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1.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P22-P28], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047048

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas sobre buenas prácticas de manufactura de manipuladores de alimentos de tres distritos de Paraguay durante el año 2017. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal. El tipo de muestreo fue probabilístico en manipuladores de alimentos de tres distritos (Coronel Oviedo, Caaguazú y J. Eulogio Estigarribia) del departamento de Caaguazú, Paraguay durante el año 2017. Resultados: Participaron de la investigación 264 manipuladores de alimentos. El 100% tuvo conocimiento malo, respecto a los ítems que en mayor porcentaje de respuestas correctas tuvieron fueron: concepto de manipuladores de alimentos con el 51,52 % (136), el 80% de actitud positiva ante las siguientes afirmaciones: que el cumplimiento de las normas de higiene y manipulación de alimentos es su prioridad con el 95,79% (252), respecto el nivel de práctica que predominó fue el malo con el 79,92% (211) Conclusión: El nivel de conocimiento global fue malo, las actitudes fueron en su mayoría positivas y las prácticas en su mayoría malas, es por ello que es necesario implementar programas de capacitación continua basadas en temas relacionados a la manipulación e higiene de alimentos, con el fin de concientizar y fomentar hábitos de higiene. Palabras clave: Manipulación de Alimentos; Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud; Alimentos.


Objective: To determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on good manufacturing practices of food handlers in three districts of Caaguazú, Paraguay during the year 2017. Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. The type of sampling was probabilistic sampling in food handlers of three districts (Coronel Oviedo, Caaguazú and J. Eulogio Estigarribia) of a department of Caaguazú, Paraguay during the year 2017. Results: 264 food handlers participated in the investigation. 100% had bad knowledge, regarding the items that had the highest percentage of correct answers were: concept of food handlers with 51.52% (136), 80% positive attitude towards the following statements: that compliance of hygiene standards and food handling is his priority with 95.79% (252), compared to the level of practice that predominated was the bad with 79.92% (211). Conclusion: The level of global knowledge was bad, the attitudes were mostly positive and the practices mostly bad, that is why it is necessary to implement ongoing training programs based on issues related to food handling and hygiene, with the to raise awareness, promote hygiene habits. Keywords: Food Handling; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Health; Foods.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Alimentos de Rua , Paraguai/etnologia
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1793-1801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674897

RESUMO

Introduction. Colonization by Neisseria meningitidis is the pre-requisite for the development of disease. We present the findings of a cross-sectional investigation onto the oropharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis and Neisseria species in the population aged 3 to 21 in Paraguay.Aim. Carriage prevalence by age groups, risk factors associated with carriage, and phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of strains are described.Methodology. We collected 2011 oropharyngeal swabs from consenting participants aged 3-21 years. Infants were recruited at immunization clinics, and older children and young adults were identified at schools and universities. A single oropharyngeal swab was collected and processed for the identification and isolation of Neisseria. Additionally, participants, or their legal guardian if these were minors, were requested to fill a standardized questionnaire.Results. N. meningitidis was isolated in 42/2011 (2.1 %) participants, while other Neisseria spp. were identified in 306/2011 (15.2 %) subjects: N. cinerea and N. lactamica were identified in 39/2011 (1.9 %) and 43/2011 (2.2 %), respectively. Meningococcal strains belonged to ten different clonal complexes, of which six are associated with invasive disease (ST-32/ET5 complex, ST-11/ET37 complex, ST-103 complex, ST-167 complex, ST-35 complex and ST-41/44 complex/lineage 3).Conclusion. Prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage was low compared to that reported from other settings, however, the overall carriage of Neisseria spp. (including N. meningitidis) was comparable to meningococcal carriage prevalence reported in the literature. This study is the first of its kind conducted in Paraguay, and one of the few known in the Southern Cone of Latin America.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria/classificação , Paraguai , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zootaxa ; 4606(1): zootaxa.4606.1.1, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717173

RESUMO

The species of Colletes Latreille from Brazil, Paraguay and/or Uruguay are revised through an integrative approach to taxonomy combining morphological and molecular data to delineate species. Herein, the following 19 species are recognized and illustrated, eight of them described as new: C. altimontanus Ferrari Silveira, C. argentinus Friese, C. chicoi n. sp., C. cyaneus Holmberg, C. ferenudus n. sp., C. flagellaris n. sp., C. furfuraceus Holmberg, C. hawkingi n. sp., C. imbricatus n. sp., C. kerri Moure, C. meridionalis Schrottky, C. michenerianus Moure, C. ornatus Schrottky, C. pampeanus n. sp., C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, C. rufipes Smith, C. rugicollis Friese, C. sertanicola n. sp., and C. sexangulus n. sp. To facilitate their recognition, diagnoses, detailed descriptions and redescriptions, and a fully-illustrated key for all species are provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Brasil , Paraguai , Uruguai
4.
Zootaxa ; 4688(2): zootaxa.4688.2.3, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719448

