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1.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(1): 56-75, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685070

RESUMO

Significant numbers of parasites such as protozoa, helminths and arthropods infest equids. Various investigations have been conducted in Turkey to detect these parasites. In this review, all parasites reported in horses, donkeys and mules have been listed. A total of 62, 52 and 21 helminths were recorded in horses, donkeys and mules, respectively. As protozoan parasites, 13 species were detected both in horses and donkeys, and 3 in mules. With regard to arthropods, 40, 23 and 6 species were detected in horses, donkeys and mules, respectively. In the recent years, various molecular diagnostic methods have been developed and especially applied to the protozoan research area. Classical diagnostic methods were incapable of detecting certain protozoan parasites. Such protozoan parasites can be detected at the nucleic acid level with these new techniques. During the last quadranscentennial, a reduction has been recorded in the total number of equids in Turkey, whereby the breeding of sport horses is becoming an important issue. Thus, this review summarises the published research papers in Turkey in order to raise awareness among the animal owners and veterinarians in terms of the prevention of potential hazards resulting from parasitic infections/infestations in equids.


Assuntos
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Equidae , Cavalos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Turquia/epidemiologia
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 127-130, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775078

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pygmy tribes inhabit tropical environment of Central Africa. After expulsion from their original habitat by the Bantu people, they settled in a local forest ecosystem where they live with very low sanitary standards. Their actual morbidity remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in BaAka Pygmies inhabiting the Congo Basin in the Central African Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2015, and involved a group of 950 Pygmies living inthe Sangha-Mbaere and Lobaye prefectures. Single stool samples were collected from study participants, fixed in 10% formalin, transported from Africa to Europe, and analyzed by light microscopy using 5 different diagnostic methods (direct smear, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborne's flotation, Kato-Miura thick smear, DiaSyS/PARASYS system sedimentation) at the Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Poland. RESULTS: Microscopic examination revealed infections with 14 different species of intestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and protozoa. According to the study findings, 90.5% of BaAka Pygmies were found to be infected with intestinal parasites, and 70.8% had mixed infections. Most of the pathogenic intestinal parasites were nematodes (85.0%), with Asrcaris lumbricoides (29.8%), hookworm (29.4%) and Trichuris trichiura (10.7%) being predominant. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sanitation, limited the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the community of Pygmies. The negative test results may prove the effectiveness of periodic deworming campaigns chich, implemented by non-governmental organizations, are voluntary with respect to the informed consent principle.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , República Centro-Africana/epidemiologia , República Centro-Africana/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Congo/epidemiologia , Congo/etnologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/economia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Pobreza , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(6): 774-782, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544912

RESUMO

The study was performed to compare real-time PCR after nucleic acid extraction directly from stool samples as well as from samples stored and transported on Whatman papers or flocked swabs at ambient temperature in the tropics. In addition, the possible suitability for a clear determination of likely aetiological relevance of PCR-based pathogen detections based on cycle threshold (Ct) values was assessed. From 632 Tanzanian children <5 years of age with and without gastrointestinal symptoms, 466 samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR for gastrointestinal viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens. Equal or even higher frequencies of pathogen detections from Whatman papers or flocked swabs were achieved compared with nucleic acid extraction directly from stool samples. Comparison of the Ct values showed no significant difference according to the nucleic acid extraction strategy. Also, the Ct values did not allow a decision whether a detected pathogen was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Criança , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tanzânia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
4.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103703, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397621

RESUMO

Regarding preparing and serving foods, food handlers have an influential role in the spreading of foodborne infections. Due to the great potential to cause foodborne infections, intestinal parasites (IPs) are considered a significant public health problem in today's societies. In Iran, despite several regional reports, national data on IPs prevalence in food handlers are lacking. The aim of the present study, therefore, is to estimate the pooled prevalence of IPs infections and associated pooled odds ratio of educational level among food handlers in Iran. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar databases (international) and SID and Magiran databases (national) were systematically searched for studies that reporting the prevalence of IPs in food handlers in Iran, published between 2000 and 2020. Pooled prevalence was estimated using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and depicted as a forest plot, while heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q-test. The overall pooled prevalence estimate for IPs was 19.3% (95% CI = 14.9-23.7%). Prevalence of the protozoan parasites (20%, 95% CI = 13.7-26.3%) was significantly higher than that of the helminthic parasites (1.6%, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0%). Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Entamoeba coli (5.0%), and Blastocystis spp. (4.4%), as protozoan parasites, and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.9%), and Hymenolepis nana (0.5%), as helminthic parasites, were the most commonly reported species. Food handlers with low educational levels were 20% more exposed to IPs infection, compared to those with high educational levels (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.65). The prevalence of IPs infections among food handlers in Iran is significant. Besides taking into account this epidemiologic information, a holistic approach, including periodic stool screening, health education, and treatment of infected food handlers, will help in the control of these infections in Iran.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Prevalência
5.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103704, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397622

