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1.
J Helminthol ; 94: e121, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964431

RESUMO

The distribution of parasites within host populations and communities, and the mechanisms responsible for these patterns, are poorly understood aspects of wildlife parasitology. Here, we evaluate the influence of the average abundance of endoparasite variance, using endoparasites of lizards from the Caatinga domain (semiarid region), north-eastern Brazil. We hypothesized that, due to the high number of generalist endoparasite species, they may occur randomly throughout host populations in an aggregate pattern. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which sample variance is influenced by the average abundance of endoparasite species, patterns of co-occurrence and dominance among endoparasite species and similarities between abundance and the richness of endoparasite infracommunities in several host species. Between September 2015 and February 2016, 2141 lizards (1233 infected) from 16 species were collected from six Caatinga areas. In total, 25,687 endoparasites were collected, which belonged to 13 species including nematodes, pentastomids, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans. Parasite-host associations documented here included 39 newly identified interactions. Endoparasites occurred in a typical aggregate pattern of distribution within their hosts; there was no measurable preference related to the acquisition of hosts by endoparasites. Despite the new records, endoparasites found were commonly associated with lizards in Caatinga environments, which may reflect fauna composed of generalist endoparasite species.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 12, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determination of the prevalence and distribution pattern of intestinal parasites is a fundamental step to set up an effective control program to improve the health status. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county, southeast of Kerman province, southeastern Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 861 stool specimens were collected from inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county through a multistage cluster sampling method in 2018. The collected specimens were examined by parasitological methods including, direct wet-mounting (for the fresh specimens with a watery consistency), formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation and agar plate culture. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 34.2% (95% CI 30.1 to 38.2). The prevalence of protozoan parasites 32.3% (95% CI 28.4 to 36.5) was significantly higher than helminthic parasites 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 4.7). Blastocystis sp. (13.3%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%) and Giardia lamblia (10.6%) as protozoan parasite and Hymenolepis nana (2.4%) as helminthic parasite were the most common detected intestinal parasites in the study. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.5%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (1.0%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.3%) and Ascaris lambercoides (0.3%) were other detected parasites. Multiple logistic regression revealed a significant association of intestinal parasitic infections with source of drinking water and residency status (rural/urban). Multiple infections with 2 or 3 parasitic agents constituted 22.7% of 295 infected cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among inhabitants of Rudbar-e Jonub county. Intestinal parasites especially protozoans remain a challenging public health problem wherever sanitation and health measures are limited in Iran.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parasitos/classificação , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 610, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881926

RESUMO

With a global population of about 35 million in 47 countries, dromedary camels play a crucial role in the economy of many marginal, desert areas of the world where they survive under harsh conditions. Nonetheless, there is scarce knowledge regarding camels' parasite fauna which can reduce their milk and meat productions. In addition, only scattered information is available about zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans via contamination (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi), as foodborne infections (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Linguatula serrata) or by arthropod vectors (Trypanosoma spp.). Herein, we draw attention of the scientific community and health policy-making organizations to the role camels play in the epidemiology of parasitic zoonotic diseases also in the view of an increase in their farming in desert areas worldwide.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
J Helminthol ; 94: e97, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679527

RESUMO

Several factors influence the dynamics and structure of parasite communities. Our goal was to investigate how the community composition, prevalence and abundance of parasites change across seven populations of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia in Northeast Brazil, and to describe ontogenetic and sex variations. We found differences in the composition of component communities and patterns of infection according to the host body size across the lizard populations. We did not find any variation between the sexes regarding epidemiological patterns, which can probably be explained by the similar diet and habitat use of male and female H. mabouia. An unusually high abundance and prevalence of trematodes infecting this host lizard was apparent when we compared other native lizard hosts, and we suggest that local environmental conditions might be advantageous to the development and life cycle of these parasites due to the abundance of all the intermediate and definitive hosts.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e103, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679528