RESUMO

The species Moenkhausia australis was described based on two specimens from arroyos Trementina and Chagalalina, Rio Paraguai basin, Paraguay. Its taxonomic history is complex and for many years the species was considered a synonym of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. Moenkhausia australis shares a reticulated color pattern with the Moenkhausia oligolepis/M. sanctaefilomenae complex, being more similar within the species included in the complex to M. oligolepis, M. sanctaefilomenae, and M. forestii, with which it shares a prepelvic region laterally compressed, a feature also observed in Bario steindachneri. The laterally compressed prepelvic region is inferred to be putatively synapomorphic for the subgroup herein denominated as Moenkhausia oligolepis group. Our results, based on both molecular and morphological data, support the validity of Moenkhausia australis, which can be readily distinguished from the other members of the group by possessing the following combination of characters: complete lateral line, 23-27 scales in the lateral line, and five scales series above and below the lateral line. Our analysis also indicates three genetic structured populations of M. australis, from Rio Paraguai, upper Rio Paraná, and Rio Madeira basins. Since they are not diagnosable by morphological characters, we conservatively maintain these three genetic lineages as a single species.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Animais , Brasil , Cor , Paraguai , Filogenia , Rios
5.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.3, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716031

RESUMO

The stoneflies of the family Gripopterygidae have a Gondwanan distribution (Australian, Neotropical, and Andean regions) and include about 300 species in five recognized subfamilies. The subfamily Gripopteryginae is restricted to the Neotropics and the Andean regions of South America, including 15 genera and about 80 species. Tupiperla Froehlich, with 20 species, is the largest genus among the South American Gripopteryginae. The genus has been recorded from Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In Brazil, Tupiperla has been recorded from southern, southeastern, and the mountainous areas of central and northeastern, primarily from streams of the Atlantic Forest. We studied specimens of Tupiperla collected from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. Herein, five new species of Tupiperla are described: T. pinhoi sp. nov., T. serrulata sp. nov., T. pessacqi sp. nov., T. ubuntu sp. nov., and T. zwicki sp. nov.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Argentina , Austrália , Brasil , Paraguai
6.
Zootaxa ; 4664(4): zootaxa.4664.4.12, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716662

RESUMO

The family Gnaphosidae consist of 158 genera and 2530 species worldwide. In South America there are 35 genera (World Spider Catalog 2019) considering Apopyllus Platnick Shadab, 1984, a small genus of ground hunting spiders (Cardoso et al. 2011) that includes ten American species, of which eight have been recorded from southern South America. Their known distribution ranges from southern Mexico through Colombia, Bolivia, Perú, Chile, Brazil and Argentina (World Spider Catalog 2019). In Paraguay, the genus was first mentioned in an invertebrate checklist (see Kochalka et al. 1996). First studies on the genus and its taxonomic placement were made by Platnick Shadab (1984), and more recently a revision of the genus was undertaken by Azevedo et al. (2016), including four new Brazilian species. Even though the external appearance of Apopyllus is similar to other gnaphosids, specifically taking into consideration the Echemus group, spiders with plain colored abdomens, sometimes presenting chevrons in the opisthosoma, and with developed scutum in males (Murphy 2007), females and males can be differentiated by the more elaborated and intricated genitalia structures (see Azevededo et al. 2016). Apopyllus is most similar to Apodrassodes Vellard, 1924 both having a similar elongate embolus (Fig. 3e) and a membranous tegular extension (Fig. 3d) (Platnick Shadab 1984), and to the genera Nopyllus Ott, 2014, but differ from the later by the presence of a scutum (Fig. 3a) in males and by the presence of a median apophysis (Fig. 3e) on the bulb (Ott, 2014).


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paraguai
7.
Asunción; s.n; Nov 2019. (1-67) p.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1021733

RESUMO

La infancia es considerada como una etapa trascendental en el proceso evolutivo del hombre, caracterizada por dos fenómenos: crecimiento y desarrollo, por tanto es fundamental una adecuada nutrición. Con relación a este aspecto, el programa de complementación nutricional denominado PANI (Programa Ampliado Nutricional Integral), se implementa, para garantizar la atención oportuna de niños desnutridos y en riesgo de desnutrición y evitar otros factores de riesgo que puedan poner en peligro a esta población vulnerable. Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de la implementación del programa PANI en niños menores de 5 años desnutridos y con riesgo de desnutrición en la Unidad de Salud Familiar ItáKa´aguy, durante el periodo 2015 a 2017. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal, en donde se evaluó a 74 niños menores de 5 años desnutridos y con riesgos de desnutrición, que fueron atendidos en la Unidad de Salud Familiar ItáKa´aguy, (Fernando de la Mora, XIa Región Sanitaria - Central). Se implementó con ellos el Programa de Asistencia Nutricional y luego de 2 años se compararon los resultados de la evaluación inicial, con las actuales. Resultados: Se resalta que, previo a la intervención sólo 4 niños tuvieron un peso adecuado; 19 niños se encontraban en estado de desnutrición; 6 niños se encontraban en el nivel de peso no adecuado y 40 niños se encontraban en "Riesgo de desnutrición". Mientras que posterior a la implementación del programa, 62 niños obtuvieron el peso adecuado a su edad; 3 niños se mantuvieron con signos clínicos de desnutrición y 4 niños manifestaron riesgo de desnutrición. Conclusión: se encontró que el PANI ha contribuido a mejorar de la desnutrición en los niños y niñas, como en el peso acorde con la edad, pero no así en aspectos como talla y el edema, por lo que se concluye que el impacto ha sido medio. Palabras Clave: Nutrición de los Grupos de Riesgo, Programas y Políticas de Nutrición y Alimentación,