RESUMO

Fresh vegetables are essential components of a healthy and nutritious diet, but if consumed raw without proper washing and/or disinfection, can be important agents of transmission of enteric pathogens. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites on vegetables freshly harvested and "ready to eat" vegetables from greengrocers and markets in northwestern Iran. In addition, the effect of cropping system and season on contamination levels were assessed as well as the efficacy of washing procedures to remove parasites from the vegetables. A total of 2757 samples composed of field (n = 1, 600) and "ready to eat" (n = 1157) vegetables were analyzed. Vegetables included leek, parsley, basil, coriander, savory, mint, lettuce, cabbage, radish, dill, spinach, mushroom, carrot, tomato, cucumber and pumpkin. Normal physiological saline washings from 200 g samples were processed using standard parasitological techniques and examined microscopically. A total of 53.14% of vegetable samples obtained from different fields and 18.23% of "ready to eat" vegetables purchased from greengrocers and markets were contaminated with different parasitic organisms including; Entamoeba coli cysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Fasciola hepatica eggs, Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs, Taenia spp. eggs, Hymenolepis nana eggs, Ancylostoma spp. eggs, Toxocara cati eggs, Toxocara canis eggs, Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. In both field and "ready to eat" vegetables, the highest parasitic contamination was observed in lettuce with a rate of 91.1% and 55.44%, respectively. The most common parasitic organism was Fasciola hepatica. A seasonal difference in contamination with parasitic organisms was found for field and "ready to eat" vegetables (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in the recovery of parasitic organisms depending on the washing method with water and dishwashing liquid being the least effective. Proper washing of vegetables is imperative for a healthy diet as the results of this study showed the presence of zoonotic parasites from field and ready to eat vegetables in Iran.


Assuntos
/parasitologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Cucumis sativus/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Alface/parasitologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Petroselinum/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 515-523, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409630

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the links between parasites and behavioural traits of juvenile Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii). The Murray cod is an endangered Australian freshwater fish for which restocking programs are in place and there is a growing human consumption market. However, little is known about the parasites of these fish and how these parasites influence their behaviour and survival. Fingerlings and yearling fish were sourced from a hatchery and the wild, and after acclimatisation in the laboratory, variation in behavioural traits was examined using emergence, exploration and predator inspection tests. The fish were then euthanised to determine their age and examined for infection with parasites. Wild fish had more camallanid nematodes and lernaeid copepods than hatchery fish. An information theoretic approach using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that infection with protozoan cysts was an important factor for predicting the latency to emerge and explore a new environment, which was interpreted as reduced "boldness". In contrast, the presence of lernaeid copepods was included in two of the four best models predicting predator inspection, indicating that infected fish were less likely to inspect a predator. Source of fish (wild or hatchery) was found to be a strong influence on behavioural responses in all our tests. All parasites found in the present study are known to result in clinical signs of diseases in their fish hosts, raising the possibility that responses in tests of behavioural traits reflect side effects of infection. Additionally, the effect of host adaptation to not show signs of parasite infection, or more simply that the effects on behaviour are subtle and difficult to reveal with small sample sizes, is discussed. Nonetheless, we propose that it is important that infection with parasites is considered in fish behavioural studies both to assess survival behaviour and to avoid misinterpretation of behavioural tests of animal personality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/psicologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Austrália , Pesqueiros , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/classificação , Fenótipo
7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 1, 2021 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) has enabled characterization of diverse bacterial communities, yet the application of TADS to communities of parasites has been relatively slow to advance. The greatest obstacle to this has been the genetic diversity of parasitic agents, which include helminths, protozoa, arthropods, and some acanthocephalans. Meanwhile, universal amplification of conserved loci from all parasites without amplifying host DNA has proven challenging. Pan-eukaryotic PCRs preferentially amplify the more abundant host DNA, obscuring parasite-derived reads following TADS. Flaherty et al. (2018) described a pan-parasitic TADS method involving amplification of eukaryotic 18S rDNA regions possessing restriction sites only in vertebrates. Using this method, host DNA in total DNA extracts could be selectively digested prior to PCR using restriction enzymes, thereby increasing the number of parasite-derived reads obtained following NGS. This approach showed promise though was only as sensitive as conventional PCR. RESULTS: Here, we expand on this work by designing a second set of pan-eukaryotic primers flanking the priming sites already described, enabling nested PCR amplification of the established 18S rDNA target. This nested approach facilitated introduction of a second restriction digestion between the first and second PCR, reducing the proportional mass of amplifiable host-derived DNA while increasing the number of PCR amplification cycles. We applied this method to blood specimens containing Babesia, Plasmodium, various kinetoplastids, and filarial nematodes and confirmed its limit of detection (LOD) to be approximately 10-fold lower than previously described, falling within the range of most qPCR methods. CONCLUSIONS: The assay detects and differentiates the major malaria parasites of humans, along with several other clinically important blood parasites. This represents an important step towards a TADS-based universal parasite diagnostic (UPDx) test with a sufficient LOD for routine applications. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Primers do DNA/genética , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA/metabolismo , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027422