RESUMO

Helminth and protozoan infections are responsible for important diseases in grazing sheep, which can be especially threatening in an autochthonous breed at risk of extinction like the Churra Galega Mirandesa Portuguese sheep breed. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in these sheep and to assess the effects of deworming practices, cohabiting animals on the farm and feed management. Coprological qualitative and quantitative analysis (flotation, natural sedimentation and McMaster method) were used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasites and a questionnaire was designed and applied. A total of 512 faecal samples were collected from 49 flocks, and 49 replies to the questionnaire were received. Parasites were identified in 100% of the flocks, and in 97% of the samples. The genera or species that have been morphologically identified were: strongyle-type, Nematodirus spp., Skrjabinema spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Fasciola hepatica. This is the first report in Portugal of Skrjabinema spp. The burden of parasites' oocysts and eggs per gram in faecal samples ranged, respectively, from 50 to 17,550 for Eimeria spp., and from 50 to 6250 for strongyle-type eggs. Factors affecting parasitic infections were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression. Grazing time and a lack of anthelmintic treatment were positively associated with Nematodirus spp. infection. This study showed that there is a high prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in the Churra Galega Mirandesa sheep breed.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Portugal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
6.
J Helminthol ; 94: e104, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679531

RESUMO

The human-animal bond is beneficial for human health, but companion animals also pose a potential threat as vectors of zoonotic parasites, especially in urban areas where both human and dog densities are high. However, the knowledge about parasitic spillover in the urban environment is relatively scarce. The aim of the present study was to reveal which factors determine parasitic contamination in Estonian towns and provide up-to-date information about intestinal parasites of the Estonian dog population. In total, 657 samples of dog excrement was collected over one year of investigation from five towns in Estonia. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate factors predicting infection risk in urban areas. In general, infection risk and intensity models predicted higher infection with endoparasites for small dogs in smaller towns, especially in apartment-house districts and in potential hazard zones. Helminth eggs and Giardia/Cystoisospora oocysts were detected in 64 samples, with an overall prevalence of 9.8%.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
7.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 205-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578844

RESUMO

Parasites of pike Esox lucius from freshwater and brackish water in Poland are listed. This checklist summarized data published in Catalogue of Parasitic Fauna of Poland. Part II. Parasites of Cyclostomes and Fish by Jadwiga Grabda and later data from original studies. Parasites are listed alphabetically in higher taxa with their location in host and distribution in Polish waters with references. Parasites belonging to the higher taxa as Protista ­ 11 records, Myxosporea ­ 6, Digenea ­ 17, Monogenea ­ 2, Cestoda ­ 9, Nematoda ­ 7, Acanthocephala ­ 7, Hirudinida ­ 5, Mollusca ­ unidentified glochidia, Crustacea ­ 6, were found. The most frequently noted parasites have been Azygia lucii, Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys clavata, Tetraonchus monenteron, Triaenophorus nodulosus, Raphidascaris acus and Ergasilus sieboldi.


Assuntos
Esocidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Animais , Esocidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Polônia
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2635-2642, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363922

RESUMO

The geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) overlaps with various parasitic infections. Uncovering the characteristics of coinfecting parasites that potentially affect the host susceptibility to TB is pertinent as it may provide input to current TB therapeutic and prophylactic measures. The present study was aimed at examining the types of parasitic infections in TB patients and healthy TB contacts (HC) in Orang Asli, Malaysian aborigines, who dwelled in the co-endemic areas. Stool and serum samples were collected from Orang Asli who fulfilled the selection criteria and provided written informed consents. Selected parasitic infections in the two study groups were determined by stool examination and commercial serum antibody immunoassays. The prevalence of parasitic infections in TB and HC participants were 100% (n = 82) and 94.6% (n = 55) respectively. The parasitic infections comprised toxocariasis, trichuriasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworm infection, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, and brugian filariasis, in decreasing order of prevalence. Overall, helminth or protozoa infection did not show any significant association with the study groups. However, when the species of the parasite was considered, individuals exposed to trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis showed significant odds reduction (odds ratio (OR) 0.338; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.166, 0.688) and odds increment (OR 2.193; 95% CI 1.051, 4.576) to have active pulmonary TB, respectively. In conclusion, trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis may have distinct negative and positive associations respectively with the increase of host susceptibility to TB.