The childhood is considered as a transcendental stage in the evolutionary process of man, characterized by two phenomena: growth and development, therefore proper nutrition is essential. In relation to this aspect, the nutritional complementation program called PANI (Comprehensive Nutritional Extended Program), is implemented to ensure timely care of malnourished children at risk of malnutrition and avoid other risk factors that may endanger this population vulnerable. Objective: To analyze the impact of the implementation of the PANI program in children under 5 years of age undernourished and at risk of malnutrition in the ItáKa'aguy Family Health Unit, during the period 2015 to 2017. Methodology: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted, cross-sectional, in which 74 under-5 undernourished children with risk of malnutrition were evaluated, who were attended in the ItáKa'aguy Family Health Unit (Fernando de la Mora, XIa Sanitary - Central Region). The Nutritional Assistance Program was implemented with them and after 2 years the results of the initial evaluation were compared with the current ones. Results: It is highlighted that, prior to the intervention, only 4 children had an adequate weight, 19 children were in malnutrition, 6 children were at the unsuitable weight level and 40 children were at risk of malnutrition; while after the implementation of the program, 62 children obtained the appropriate weight at their age, 3 children remained with clinical signs of malnutrition and 4 children showed risk of malnutrition. Conclusion: it was found that PANI has contributed to improve malnutrition in boys and girls, as in weight according to age, but not in aspects such as height and edema, so it is concluded that the impact has been medium.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Programas de Nutrição , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Nutrição da Criança , Nutrição do Lactente , Classificação Internacional de Atenção Primária
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450663

RESUMO

Disability-disaggregated data are increasingly considered important to monitor progress in Universal Eye Health Care. Hospital-based data are still elusive because of the cultural ambiguities of the term disability, especially in under-resourced Health Information Systems in low-and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the hospital-based rate of disability in patients presenting at an eye department of a rural hospital in Paraguay and to discuss implications for the management of access barriers. Therefore, we introduced two standardized sets of the Washington Group (WG) Questions as a pilot project. In total, 999 patients answered the self-report WG short set (WG-SS) questionnaire with six functional domains, and 501 of these patients answered an extended set, which included additional domains for "anxiety" and "depression" (WG-ES3). Overall, 27.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 24.9-30.3) were categorized as having a disability. A total of 9.6% (95% CI 7.9-11.6) were categorized as having a disability because of communication difficulties, which was second only to visual difficulties. The odds ratio for disability for patients aged 70 years and older was 8.5 (95% CI 5.0-14.4) and for male patients, it was 0.83 (95% CI 0.62-1.1). Of those patients who answered the WG-ES3, 3.4% were categorized as having a disability because of being worried, nervous or anxious and 1.4% because of feeling depressed. An analysis of the questions of the "depression" domain was impeded by a high rate of measurement errors. The results of the different domains can now be used to inform the identification and mitigation of potential access barriers to eye health services for different types of impairments.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Rurais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão , Oftalmopatias , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008337

RESUMO

Hace 15 años se iniciaba un proceso importante para las publicaciones biomédicas en el Paraguay. SciELO constituye un proyecto de biblioteca electrónica, que permite la publicación de ediciones completas de las revistas científicas mediante una plataforma de software que posibilita el acceso a través de distintos mecanismos, incluyendo listas de títulos y por materia, índices de autores y un motor de búsqueda. En ese entonces fue un importante logro el iniciarse en situación de "en desarrollo", hecho que significaba que aún no cumplía con los criterios de calidad exigido por el sitio para figurar entre sus colecciones principales. Este ingreso a SciELO desde entonces ha permitido el desarrollo de la investigación científica a través del perfeccionamiento de infraestructuras, capacidades de comunicación y evaluación de los artículos publicados por revistas paraguayas de calidad creciente, contribuyendo al aumento de la visibilidad, accesibilidad y credibilidad con impacto nacional e internacional de las mismas. Las primeras 3 Revistas que iniciaron el proceso fueron Memorias del Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, Pediatría de la Sociedad Paraguaya de Pediatría y Anales de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción. En la actualidad SciELO Paraguay cuenta con 14 revistas indexadas en su mayoría biomédicas y en la que paulatinamente se han incorporado publicaciones de otras áreas de las ciencias. Esto ha permitido en el año 2018 la publicación de más de 300 artículos, en su mayoría de autores nacionales. Con estos antecedentes en este año se ha producido un hecho trascendental para SciELO Paraguay como es la certificación del sitio, ubicando a las publicaciones paraguayas entre las de primer orden por cumplir con todas las exigencias de calidad de la gestión , periodicidad e impacto, permitiéndole figurar en la colección principal. Este singular hecho motiva nuestra gran satisfacción y nos hace reflexionar sobre el esfuerzo de las instituciones que sostienen sus Revistas, de los investigadores que publican, de los editores de las diversas revistas, del grupo consultivo y por supuesto la gran dedicación del Centro Coordinador, el Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud que gestiona, operativiza y financia la Colección SciELO Paraguay con su Sitio Web, así como articula y coordina el trabajo de la Red nacional de instituciones adheridas(AU)