RESUMO

The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants' carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least one ectoparasite species, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii s. l. (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Helmintos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e007320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935770

RESUMO

Although anemia has been historically linked to Haemonchus contortus infection, other infectious agents, such as hemotropic mycoplasmas and tick-borne disease pathogens, may also lead to anemic crisis in sheep. This study has aimed to investigate infections related to anemia in a sheep herd from Bandeirantes City, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Seven out of forty-two (16.6%; 95% CI: 8.32-30.6%) sheep were positive for hemoplasmas by a PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and all tested negative for A. marginale/A. ovis and Babesia/Theileria spp. by PCR based on msp4 and 18S rRNA genes, respectively. Two (4.7%; 95% CI: 1.32-15.79%) animals were infested with Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. Fecal egg counting was performed in 38 sheep and 24 (63.15%; 95% CI: 47.2-76.6%) presented > 500 eggs per gram. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the detected hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed that the animals were infected with Mycoplasma ovis. Polymorphism analysis of partial 16S rRNA sequences showed three different genotypes of M. ovis infecting sheep assessed in the present study. Mycoplasma ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes occurs in sheep from the northern region of Paraná State.


Assuntos
Anemia/veterinária , Nematoides , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Doenças dos Ovinos , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/complicações , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/microbiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935771

RESUMO

This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. These 201 species comprise 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura and 2 Pentastomida, arranged in 84 host fish species. This work carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River contributes to the listing of parasite species and host interactions of the local ichthyofauna. Little is known about these communities and its riches are underestimated due to the high density of fish found in this region, highlighting the importance of conducting studies on the local fauna.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4185, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826898

RESUMO

Adaptive responses to ecological uncertainty may affect the dynamics of interspecific interactions and shape the course of evolution within symbioses. Obligate avian brood parasites provide a particularly tractable system for understanding how uncertainty, driven by environmental variability and symbiont phenology, influences the evolution of species interactions. Here, we use phylogenetically-informed analyses and a comprehensive dataset on the behaviour and geographic distribution of obligate avian brood parasites and their hosts to demonstrate that increasing uncertainty in thermoregulation and parental investment of parasitic young are positively associated with host richness and diversity. Our findings are consistent with the theoretical expectation that ecological risks and environmental unpredictability should favour the evolution of bet-hedging. Additionally, these highly consistent patterns highlight the important role that ecological uncertainty is likely to play in shaping the evolution of specialisation and generalism in complex interspecific relationships.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Incerteza , Animais , Biodiversidade , Coevolução Biológica , Aves/classificação , Clima , Comportamento de Nidação , Parasitos/classificação , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3053-3059, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638102

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) can be a severe threat to immunocompromised patients. This is particularly true for those undergoing chemotherapy and hemodialysis. The present research is aimed at identifying intestinal parasites that might be present in immunocompromised patients. In this cross-sectional study 1040 stool samples were collected from March to September 2017. Six hundred and forty-one stool samples from immunocompromised patients (279 samples from hemodialysis patients and 362 samples from chemotherapy patients) and 399 samples from the control group were collected in Guilan province, Iran. The samples were tested by direct, formalin-ether methods for protozoa and ova of intestinal parasites and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods for coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium species. The overall parasitic infection rate was highest (15%) in hemodialysis patients and 11.3% in chemotherapy patients, whereas the lowest rate was observed (7.3%) in the control group. The infectivity rates were statistically significant (P = 0.008) when compared with the control group. The parasites found were Blastocystis hominis (8.9% of the cases), Entamoeba coli (1.6%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.8%), Endolimax nana (0.6%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.5%), and Taenia species (0.15%), whereas Giardia lamblia was detected only in the control group. There was not a correlation between prevalence of parasites with age or education levels of the infected individuals. Results of the present study suggest that periodic stool examinations in special parasitological laboratories should be included as part of routine and general medical care.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/parasitologia , Neoplasias/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/imunologia , Helmintos/classificação , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609244