Assuntos
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(11): 2103-2112, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352670

RESUMO

In acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia). We tested both prospective (n = 163) and retrospective (n = 222) stool samples sent for routine diagnostics by the QIAstat GIP comparing it to the FDA-approved BioFire FilmArray GIP. Seegene Allplex GIP was used for discrepancy testing. After discrepancy testing, QIAstat GIP detected 447 of 455 pathogens (98.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 96.6-99.1%). There were eight false positive detections. Multiple pathogens were detected in 32.5% of positive samples. The QIAstat GIP detected a large range of AGE pathogens with a high sensitivity. It offers an easy-to-use system for GI pathogen detection in stool within 70 min. An advantage of the QIAstat is the availability of cycle threshold (CT) values to aid in interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Parasitos/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 410, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of gastrointestinal parasites on schoolchildren at Bochesa Elementary School around Lake Zwai, Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 schoolchildren in May 2016. The gastrointestinal parasites were examined with wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Chi-square (χ2) test was used to evaluate the association between categorical variables and infection prevalence. Binary logistic regression on SPSS version 21 was used, values were considered significant when the p-value was less than 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 22.6%. Males, 54 (14.1%) were more infected than females, 32 (8.3%), and 1-4 grade category, 64 (16.7%) were more infected than 5-8 grade category, 22 (5.7%). Age groups of 7-14, 78 (20.3%) were also more infected than > 15, 8 (2.1%); however, the variation was not significant (p > 0.05). In this study, parasitic coinfection was common; however, single gastrointestinal parasites were more dominant. The overall rate of gastrointestinal parasites shows that the environmental conditions where students pass their times are conducive to water-related diseases. Health education on personal and environmental hygiene keeping should be given to schoolchildren and safe wetland playing grounds should be prepared.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Lagos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Helminthol ; 93(6): 649-676, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232245

RESUMO

Marine mammals are long-lived top predators with vagile lifestyles, which often inhabit remote environments. This is especially relevant in the oceanic waters around New Zealand and Australia where cetaceans and pinnipeds are considered as vulnerable and often endangered due to anthropogenic impacts on their habitat. Parasitism is ubiquitous in wildlife, and prevalence of parasitic infections as well as emerging diseases can be valuable bioindicators of the ecology and health of marine mammals. Collecting information about parasite diversity in marine mammals will provide a crucial baseline for assessing their impact on host and ecosystem ecology. New studies on marine mammals in New Zealand and Australian waters have recently added to our knowledge of parasite prevalence, life cycles and taxonomic relationships in the Australasian region, and justify a first host-parasite checklist encompassing all available data. The present checklist comprises 36 species of marine mammals, and 114 species of parasites (helminths, arthropods and protozoans). Mammal species occurring in New Zealand and Australian waters but not included in the checklist represent gaps in our knowledge. The checklist thus serves both as a guide for what information is lacking, as well as a practical resource for scientists working on the ecology and conservation of marine mammals.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Lista de Checagem , Ecossistema , Mamíferos/classificação , Nova Zelândia , Oceanos e Mares , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 323, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep learning techniques have been successfully applied to bioimaging problems; however, these methods are highly data demanding. An approach to deal with the lack of data and avoid overfitting is the application of data augmentation, a technique that generates new training samples from the original dataset by applying different kinds of transformations. Several tools exist to apply data augmentation in the context of image classification, but it does not exist a similar tool for the problems of localization, detection, semantic segmentation or instance segmentation that works not only with 2 dimensional images but also with multi-dimensional images (such as stacks or videos). RESULTS: In this paper, we present a generic strategy that can be applied to automatically augment a dataset of images, or multi-dimensional images, devoted to classification, localization, detection, semantic segmentation or instance segmentation. The augmentation method presented in this paper has been implemented in the open-source package CLoDSA. To prove the benefits of using CLoDSA, we have employed this library to improve the accuracy of models for Malaria parasite classification, stomata detection, and automatic segmentation of neural structures. CONCLUSIONS: CLoDSA is the first, at least up to the best of our knowledge, image augmentation library for object classification, localization, detection, semantic segmentation, and instance segmentation that works not only with 2 dimensional images but also with multi-dimensional images.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Semântica , Animais , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Modelos Teóricos , Parasitos/classificação
14.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2257-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177405