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Bibliotecas Digitais , Publicações Científicas e Técnicas , Acreditação , Paraguai
10.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 56-63, ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008419

RESUMO

Los adultos jóvenes constituyen gran parte de la población paraguaya y se considera que los conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental están muy relacionados al nivel de instrucción, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental de estudiantes de posgrado de la Carrera de Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Católica de Asunción (CE FCSUCA), en el 2018. Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal con componente analítico en el que se incluyeron a todos los estudiantes de posgrado entre mayo y junio de 2018. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante un cuestionario sobre salud bucodental autoadministrado y de carácter anónimo. Los datos se asentaron en una planilla electrónica, y fueron analizados utilizando el Programa estadístico IBMSSPS 23.0. La muestra estuvo constituida por 166 estudiantes, en su mayoría del sexo femenino (75,3%), de entre 20 y 29 años (54,8%), cursando algún programa de especialización (57,8% y pertenecientes al área de la salud (94%). El 57,83% y el 55,42% de los estudiantes presentaron conocimientos y prácticas de salud bucodental de nivel regular, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación entre nivel de conocimiento y de práctica y entre el nivel de conocimiento y la edad. Se concluye que los niveles de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental en los estudiantes de posgrado fueron deficientes por lo que se propone la implementación de estrategias educativas de concienciación en el área(AU)


Young adults constitute a large part of the Paraguayan population and considering that oral health knowledge and practices are closely related to the level of education, the objective of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge and practices on oral health of postgraduate students of the Nursing Career of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Catholic University of Asunción (CE FCSUCA), in 2018. The design was descriptive, cross-sectional with an analytical component in which all postgraduate students were included in May and June 2018. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire on oral health self-administered and anonymous. The data were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet and analyzed using the IBMSSPS 23.0 Statistical Program. The sample consisted of 166 students, mostly female (75.3%), between 20 and 29 years old (54.8%), studying some specialization program (57.8%) and belonging to the area of Health (94%). 57.83% and 55.42% of the students presented knowledge and practices of oral health at the regular level, respectively. An association was found between the level of knowledge and practice and between the level of knowledge. It is concluded that the levels of knowledge and practices on oral health in the postgraduate students were insufficient, so the implementation of educational awareness strategies in the area is proposed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal/educação , Paraguai , Periodontite/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Gengivite/etiologia
11.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, August 2019
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51472