RESUMO

Comparative studies of parasites in sympatric bird species have been generally scarce. Parasitic infection/transmission can be spread in a number of ways that suggests possible direct and indirect, horizontal transmission between avian hosts. In order to determine whether two sympatric icterids from Central and Southern Chile share their parasite fauna (ecto- and endoparasites), we examined parasites of 27 Shiny Cowbirds, Molothrus bonariensis, and 28 Austral Blackbirds, Curaeus curaeus, including individuals captured in the wild and carcasses. We found that Shiny Cowbirds were infected with the chewing lice Brueelia bonariensis, Philopterus sp. 1, the feather mites Amerodectes molothrus, Proctophyllodes spp. (species 1 and 2), and the helminths Mediorhynchus papillosus, Plagiorhynchus sp., Dispharynx nasuta and Tetrameres paucispina, while Austral Blackbirds had the chewing lice Myrsidea sp., Philopterus sp. 2, the feather mites Proctophyllodes sp. 3, Amerodectes sp., and three helminths: Anonchotaenia sp., Capillaria sp. and M. papillosus. The flea Dasypsyllus (Neornipsyllus) cteniopus was found only on the Austral Blackbird. The only parasite species shared by both icterids was the acanthocephalan M. papillosus, possibly due to their feeding on the same intermediate insect hosts. With the exception of B. bonariensis and Philopterus sp. 1 found on the Shiny Cowbird, all species reported in this study represent new parasite-host associations and new records of parasite diversity in Chile.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos , Passeriformes , Animais , Chile , Helmintos/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Ácaros/fisiologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia
14.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(9): 727-734, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680786

RESUMO

Despite the benefits of phototrophy, many algae have lost photosynthesis and have converted back to heterotrophy. Parasitism is a heterotrophic strategy, with apicomplexans being among the most devastating parasites for humans. The presence of a nonphotosynthetic plastid in apicomplexan parasites suggests their phototrophic ancestry. The discovery of related phototrophic chromerids has unlocked the possibility to study the transition between phototrophy and parasitism in the Apicomplexa. The chromerid Chromera velia can live as an intracellular parasite in coral larvae as well as a free-living phototroph, combining phototrophy and parasitism in what I call photoparasitism. Since early-branching apicomplexans live extracellularly, their evolution from an intracellular symbiont is unlikely. In this opinion article I discuss possible evolutionary trajectories from an extracellular photoparasite to an obligatory apicomplexan parasite.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Processos Fototróficos , Animais , Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Humanos , Parasitos/metabolismo
15.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 217-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592543

RESUMO

Plagioscion squamosissimus, commonly known as "white hake" or "corvina", is among the most commercially important fish in the Amazon and host to a great diversity of endoparasites. The aim of the present study was to compare the communities and infracommunities of metazoan parasites that infect P. squamosissimus in two rivers from the eastern Brazilian Amazon. A total of 75 specimens of P. squamosissimus were collected from Lago Grande do Curuái and the mouth of the Tapajós River. Morphological analysis revealed the presence of 16 parasite species, three myxozoans (Myxobolus sp., Ceratomyxa sp., Henneguya sp.), two trematodes (Austrodiplostomum compactum, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae), two monogeneans (Diplectanum sp., Euryhaliotrema sp.), three nematodes (Procamallanus (S.) sp., Anisakis sp., Pseudoproleptus sp. (larva), two acanthocephalans (Rhadinorhynchus plagioscionis and Neoechinorhynchus sp.), one Cestoda Ptychobothriidae gen. sp. and three crustaceans (Therodamas sp., Ergasilus sp., Dolops sp.). Six new records of parasites of P. squamosissimus were made, of which three were myxozoan species, one nematode species and two crustacean species. There were differences in the component communities of parasites of both rivers studied and these were discussed.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Parasitos , Perciformes , Animais , Brasil , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556046

