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1.
J Helminthol ; 94: e121, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964431

RESUMO

The distribution of parasites within host populations and communities, and the mechanisms responsible for these patterns, are poorly understood aspects of wildlife parasitology. Here, we evaluate the influence of the average abundance of endoparasite variance, using endoparasites of lizards from the Caatinga domain (semiarid region), north-eastern Brazil. We hypothesized that, due to the high number of generalist endoparasite species, they may occur randomly throughout host populations in an aggregate pattern. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which sample variance is influenced by the average abundance of endoparasite species, patterns of co-occurrence and dominance among endoparasite species and similarities between abundance and the richness of endoparasite infracommunities in several host species. Between September 2015 and February 2016, 2141 lizards (1233 infected) from 16 species were collected from six Caatinga areas. In total, 25,687 endoparasites were collected, which belonged to 13 species including nematodes, pentastomids, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans. Parasite-host associations documented here included 39 newly identified interactions. Endoparasites occurred in a typical aggregate pattern of distribution within their hosts; there was no measurable preference related to the acquisition of hosts by endoparasites. Despite the new records, endoparasites found were commonly associated with lizards in Caatinga environments, which may reflect fauna composed of generalist endoparasite species.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Pentastomídeos/classificação , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999735

RESUMO

The pre-Columbian Huecoid and Saladoid cultures were agricultural ethnic groups that supplemented their diets by fishing, hunting and scavenging. Archaeological deposits associated to these cultures contained a variety of faunal osseous remains that hinted at the cultures' diets. The present study identified zoonotic parasites that may have infected these two cultures as a result of their diets. We used metagenomic sequencing and microscopy data from 540-1,400 year old coprolites as well as the zooarchaeological data to recreate the possible interactions between zoonotic parasites and their hosts. Microscopy revealed Diphyllobothrium spp. and Dipylidium caninum eggs along with unidentified cestode and trematode eggs. DNA sequencing together with functional prediction and phylogenetic inference identified reads of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis and Schistosoma spp. The complimentary nature of the molecular, microscopy and zooarchaeology data provided additional insight into the detected zoonotic parasites' potential host range. Network modeling revealed that rodents and canids living in close proximity to these cultures were most likely the main source of these zoonotic parasite infections.


Assuntos
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/história , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Metagenômica , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 610, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881926

RESUMO

With a global population of about 35 million in 47 countries, dromedary camels play a crucial role in the economy of many marginal, desert areas of the world where they survive under harsh conditions. Nonetheless, there is scarce knowledge regarding camels' parasite fauna which can reduce their milk and meat productions. In addition, only scattered information is available about zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans via contamination (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Balantidium coli, Blastocystis spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi), as foodborne infections (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp. and Linguatula serrata) or by arthropod vectors (Trypanosoma spp.). Herein, we draw attention of the scientific community and health policy-making organizations to the role camels play in the epidemiology of parasitic zoonotic diseases also in the view of an increase in their farming in desert areas worldwide.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
J Helminthol ; 94: e97, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679527

RESUMO

Several factors influence the dynamics and structure of parasite communities. Our goal was to investigate how the community composition, prevalence and abundance of parasites change across seven populations of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia in Northeast Brazil, and to describe ontogenetic and sex variations. We found differences in the composition of component communities and patterns of infection according to the host body size across the lizard populations. We did not find any variation between the sexes regarding epidemiological patterns, which can probably be explained by the similar diet and habitat use of male and female H. mabouia. An unusually high abundance and prevalence of trematodes infecting this host lizard was apparent when we compared other native lizard hosts, and we suggest that local environmental conditions might be advantageous to the development and life cycle of these parasites due to the abundance of all the intermediate and definitive hosts.