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar la influencia que ha tenido la implementación y fortalecimiento de la estrategia de atención primaria (APS) sobre las hospitalizaciones por condiciones sensibles al cuidado ambulatorio (HCSCA). Métodos. Estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal, que consideró datos correspondientes a los registros de internaciones de hospitales públicos de todo el país en el período 2000-2017. Se considera el año 2009 como punto de inicio de la estrategia de APS. Para definir los diagnósticos de las HCSCA se utilizaron los propuestos por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se realizó el análisis de su comportamiento considerando dos etapas: 2000-2008 y 2009-2017. Resultados. Las HCSCA mostraron una tendencia a la disminución, se halló una diferencia de 6,75% entre los años finales de cada etapa. La disminución fue mayor en la medida que se amplió la cobertura de APS. Las principales causas de HCSCA fueron la neumonía y la enfermedad diarreica aguda. Las internaciones por enfermedades crónicas disminuyeron en su mayoría: por el contrario, los ingresos por enfermedades infecciosas aumentaron. Conclusiones. La cobertura y acceso poblacional con unidades de salud familiar puede limitar el impacto de la APS en las HCSCA. Se verifica una disminución de las HCSCA luego de la implementación de la APS en Paraguay. Las internaciones por enfermedades crónicas muestran mejor resultado que las internaciones por enfermedades infecciosas.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Explore the effect of the implementation and strengthening of the primary care strategy (PHC) on hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (HACSC). Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional observational study that considered the data from public hospital admissions records for the entire country for the period 2000-2017. The starting point of the PHC strategy is considered to be 2009. The diagnoses proposed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization were used in defining the HACSC diagnoses. The analysis of HACSC behavior considered two stages: 2000-2008 and 2009-2017. Results. HACSC trended downward, with a difference of 6.75% between the final years of each stage. The greater the PHC coverage, the larger the reduction. The leading causes of HACSC were pneumonia and acute diarrheal disease. Admissions for chronic diseases largely fell, while admissions for infectious diseases rose. Conclusions. The degree of population coverage and access to family health units can limit the impact of PHC on HACSC. A reduction in HACSC was confirmed after PHC implementation in Paraguay. The results for admissions for chronic diseases are better than those for infectious diseases.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar a influência da implementação e fortalecimento da estratégia de atenção primária à saúde (APS) nas internações hospitalares por causas sensíveis à atenção ambulatorial. Métodos. Estudo observacional descritivo transversal realizado com dados de registros de internações em hospitais públicos de todo o país no período entre 2000 e 2017. O ano de 2009 é considerado o ponto inicial da estratégia de APS no Paraguai. Os diagnósticos das internações hospitalares por causas sensíveis à atenção ambulatorial foram definidos segundo os critérios propostos pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS). A análise foi realizada em duas fases distintas: 2000– 2008 e 2009–2017. Resultados. Verificou-se uma tendência de redução das internações hospitalares por causas sensíveis à atenção ambulatorial, com uma diferença de 6,75% entre os anos finais de cada fase. A redução foi maior à medida que se ampliou a cobertura de APS. As principais causas de internações hospitalares foram pneumonia e doença diarreica aguda. Houve redução das internações por doenças crônicas na sua maioria e, em contraste, houve aumento das internações por doenças infecciosas. Conclusões. A cobertura e o acesso da população a unidades de saúde da família são fatores limitantes ao impacto da APS nas internações hospitalares por causas sensíveis à atenção ambulatorial. Verifica-se uma redução das internações hospitalares após a implementação da APS no Paraguai. Os resultados são melhores para internações por doenças crônicas em comparação às internações por doenças infecciosas.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Paraguai , Hospitalização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Hospitalização , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Paraguai
12.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(22): 2041-2048, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional and structural diversity of proteins of snake venoms is coupled with a wide repertoire of pharmacological effects. Snake venoms are targets of studies linked to searching molecules with biotechnological potential. METHODS: A homologue phospholipase A2 (BmatTX-IV) was obtained using two chromatographic techniques. Mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to determine the molecular mass and isoelectric point, respectively. By means of Edman degradation chemistry, it was possible to obtain the partial sequence of amino acids that comprise the isolated toxin. Trypanocidal, leishmanicidal and cytoxic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and murine fibrobasts was determinated. RESULTS: Combination of both chromatographic steps used in this study demonstrated efficacy to obtain the PLA2-Lys49. BmatTX-IV showed molecular mass and isoelectric point of 13.55 kDa and 9.3, respectively. Amino acid sequence of N-terminal region (51 residues) shows the presence of Lys49 residue at position 49, a distinctive trait of enzymatically inactive PLA2. Bothrops mattogrossensis snake venom showed IC50 values of 11.9 µg/mL against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and of 13.8 µg/mL against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, respectively. On the other hand, the venom showed a high cytotoxic activity (IC50 value of 16.7 µg/mL) against murine fibroblasts, whereas the BmatTX-IV showed IC50 value of 81.2 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Physicochemical and biological characterization of snake venoms components is critically important, since these complex mixtures provide a source of molecules with antiparasitic potential, making further studies necessary to identify and characterize components with higher efficacy and selectivity.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipases A2/farmacologia , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/isolamento & purificação , Bothrops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Paraguai , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Fosfolipases A2/química , Fosfolipases A2/isolamento & purificação , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Venenos de Serpentes/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 52(2): 49-52, 20190700.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1007033

RESUMO

Introducción: El tabaquismo es una de las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte en el mundo, y su consumo puede aumentar ante situaciones de estrés. Objetivos: Caracterizar el tabaquismo dentro de la cárcel de mujeres Casa del Buen Pastor. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal con una encuesta anónima utilizando el método de múltiple opción de respuestas. Resultados: Declararon ser fumadoras 73 de las 101 internas encuestadas, y la gran mayoría de ellas quiere dejar de fumar. Conclusión: Hay una alta prevalencia de tabaquismo entre las mujeres en prisión, y su mayoritario deseo de cesación es una oportunidad que debe aprovecharse para apoyarlas con medidas adecuadas para lograrlo.


Introduction: Smoking is one of the main causes of disease and death in the world, and its consumption may increase in situations of stress. Objectives: To characterize smoking within the Casa del Buen Pastor women's prison. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study with an anonymous survey using the method of multiple choice of answers. Results: 73 of the 101 inmates surveyed declared themselves to be smokers, and the vast majority of them want to quit smoking. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of smoking among women in prison, and their majority desire for cessation is an opportunity that should be used to support them with appropriate measures to achieve it.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Grupos de Risco , Prevalência
14.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(2): 79-85, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216161