RESUMO

The New England cottontail rabbit (NEC, Sylvilagus transitionalis) population has decreased dramatically in New York, USA, and the role of parasites in limiting the population has never been examined. The closely related and sympatric eastern cottontail rabbit (EC, Sylvilagus floridanus) was introduced into the range of NEC by humans and is currently thriving. This study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites of the NEC and the EC and compare their parasite communities. Fecal pellets from 195 NEC and 125 EC were collected from the Hudson Valley, New York, in the winter of 2013-2014. Centrifugal fecal floats were performed in Sheather's sugar solution, and parasite ova and cysts were examined microscopically to identify gastrointestinal parasites present. For all pellets combined (n = 320), 91% were found to harbor at least 1 parasite species, with Eimeria species being the most common. Genetic analysis of pellets using microsatellite DNA identified 248 individual rabbits, with parasite prevalence (94%) similar to the prevalence estimate based on all pellets (91%). EC samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) parasite species richness (1.73, range 0-4) than NEC (1.20, range 0-3). EC and NEC shared 3 moderate to high (9-89%) prevalence parasites, in which EC prevalence was consistently higher. One parasite species was only found in NEC, and two were only found in EC, but the majority of these were of low abundance, precluding further statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , New York/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simpatria
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 277, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed metrics of the metazoan parasite infracommunities of the dusky flounder (Syacium papillosum) as indicators of aquatic environmental health of the Yucatan Shelf (YS) prior to oil extraction. We sampled the dusky flounder and its parasites along the YS, mostly during the 2015 north wind season (November-April). Our aims were: (i) to determine whether the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum exhibit significant differences among YS subregions; (ii) to determine whether the probability of the occurrence of its parasite species and individuals were affected by environmental variables, nutrients, heavy metals and hydrocarbons at the seascape level; and (iii) to determine whether there were statistical differences between the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum from YS and those of Syacium gunteri from the Campeche Sound. Multivariate statistical analyses and generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to examine the potential statistical associations between the contaminants, environmental variables and parasite community metrics, and the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) was used to characterise the habitat's suitability for the parasite's probability of occurrence. RESULTS: We recovered 48 metazoan parasite species from 127 S. papillosum, with larval cestodes and digeneans being the most numerically-dominant. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences in parasite infracommunity metrics among Western YS, Mid YS and Caribbean subregions, with the latter being the richest in species but not in individuals. The GAM and MaxEnt results indicated a negative effect of top predators (e.g. sharks and rays) removal on parasite metrics. The parasite infracommunities of S. papillosum were twice as rich in the number of species and individuals as those reported for S. gunteri from the Campeche Sound. CONCLUSIONS: The significant differences among subregions in parasite metrics were apparently due to the interruption of the Yucatan current during the north wind season. The fishing of top predators in combination with an influx of nutrients and hydrocarbons in low concentrations coincides with an increase in larval cestodes and digeneans in S. papillosum. The dusky flounder inhabits a region (YS) with a larger number of metazoan parasite species compared with those available for S. gunteri in the Campeche Sound, suggesting better environmental conditions for transmission in the YS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biota , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Parasitos/classificação
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1283-1292, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096340