Assuntos
Lagartos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e103, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679528

RESUMO

Helminth and protozoan infections are responsible for important diseases in grazing sheep, which can be especially threatening in an autochthonous breed at risk of extinction like the Churra Galega Mirandesa Portuguese sheep breed. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity, prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites in these sheep and to assess the effects of deworming practices, cohabiting animals on the farm and feed management. Coprological qualitative and quantitative analysis (flotation, natural sedimentation and McMaster method) were used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasites and a questionnaire was designed and applied. A total of 512 faecal samples were collected from 49 flocks, and 49 replies to the questionnaire were received. Parasites were identified in 100% of the flocks, and in 97% of the samples. The genera or species that have been morphologically identified were: strongyle-type, Nematodirus spp., Skrjabinema spp., Moniezia expansa, Moniezia benedeni, Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Eimeria spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Fasciola hepatica. This is the first report in Portugal of Skrjabinema spp. The burden of parasites' oocysts and eggs per gram in faecal samples ranged, respectively, from 50 to 17,550 for Eimeria spp., and from 50 to 6250 for strongyle-type eggs. Factors affecting parasitic infections were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression. Grazing time and a lack of anthelmintic treatment were positively associated with Nematodirus spp. infection. This study showed that there is a high prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in the Churra Galega Mirandesa sheep breed.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Portugal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
6.
J Helminthol ; 94: e104, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679531

RESUMO

The human-animal bond is beneficial for human health, but companion animals also pose a potential threat as vectors of zoonotic parasites, especially in urban areas where both human and dog densities are high. However, the knowledge about parasitic spillover in the urban environment is relatively scarce. The aim of the present study was to reveal which factors determine parasitic contamination in Estonian towns and provide up-to-date information about intestinal parasites of the Estonian dog population. In total, 657 samples of dog excrement was collected over one year of investigation from five towns in Estonia. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate factors predicting infection risk in urban areas. In general, infection risk and intensity models predicted higher infection with endoparasites for small dogs in smaller towns, especially in apartment-house districts and in potential hazard zones. Helminth eggs and Giardia/Cystoisospora oocysts were detected in 64 samples, with an overall prevalence of 9.8%.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
8.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103252, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421749

RESUMO

Pathogen contamination of fresh produce presents a health risk for consumers; however, the produce industry still lacks adequate tools for simultaneous detection of protozoan parasites. Here, a simple multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay was developed for detection of protozoan (oo)cysts and compared with previously published real-time PCR assays and microscopy methods. The assay was evaluated for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Toxoplasma gondii followed by parasite differentiation via either a nested specific PCR or a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Spiking experiments using spinach as a model leafy green were performed for assay validation. Leaf-washing yielded higher recoveries and more consistent detection of parasites as compared with stomacher processing. Lowest limits of detection using the nested mPCR assay were 1-10 (oo)cysts/g spinach (in 10 g samples processed), and this method proved more sensitive than qPCR for parasite detection. Microscopy methods were more reliable for visual detection of parasites in lower spiking concentrations, but are more costly and laborious, require additional expertise, and lack molecular confirmation essential for accurate risk assessment. Overall, the nested mPCR assay provides a rapid (<24 h), inexpensive ($10 USD/sample), and simple approach for simultaneous detection of protozoan pathogens on fresh produce.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Spinacia oleracea/parasitologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2635-2642, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363922

RESUMO

The geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) overlaps with various parasitic infections. Uncovering the characteristics of coinfecting parasites that potentially affect the host susceptibility to TB is pertinent as it may provide input to current TB therapeutic and prophylactic measures. The present study was aimed at examining the types of parasitic infections in TB patients and healthy TB contacts (HC) in Orang Asli, Malaysian aborigines, who dwelled in the co-endemic areas. Stool and serum samples were collected from Orang Asli who fulfilled the selection criteria and provided written informed consents. Selected parasitic infections in the two study groups were determined by stool examination and commercial serum antibody immunoassays. The prevalence of parasitic infections in TB and HC participants were 100% (n = 82) and 94.6% (n = 55) respectively. The parasitic infections comprised toxocariasis, trichuriasis, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, hookworm infection, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis, and brugian filariasis, in decreasing order of prevalence. Overall, helminth or protozoa infection did not show any significant association with the study groups. However, when the species of the parasite was considered, individuals exposed to trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis showed significant odds reduction (odds ratio (OR) 0.338; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.166, 0.688) and odds increment (OR 2.193; 95% CI 1.051, 4.576) to have active pulmonary TB, respectively. In conclusion, trichuriasis and toxoplasmosis may have distinct negative and positive associations respectively with the increase of host susceptibility to TB.