RESUMO

Background: High blood pressure is a category of blood pressure, poorly studied in young adults and is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in university students of the National University of Asunción-Paraguay. Methods: Cross-sectional study in first-year university students of careers related to health at the National University of Asunción. High blood pressure was considered at a systolic blood pressure of 120-129 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure of ?80 mmHg. The anthropometric, lipid and metabolic variables were measured and the smoking and alcohol habit were determined. Results: 284 university students were included in the analysis (mean age [± SD] 19.4 ± 2.1 years, 73.2% were women). The overall prevalence of high blood pressure was 25.5%; (95% CI: 20.5-30.5%) (Men 40%, Women 29%). High blood pressure was associated with increased abdominal circumference (OR: 1.031, 95% CI: 1.005-1.058, p = 0.024); low HDL-C (OR: 1.355, 95% CI 1.054-1.743, p = 0.018); obesity, OR: 2,124; 95% CI: 1.334-3.941; p = 0.007) and DM2 (OR: 4.431, 95% CI: 3,642-7,963, p = <0.001). The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors more frequent were alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity. More than 70% of college students have one or more cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: high prevalence of high blood pressure and is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(1): [P73-P80], jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047036

RESUMO

Introducción: Las hepatitis causadas por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) se han transformado en uno de los principales problemas de enfermedades infecciosas emergentes, responsables del 80% de las hepatitis crónicas con posible evolución a cirrosis o carcinoma hepatocelular y ocasionando un alto costo para el sistema de salud. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y los genotipos del VHC en pacientes que acudieron al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública (LCSP). Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo; se incluyeron 162 pacientes con infección por Hepatitis C referidos al LCSP entre el 2013 y 2018, para seguimiento y/o genotipificación. Se les realizó la amplificación del genoma mediante la técnica reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real previa transcripción reversa (RT-PCR). A una submuestra con PCR detectable y carga viral >500 UI/ml se determinó el genotipo(n=52). Resultados: La media de edad fue de 44,2 ±15,6 años, el 52,5% eran hombres. El 8,02% presentaron carga viral alta, 32,09 % baja y 59,87 % indetectable. La distribución de genotipos fue la siguiente: 61,5 % genotipo 1 (28,1% 1a, 53,1% 1b y 18,8% genotipo 1 sin subtipificación), 15,4% genotipo 2, 15,4% genotipo 3 y 7,7% genotipo 4. Conclusiones: El presente trabajo muestra la importancia de la implementación de técnicas moleculares aplicadas a la vigilancia epidemiológica de nuestro país de manera a establecer programas de detección temprana y seguimiento adecuado de los pacientes, ya que la caracterización genotípica ayuda a determinar lasestrategias terapéuticas más adecuadas y predecir la respuesta antiviral. Se confirma que el genotipo 1 es el que circula con mayor frecuencia, con alto predominio del subtipo 1b. Palabras Clave: Biología Molecular, Hepatitis C, Genotipo, Epidemiología Molecular, Paraguay.


Introduction: Hepatitis caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become one of the main problems of emerging infectious diseases, responsible for 80% of chronic hepatitis with possible evolution to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and causing a high cost for the health system. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile and the genotypes of HCV in patients who attended the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP). Materials and methods: Descriptive study; included 162 patients with Hepatitis C infection referred to the LCSP between 2013 and 2018, for follow-up and / or genotyping. Genome amplification was performed using the polymerase chain reaction technique in real time prior to reverse transcription (RT-PCR). To a subsample with detectable PCR and viral load> 500 IU / ml, the genotype was determined (n = 52). Results: The mean age was 44.2 ± 15.6 years, 52.5% were men. The 8.02% had high viral load, 32.09% low and 59.87% undetectable. The genotype distribution was as follows: 61.5% genotype 1 (28.1% 1a, 53.1% 1b and 18.8% genotype 1 without subtyping), 15.4% genotype 2, 15.4% genotype 3 and 7.7% genotype 4. Conclusions: The present work shows the importance of the implementation of molecular techniques applied to the epidemiological surveillance of our country in order to establish programs of early detection and adequate monitoring of patients, since genotypic characterization helps to determine the most appropriate therapeutic strategies and predict the antiviral response. It is confirmed that genotype 1 is the one that circulates more frequently, with a high predominance of subtype 1b. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Hepatitis C, Genotype, Molecular Epidemiology, Paraguay.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Hepatite C , Biologia Molecular , Epidemiologia Molecular , Genótipo
16.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(1): [P81-P86], jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047037