RESUMO

Parasite spillback, the infection of a non-indigenous organism by a native parasite, is a highly important although understudied component of ecological invasion dynamics. Here, through the first analysis of the parasite fauna of lymnaeid gastropods of Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe). We illustrate how the creation of an artificial lake may lead to a cascade of biological invasions in which an invasive aquatic plant promotes the proliferation of invasive gastropods, which in turn alters the epidemiology of trematodiases of potential medical and veterinary importance. Using a new multiplex Rapid Diagnostic PCR assay, we assessed the prevalence of Fasciola sp. infections in the gastropod populations. Both gastropod hosts and trematode parasites were identified using DNA barcoding. We provide the first record of the invasive North-American gastropod Pseudosuccinea columella in Lake Kariba. This species was found at 14 out of 16 sampled sites and its abundance was strongly positively correlated with the abundance of the invasive South-American water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). About 65% of the P. columella specimens analysed were infected with a hitherto unknown Fasciola species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate close affinity to Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, which cause fasciolosis, an important liver disease affecting both ruminants and humans. In addition, another non-native Lymnaeid species was found: a Radix sp. that clustered closely with a Vietnamese Radix species. Radix sp. hosted both amphistome and Fasciola trematodes. By linking an invasion cascade and parasite spillback, this study shows how both processes can act in combination to lead to potentially important epidemiological changes.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Fasciola hepatica , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Ruminantes , Zimbábue
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007003, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067231

RESUMO

The present study investigated the presence of endo- and ecto-parasites, and vector-borne pathogens, in dogs from four islands of Greece. A total of 200 (123 owned and 77 sheltered) dogs were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Of the examined dogs, 130 (65%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or vector-borne pathogens. The most common zoonotic intestinal helminths recorded were Ancylostomatidae (12.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.5%). Ninety-three dogs (46.5%) seroreacted to Rickettsia conorii. Twenty-two (11%) of them were also PCR positive and 7 (3.5%) showed corpuscles suggestive of Rickettsia spp. on the blood smears. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were seropositive for Ehrlichia canis, three of them being also PCR positive. Dogs positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Anaplasma platys (1%), Dirofilaria immitis (0.5%) and Babesia canis (0.5%) were also found. Fleas and ticks were recorded in 53 (26.5%) and 50 (25%) dogs, respectively, and all specimens were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Binary multiple univariate Generalized Linear Models were used to investigate factors and clinical signs related to the recorded positivity, while the association of specific signs with the pathogens was evaluated using tests of independence. Knowledge of occurrence and impact of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dog populations is crucial to prevent the infection in animals and people, and to control the risk of spreading of these pathogens in endemic and non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/classificação , Sifonápteros/genética , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(1): 53-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127877

