the brain is required to maintain functioning of the organism as a whole and that without the brain, cardiorespiratory arrest and biological death are both rapid and certain. Over the past 20 years, however, this equivalence has been shown to be false on the basis of numerous cases of patients correctly diagnosed as brain-dead who nevertheless continued to survive for many years. The issue reached national attention with the case of Jahi McMath, a young woman diagnosed as brain-dead after a surgical accident, who survived for almost 5 years, mostly at home, supported with a ventilator and tube feedings. The fact that brain death is not biological death has many implications, notably including the concern that procurement of organs from brain-dead donors may not comply with the so-called dead donor rule, which requires that vital organs be procured from patients only after they are dead. In this article, I conclude with an analysis of options for moving forward and among them advocate for reframing brain death as a "social construct," with implicit societal acceptance that patients diagnosed as brain-dead may be treated legally and ethically the same as if they were biologically dead.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica , Morte , Parada Cardíaca , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Morte , Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Morte Encefálica/legislação & jurisprudência , Morte Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neurologia/normas , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Sobrevivência , Fatores de Tempo , Inconsciência , Estados Unidos
10.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 147, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847628

RESUMO

We document the neuropathologic findings of a 73-year old man who died from acute cerebellar hemorrhage in the context of relatively mild SARS-CoV2 infection. The patient developed sudden onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting, immediately followed by loss of consciousness on the day of admission. Emergency medical services found him severely hypoxemic at home, and the patient suffered a cardiac arrest during transport to the emergency department. The emergency team achieved return of spontaneous circulation after over 17 min of resuscitation. A chest radiograph revealed hazy bilateral opacities; and real-time-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 on the nasopharyngeal swab was positive. Computed tomography of the head showed a large right cerebellar hemorrhage, with tonsillar herniation and intraventricular hemorrhage. One day after presentation, he was transitioned to comfort care and died shortly after palliative extubation. Autopsy performed 3 h after death showed cerebellar hemorrhage and acute infarcts in the dorsal pons and medulla. Remarkably, there were microglial nodules and neuronophagia bilaterally in the inferior olives and multifocally in the cerebellar dentate nuclei. This constellation of findings has not been reported thus far in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Fagocitose , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/complicações , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleos Cerebelares/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Bulbo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bulbo/patologia , Núcleo Olivar/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tegmento Pontino/diagnóstico por imagem , Tegmento Pontino/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Resuscitation ; 155: 103-111, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707142

RESUMO

AIM: To identify and summarize the available science on prone resuscitation. To determine the value of undertaking a systematic review on this topic; and to identify knowledge gaps to aid future research, education and guidelines. METHODS: This review was guided by specific methodological framework and reporting items (PRISMA-ScR). We included studies, cases and grey literature regarding prone position and CPR/cardiac arrest. The databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus and Google Scholar. Expanded grey literature searching included internet search engine, targeted websites and social media. RESULTS: Of 453 identified studies, 24 (5%) studies met our inclusion criteria. There were four prone resuscitation-relevant studies examining: blood and tidal volumes generated by prone compressions; prone compression quality metrics on a manikin; and chest computed tomography scans for compression landmarking. Twenty case reports/series described the resuscitation of 25 prone patients. Prone compression quality was assessed by invasive blood pressure monitoring, exhaled carbon dioxide and pulse palpation. Recommended compression location was zero-to-two vertebral segments below the scapulae. Twenty of 25 cases (80%) survived prone resuscitation, although few cases reported long term outcome (neurological status at hospital discharge). Seven cases described full neurological recovery. CONCLUSION: This scoping review did not identify sufficient evidence to justify a systematic review or modified resuscitation guidelines. It remains reasonable to initiate resuscitation in the prone position if turning the patient supine would lead to delays or risk to providers or patients. Prone resuscitation quality can be judged using end-tidal CO2, and arterial pressure tracing, with patients turned supine if insufficient.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Literatura Cinzenta , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Decúbito Ventral , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(9): 2811-2815, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720260

RESUMO

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, further understanding of its complications points towards dysregulated immune response as a major component. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is also a disease of immune dysregulation leading to multisystem compromise. We present a case of new-onset SLE concomitantly with COVID-19 and development of antiphospholipid antibodies. An 18-year-old female that presented with hemodynamic collapse and respiratory failure, progressed to cardiac arrest, and had a pericardial tamponade drained. She then progressed to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe ventricular dysfunction, and worsening renal function with proteinuria and hematuria. Further studies showed bilateral pleural effusions, positive antinuclear and antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin B. C3 and C4 levels were low. SARS-Cov-2 PCR was positive after 2 negative tests. She also developed multiple deep venous thrombosis, in the setting of positive antiphospholipid antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. In terms of pathophysiology, COVID-19 is believed to cause a dysregulated cytokine response which could potentially be exacerbated by the shift in Th1 to Th2 response seen in SLE. Also, it is well documented that viral infections are an environmental factor that contributes to the development of autoimmunity; however, COVID-19 is a new entity, and it is not known if it could trigger autoimmune conditions. Additionally, it is possible that SARS-CoV-2, as it happens with other viruses, might lead to the formation of antiphospholipid antibodies, potentially contributing to the increased rates of thrombosis seen in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Anemia/etiologia , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/imunologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/terapia , Anuria/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Tamponamento Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Tamponamento Cardíaco/terapia , Complemento C3/imunologia , Complemento C4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , DNA/imunologia , Ecocardiografia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Posicionamento do Paciente , Pericardiocentese , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Proteinúria/etiologia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20520, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502002