RESUMO

Introducción: La fibrosis quística (FQ) es una patología autosómica recesiva, pasible de ser detectada en el periodo neonatal, causada por mutaciones en el gen regulador de conductancia transmembrana de FQ (CFTR, por sus siglas en inglés), la patología es multisistémica y el tratamiento precoz incide en la expectativa y calidad de vida de los afectados. Objetivo: Presentar las principales estrategias y los resultados logrados para la detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las personas con FQ, en el Programa Nacional de Detección Neonatal. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión del plan operativo anual, informes, publicaciones y documentos emitidos del 2004 al 2018. Resultado: En 15 años se ejecutaron 16 estrategias que permitieron la detección, el diagnóstico así como el tratamiento de individuos afectados por la FQ. Entre las que se destacan el desarrollo de un proyecto piloto para el tamizaje de la FQ en RN, mediante dosaje de la tripsina inmunoreactiva (TIR), entrega de una canasta básica de medicamentos, insumos y equipos para el tratamiento de los individuos con FQ detectados por el programa así como los diagnosticados con anterioridad, implementación del test del sudor, elaboración de una Guía Clínica multidisciplinaria, automatización del dosaje de la TIR, que permitió la universalización del screening, y por último la identificación de las mutaciones presentes en los individuos afectados. En el 2015 se logró llegar al 100 % de cobertura de los RN atendidos en los servicios del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social. De enero del 2004 a diciembre del 2018, 179 individuos reciben su tratamiento en el programa, 144 de los cuales fueron detectados en el periodo neonatal. Conclusión:Las estrategias ejecutadas han tenido resultados muy auspiciosos que nos permitieron universalizar la detección neonatal y tratamiento, lo que conlleva a una mejor calidad y expectativa de vida de los individuos afectados por la FQ. En la actualidad solo faltaría implementar un Centro de Atención Multidisciplinario para las personas con Fibrosis Quística Palabras claves: Programa, Detección neonatal, Fibrosis Quística


Introduction:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive pathology, capable of being detected in the neonatal period, caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), the pathology is multisystemic and Early treatment affects the expectation and quality of life of those affected. Objective:Present the main strategies and the results achieved for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of people with CF, in the National Neonatal Screening Program. Methodology:A review of the annual operating plan, reports, publications and documents issued from 2004 to 2018 was made. Result:In 16 years, 16 strategies were implemented that allowed the detection, diagnosis and treatment of individuals affected by CF. Among those that stand out the development of a pilot project for the screening of CF in RN, by means of immunoreactive trypsin (TIR), delivery of a basic basket of medicines, supplies and equipment for the treatment of the individuals with CF detected by the program as well as those previously diagnosed, implementation of the sweat test, elaboration of a multidisciplinary Clinical Guide, automation of the TIR dose, which allowed the universalization of the screening, and finally the identification of the mutations present in the affected individuals . In 2015, it was possible to reach 100% coverage of the RNs assisted in the services of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare. From January 2004 to December 2018, 179 individuals received their treatment in the program, 144 of which were detected in the neonatal period. Conclusion:The strategies implemented have had very auspicious results that allowed us to universalize neonatal detection and treatment, which leads to a better quality and life expectancy of the individuals affected by CF. At present, it would only be necessary to implement a Multidisciplinary Care Center for people with Cystic Fibrosis. Keywords: Program, Neonatal screening, Cystic fibrosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Fibrose Cística , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Estratégias Nacionais , Programas de Rastreamento
17.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 11(1): 27-38, junio 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Repositório RHS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-997041

RESUMO

Introducción: la introducción de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, es un desafío para el proceso de la enseñanza aprendizaje, sin embargo, su inclusión es fundamental para el éxito de la educación. Objetivo: este trabajo plantea como objetivo, describir las competencias de los docentes en el uso de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación, Carrera de Enfermería, Casa Central, Facultad de Enfermería y Obstetricia de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción, durante el año 2017, dispuesto en tres componentes cognitivo, procedimental y actitudinal. Metodología: es un estudio descriptivo observacional, con enfoque cuantitativo, de corte transversal, muestreo probabilístico, incluye como muestra a 109 docentes, se aplicó un instrumento con 40 reactivos, para la medición de los componentes cognitivos y procedimental. Se utilizó cuestionario estructurado cerrado, y para el componente actitudinal se aplicó un cuestionario con medición según escala de Likert con valores de 1 a 5. Resultado: el resultado refleja que los docentes poseen competencia cognitiva de nivel básico, que los medios audiovisuales e informáticos son los más utilizados por los docentes y un componente actitudinal positivo para la integración de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación en el proceso de la enseñanza aprendizaje. Conclusión: se recomienda crear espacios para desarrollar el conocimiento e incorporar en forma progresiva las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación en la práctica de la docencia, asegurar la accesibilidad a una red y programar planes de formación permanente.