RESUMO

The parasitic fauna of domesticated pigeons in Jammu region were not recorded and so a survey was undertaken amongst a population of approximately 4000 birds in twelve areas around Jammu. Ectoparasites and haemoprotozoa from live birds, and endoparasites from dead birds were recorded. Ova shed in feces were also screened in four different seasons. Ectoparasites recovered include Columbicola columbae, Campanulotes bidentatus, Pseudolynchia canariensis, Ctenocephalides sp., Psoroptes sp. A total of 22 (36.67%) out 60 gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of pigeons were positive for helminthic endoparasites including Raillietina sp. (25%; 15/60); Ascaridia sp. (5%; 3/60) and the hairworm Capillaria sp. (6.67%; 4/60). coccidian (58.3%; 35/60), cryptosporidian parasites (50.0%; 5/10), Trichomonas gallinae (40%; 12/30) and haemoprotozoal schizogony tissue stages (45.0%; 27/60) were observed in cloacal, oro-pharyngeal and tissue samples from post-mortem materials. Prevalence of cestodes was relatively more than nematodes perhaps due to the pigeon's access to intermediate hosts of the cestodes. Blood smears showed the presence of Haemoproteus columbae gametocytes (26.6%; 8/30). Twenty-four pooled fecal samples examined from six select villages revealed presence of different parasitic ova. A higher prevalence of parasitic eggs was noted in the winters. Ascarid eggs were particularly prevalent during monsoon and post monsoon. Raillietina sp. was the most common cestode with lowered prevalence in the peak summers. It is speculated that close confinement of the domesticated birds are responsible for increased parasitic load and their dissemination. The parasitic data generated in the study may be helpful in estimating the faunistic prevalence of different parasites for strategic management of such parasitism during various seasons.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coinfecção , Columbidae/parasitologia , Índia , Parasitos/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
19.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paleoparasitology, the study of parasites in the past, brings the knowledge of where and when they occurred in preterit populations. Some groups of parasites, as capillariids, have a complex and controversial systematic, hindering the paleoparasitological diagnosis. In this article, we synthesized the occurrence of capillariids in both the New and the Old World in ancient times, and discussed the difficulty of the diagnosis of species and the strategies for identification. The present review also shows the current status of the phylogeny in capillariids and indicates the necessity to try new approaches for a better understanding of capillariid paleodistribution. METHODS: For the systematic review, a predefined guideline defined by PRISMA was used. The articles collected were identified, screened, and included in the review following criteria for eligibility. The current status of the phylogeny of capillariids was accessed using MUSCLE, Bioedit v.7.0.5 and MEGA v. 7.0.21 programs. RESULTS: The review discussed 38 articles that presented information about capillariids in past populations. Most of capillariid eggs found in the New and Old World were not identified. However, Calodium hepaticum eggs were the most identified, as some from Eucoleus genus. It was observed that sites from the New World had a better chance for capillariid egg identification, due to previous knowledge of its host, when compared to the Old World. In the 18S rDNA phylogenetic analyses, two datasets were constructed, one including sequences from 7 Moravec's genera, where 3 genus-specific clusters, with high bootstrap values, could be observed for Capillaria (ML = 99%, NJ = 96%), Eucoleus (ML / NJ = 100%) and Paratrichosoma (ML / NJ = 100%). A fourth cluster of 18S rDNA dataset I revealed lack of definition of Pearsonema and Aonchotheca genera. The 18S rDNA dataset II comprised 8 Moravec's genera and defined 3 clusters, 2 genus-specific for Eucoleus (ML = 99%, NJ = 100%) and Capillaria (ML / NJ = 98%). The third 18S rDNA dataset II cluster included 6 genera and exhibited, once again, Pearsonema and Aonchotheca poor discrimination. The cox1 gene data consist of 4 Moravec's genera, and in spite of grouping some species-specific clusters, did not show genera-specific definition. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the numerous archaeological findings, both in the New and the Old Worlds, the identification of capillariid species based on the morphology and morphometry of eggs remains imprecise, often resulting in a generic diagnosis of a group or morphotype of capillariid. Capillariid is one of the most diverse group of helminths recovered in archaeological sites. The phylogenetic trees produced in this study showed limited genetic information available, unresolved genera and incongruence with the classical taxonomy. The elucidation of the paleodistribution of capillariids can give insights of the ancient host-parasite associations but also in modern sceneries.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Paleontologia , Parasitos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Parasitos/genética
20.
Int J Paleopathol ; 25: 30-38, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986655

RESUMO

This paper integrates our knowledge from traditional Chinese medical texts and archeological findings to discuss parasitic loads in early China. Many studies have documented that several different species of eukaryotic endoparasites were present in early human populations throughout China. Nevertheless, comprehensive paleoparasitological records from China are patchy, largely due to taphonomic and environmental factors. An examination of early Chinese medical texts allows us to fill in some of the gaps and counteract apparent biases in the current archeoparasitological records. By integrating the findings of paleoparasitology with historic textual sources, we show that parasites have been affecting the lives of humans in China since ancient times. We discuss the presence and prevalence of three groups of parasites in ancient China: roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), Asian schistosoma (Schistosoma japonicum), and tapeworm (Taenia sp.). We also examine possible factors that favored the spread of these endoparasites among early humans. Therefore, this paper not only aims to reveal how humans have been affected by endoparasites, but also addresses how early medical knowledge developed to cope with the parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Múmias/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Arqueologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/anatomia & histologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Parasitos/anatomia & histologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Schistosoma japonicum/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma japonicum/classificação , Taenia/anatomia & histologia , Taenia/classificação
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