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology and causes of traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) in Kuwait aiming to provide a preliminary background to update the current guidelines and improve patients' management.This is a retrospective analysis of TCA cases retrieved from emergency medical services archived data between 1 January and 31 December 2017. The TCA cases were sub-grouped based on mechanism of injury then compared in terms of patient demographics, vital signs, patterns of injuries, resuscitation practices, and outcomes.Outcomes; On scene mortality rate and pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation.Among the 204 TCA patients, 140 patients met the inclusion criteria. This whole group was then divided in to 4 subgroups: road traffic accident (RTA) 76% (n=106), fall from height (FFH) 13% (n = 18), slip/fall 4% (n = 6), and assaults 7% (n = 10). There was significant difference between the four mechanisms in: mean age (P =  < .001), type of injury (P = .005), head injury (P = .005), chest injury (P = .003), GCS score < 9 (P = .004) and initial hypertension (P =  < .001). Initial hypertension and GCS score < 9 were only documented in head injuries of RTA and slip/fall groups. Significant difference was also seen in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (P = .006), airway management (P = .035) and on scene mortality rate (P = .003). All patients who had isolated head injury in FFH were pronounced dead on scene, 60%.Not all TCA incidents are the same, there are different pattern of injuries in each TCA mechanism. Head injuries are predominantly seen in RTA, FFH, slip /falls and chest injuries are seen in assaults. This can influence emergency medical services personals resuscitation plan. Further research is required to address the resuscitation of TCA of different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia
17.
Resuscitation ; 153: 45-55, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525022

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a substantial impact on the incidence of cardiac arrest and survival. The challenge is to find the correct balance between the risk to the rescuer when undertaking cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a person with possible COVID-19 and the risk to that person if CPR is delayed. These guidelines focus specifically on patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. The guidelines include the delivery of basic and advanced life support in adults and children and recommendations for delivering training during the pandemic. Where uncertainty exists treatment should be informed by a dynamic risk assessment which may consider current COVID-19 prevalence, the person's presentation (e.g. history of COVID-19 contact, COVID-19 symptoms), likelihood that treatment will be effective, availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and personal risks for those providing treatment. These guidelines will be subject to evolving knowledge and experience of COVID-19. As countries are at different stages of the pandemic, there may some international variation in practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas
18.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(8): 1326.e9-1326.e11, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599017

RESUMO

A wide spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations has been documented in patients suffering from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Usually associated with a poor prognoses, these manifestations include thromboembolic events, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and cardiogenic shock. We describe a patient with COVID-19 who presented with subacute myocardial infarction, biventricular thrombi, and bilateral pulmonary emboli. Biventricular thrombi are rare, and their presence raises concern for an underlying prothrombotic condition.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aneurisma Cardíaco , Ventrículos do Coração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Embolia Pulmonar , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Trombose , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Deterioração Clínica , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Aneurisma Cardíaco/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Cardíaco/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 71, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma in the right ventricle is an extremely rare tumor. Radical surgical excision is the optimal treatment for long-term survival due to poor response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy at an advanced stage. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man with no previous medical history presented with mild dyspnea on exertion and abdominal distension that lasted a week. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a huge homogeneous mass completely obstructing the right ventricle and extending into the pulmonary trunk. However, he suddenly collapsed the next day while on his way to an echocardiography. An extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device was inserted percutaneously and ECMO support was urgently initiated. Based on consideration of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction in the initial CT scan, we decided to remove the mass from the right ventricle immediately. The main mass was resected to relieve the RVOT obstruction, and after the operation, the ECMO was removed from the operation room. However, the patient failed to regain consciousness and electroencephalography (EEG) and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated severe hypoxic brain damage. We assume CPR was unsuccessful because the mass completely blocked the RVOT. Pathology revealed the mass was an undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: We present the case of a 42-year-old male with cardiac arrest due to right ventricular outflow tract obstruction by a tumor of the right ventricle. Surgical resection was performed and in histopathology it was proved to be an undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Dispneia/etiologia , Ecocardiografia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/complicações , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Sarcoma/complicações , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/etiologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/patologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/cirurgia
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