RESUMO

Eighty-one Hoplias malabaricus specimens were collected between February 2014 and June 2016. A total of 29 species of metazoan parasites were found, 13 of which were identified as monogeneans, seven were digenean species, seven of which were nematodes, and two of which were from the subclass Hirudinea. The highest prevalence values ​​were presented by Contracaecum sp. and Tylodelphys sp. The highest mean abundance and mean intensity was recorded by Tylodelphys sp.; the values were ​​36.7 ± 61.8 and 55.65 ± 69.1, respectively. The abundance of the monogenean Urocleidoides cuiabai was found to be positively correlated with host weight. The abundance of Bucephalidae gen. sp. exhibited significant positive correlations with host weight and length. For Contracaecum sp., a significant negative correlation was found between its abundance and host length and weight. No significant differences between the diversity indexes (Margalef, Pielou and Shannon) of the parasites collected in the two points were found. The Sorensen similarity index, with a value of 0.82 between the two sampling points revealed that the parasitic diversity between them is similar. The findings from this study represent new records of occurrence of H. malabaricus, as well as of Urocleidoides margolisi, Scleroductus sp. and Helobdella sp.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Parasitos/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Rios
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2623-2629, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591865

RESUMO

Shotgun metagenomics with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques is increasingly used for pathogen identification and characterization. While many studies apply targeted amplicon sequencing, here we used untargeted metagenomics to simultaneously identify protists and helminths in pre-diagnosed faecal and tissue samples. The approach starts from RNA and operates without an amplification step, therefore allowing the detection of all eukaryotes, including pathogens, since it circumvents the bias typically observed in amplicon-based HTS approaches. The generated metagenomics datasets were analysed using the RIEMS tool for initial taxonomic read assignment. Mapping analyses against ribosomal reference sequences were subsequently applied to extract 18S rRNA sequences abundantly present in the sequence datasets. The original diagnosis, which was based on microscopy and/or PCR, could be confirmed in nearly all cases using ribosomal RNA metagenomics. In addition to the pre-diagnosed taxa, we detected other intestinal eukaryotic parasites of uncertain pathogenicity (of the genera Dientamoeba, Entamoeba, Endolimax, Hymenolepis) that are often excluded from routine diagnostic protocols. The study clearly demonstrates the applicability of untargeted RNA metagenomics for the parallel detection of parasites.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Metagenômica , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 125-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530589

RESUMO

Parasitic zoonosis (PZs) have a cosmopolitan significant impact on public health but they are often omitted in discussions, especially in developing countries. Zoonotic parasites include protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods, and notably in African and Arabian countries have a high prevalence among livestock and man. Through this comprehensive review, we summarize the extant published research of the most significant zoonotic parasites present in some countries of Arabic world and we identify the epidemiology and risk factors for significant infections and suggest some effective control measures. This review might help the researches, governments about the zoonotic impact of these neglected infections for future considerations and application for real control programs.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
19.
Trop Doct ; 50(3): 194-198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380905

RESUMO

Data concerning the burden of parasites among populations living in overcrowded circumstances have paramount importance for the success of interventions aimed at eliminating such disease. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted from February to May 2019 among 217 children at child centres in Bahir Dar city. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and stool samples were processed for parasitological investigation.A total of 53 (24.4%) children were infected with at least a single species of intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia (7.8%) was the most frequent, followed by Hymenolepis nana (6%). Children with untrimmed fingernails (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.422, P = 0.027) were significantly more prone to infection. Similarly, children with no habit of hand washing after soil contact (AOR = 2.752, P = 0.014) or after defecation (AOR = 3.087, P = 0.026) were significantly associated with parasitic infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasites at child centres in Bahir Dar is of public health importance; therefore, control programmes should target these children.


Assuntos
Lares para Grupos/estatística & dados numéricos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1891-1901, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382990

RESUMO

Amphibian populations are declining around the world, and the main reasons are the environmental changes and pathogens. However, there are few studies addressing the interaction and impact of the different pathogens that affect amphibians, such as hemoparasites. These parasites had been described as common in some amphibian species, but unfortunately, their description and characterization are unclear and scarcely spread. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morphological and molecular characterization of hemoparasites present in vaillant's frogs. Seven frogs of Lithobates vaillanti were captured at the biological station La Florida in Tabasco, Mexico. Blood smears were performed, and results show that 100% of the animals have hemoparasites. Three types of hemoparasites were found. Eighty-five percent of the frogs were positive to Hepatozoon sp., 57% to Lankesterella sp., and 28% to Trypanosoma sp. According to the molecular analysis of the obtained sequences of Trypanosoma sp. and Hepatozoon sp., both protozoans were positioned in between the clusters of parasites of different geographical regions. Nevertheless, no species names were assigned to any of these parasites because more sequences and analysis are needed.


Assuntos
Ranidae/parasitologia , Animais , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Florida , México , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação
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