Introduction: the introduction of Information and Communication Technologies is a challenge for the teaching-learning process, however, its inclusion is fundamental to the education success. Objetive: this work objective raises to describe the teachers competencies in the using of Information and Communication Technologies, Career Nursing, Headquarters, School of Nursing and Obstetrics of the National University of Asuncion, during the year 2017, arranged in three cognitive, procedural and attitudinal components. It is an observational descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, cross-sectional, probabilistic sampling approach. Metodology: it includes 109 teachers as a sample, an instrument with 40 reagents was applied, for the cognitive measurement and procedural components, a closed structured questionnaire was used, and for the Attitudinal component was applied a questionnaire with measurement according to Likert scale with values from 1 to 5. Results: the result reflects that teachers have basic level cognitive competence, that audiovisual and computer media are the most used by teachers and a positive attitudinal component for the integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching-learning process. Conclusion: it is recommended to create spaces to develop knowledge and progressively incorporate Information and Communication Technologies in the practice of teaching, ensure accessibility to a network and program ongoing training plans.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Enfermagem , Tecnologia da Informação/tendências , Paraguai , Educação em Saúde
18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 60: 182-192, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is hampered by long surgical wait times, slow maturation, and upwards of 60% that do not mature. We describe our clinical experience in using a system with a 4F catheter profile for endovascular AVF creation in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: This was a multioperator, single-center, single-arm, prospective study intended to evaluate safety and efficacy of a 4 Fr endovascular AVF (endoAVF) system for the creation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients. The study was performed after institutional review board approval at Italian Hospital (Asuncion, Paraguay). Patients were followed up at regular intervals through 6 months to determine procedural, maturation, and cannulation success as well as intervention rate and patency. RESULTS: From May to November 2016, 32 patients underwent the endoAVF procedure with no device-related adverse events. An endoAVF was successfully created in the proximal forearm for all 32 patients (20 between the radial artery and radial vein; 12 between the ulnar artery and ulnar vein). Wrist access was used for 72% (23/32) of the procedures for the arterial catheter and 59% (19/32) of the procedures for the venous catheter. The device successfully created an endoAVF in every patient for a technical success rate of 100% (32/32). The device- or procedure-related serious adverse event rate was 3% (1/32); one patient experienced a venous guidewire perforation successfully managed with a stent graft. Primary and cumulative patency rates through 6 months were 83% and 87%, respectively, with an intervention rate of 0.21 per patient-year. Physiological suitability, as defined by target flow rates ≥500 ml/min and cannulation vessel diameters ≥4 mm, was achieved in 91% (29/32) of patients by 90 days. Successful 2-needle cannulation was achieved in 78% (21/27) by 90 days, with mean time to cannulation of 43 ± 14 days. Functional cannulation, as defined by successful 2-needle cannulation for two-thirds of the dialysis sessions within 1 month, was achieved in 95% (20/21) of the patients who were successfully cannulated for an overall rate of 74% (20/27). All patients who achieved functional cannulation had their central venous catheters (CVCs) removed before the 90-day follow-up for a CVC removal rate of 74% (20/27). CONCLUSIONS: The 4 Fr endoAVF system allowed for multiple access and fistula creation site options to tailor the procedure to individual patient anatomy. Furthermore, the outcomes are comparable to previous generation endoAVF technology, with a potentially improved safety profile because of the use of arteries at the wrist for access.


Assuntos
Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Diálise Renal , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20170697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994746

RESUMO

Characterized by fluvio-alluvial sedimentation processes, the heterogeneity in the Pantanal Basin allows its division in several sub-regions, which present natural characteristics of their own. It is possible to find in the literature different proposals to subdivide the Pantanal plain, which vary in total area and number of sub-regions. Each author uses specific criteria - mainly vegetation, soil and humidity - in his delimitation, but does not consider the tectonic aspects of the basin. In this sense, we intend to analyze three Pantanal delimitations from the literature and to relate them to the neotectonic context of the Pantanal plain by comparing the boundaries proposed in the delimitations to structural lineaments present in the basin. As a result, we observe that the comparison of the Pantanal boundaries with the lineaments shows a high compatibility between them, suggesting the influence of these structures in the development of the sub-regions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fenômenos Geológicos , Brasil , Paraguai , Rios , Imagens de Satélites
20.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(1): 69-74, abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008044

RESUMO

El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune, de etiología desconocida que presenta manifestaciones clínicas de gravedad y curso impredecible. Se ha observado en varias cohortes que esta enfermedad tiene un comportamiento más agresivo en la población no caucásica debido a diferencias socioeconómicas, demográficas y genéticas. El objetivo del estudio es describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de los pacientes con LES incluidos en la cohorte LUPUS-PY y la situación actual de las muestras custodiadas en el BIOBANCO IMID-PY. Estudio basado en la revisión de historias clínicas y en los cuestionarios clínico-epidemiológicos del día de la inclusión al registro LUPUS-PY. Se calcularon las frecuencias para las variables categóricas y las medias con su desvío estándar para las continuas. Se incluyeron de forma consecutiva, 83 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES (edad media: 34,4±10,0 años), el 86,7% era del sexo femenino, el 55% provenía de Asunción, el 49,1% tenía nivel educativo básico, el 45% percibía un ingreso mensual de un sueldo mínimo (aproximadamente 350 dólares americanos) o menos. El 46,8% no realizaba ningún tipo de actividad física. La media del tiempo trascurrido desde el inicio de los síntomas y el diagnóstico del LES fue de 9,3±13,7 años y el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad hasta el ingreso al registro fue de 5,9±6,3. El 16% refirió antecedentes familiares de enfermedades autoinmunes. La primera manifestación de la enfermedad más descripta fue la articular (45%). Los pacientes con LES de nuestro centro tienen características tanto clínicas como epidemiológicas similares a las reportadas por otras cohortes(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Exercício , Consumo de Alimentos , Estudos de Coortes
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