Assuntos
Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 349-354, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426167

RESUMO

Between 2012 and 2015, 13 grey seals were recovered from trammel nets targeting monkfish and rays off the south coast of Ireland. Incidence and distribution of microplastics were investigated along the intestines of bycaught seals. No macrodebris items were found, whereas microplastics were detected in all seals. A total of 363 microplastics items were identified (85% fibers, 14% fragments, 1% films). Estimation of microplastic ingestion based on prey ingestion (245 particles) was lower than the observed data. Acantocephala parasites (n = 1543) were found in 12 seals, with an average of 74.5 ±â€¯67.7 parasites per seal. Distribution of microplastics varied between seals, although microplastics tended to accumulate in areas where more parasites were aggregated; however, there was no significant relationship between the number of parasites and microplastics was found. Seals recovered from nets appear to be a good source to monitor the incidence of microplastic pollution within the coastal food webs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Intestinos , Plásticos/análise , Focas Verdadeiras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Intestinos/química , Intestinos/parasitologia , Irlanda , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 151-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378013

RESUMO

Dogs which spend their lives in rural areas are primarily "sentinels" of animal herds. The dogs' close contact with humans and other animals obligates their caregivers to systematic deworming. The goal is to eliminate potential contamination with parasites which is mostly caused by direct contact or food and water contaminated with dogs' excretions. The aim of this study was to assess internal parasitic invasions on dogs from rural areas which spend most of their lives on farms. In total, 69 samples of fresh stools were collected for the analysis, including 26 from females and 43 from males. Coprological analysis of stool samples was accompanied with a survey where pet owners gave information on the number of visits to the veterinarian in suspicion of their dogs being infected with the parasites, the number of deworming treatments in the previous year and the dogs' behavior towards strangers. Also, the age, sex and body weight of dogs were recorded. Statistical analysis of the obtained results was performed using Statistica 12.5 with a medical set by Statsoft. In total, 29 (46,03%) out of 69 fecal samples contained developmental forms of parasites. Research has shown that animals most vulnerable to invasion were in the 6­10 years old age group, mostly males. In addition, the invasion of Toxocara canis roundworms occurred most frequently, as it was found in 12 (41.37%) animals (6 females and 6 males). The analysis of the questionnaires showed that the dog owners' knowledge of the risk of infection and parasites is unsatisfactory. This corresponded with a small number of deworming treatments. It is significant that nearly half of the owners never dewormed their dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(11): 2103-2112, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352670

RESUMO

In acute gastroenteritis (AGE), identification of the infectious agent is important for patient management. Since symptoms do not reliably identify the agent, microbiological diagnostics are important. Conventional methods lack sensitivity and often take days. Multiplex PCR panels offer fast and sensitive alternatives. Our aim was to assess the performance of the new QIAstat Gastrointestinal Panel (GIP) detecting 24 different gastroenteric pathogens from stool in Cary-Blair transport medium (Adenovirus F 40/41, Astrovirus, Norovirus GI/GII, Rotavirus A, Sapovirus, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia). We tested both prospective (n = 163) and retrospective (n = 222) stool samples sent for routine diagnostics by the QIAstat GIP comparing it to the FDA-approved BioFire FilmArray GIP. Seegene Allplex GIP was used for discrepancy testing. After discrepancy testing, QIAstat GIP detected 447 of 455 pathogens (98.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 96.6-99.1%). There were eight false positive detections. Multiple pathogens were detected in 32.5% of positive samples. The QIAstat GIP detected a large range of AGE pathogens with a high sensitivity. It offers an easy-to-use system for GI pathogen detection in stool within 70 min. An advantage of the QIAstat is the availability of cycle threshold (CT) values to aid in interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Parasitos/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 410, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of gastrointestinal parasites on schoolchildren at Bochesa Elementary School around Lake Zwai, Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 schoolchildren in May 2016. The gastrointestinal parasites were examined with wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Chi-square (χ2) test was used to evaluate the association between categorical variables and infection prevalence. Binary logistic regression on SPSS version 21 was used, values were considered significant when the p-value was less than 0.05. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 22.6%. Males, 54 (14.1%) were more infected than females, 32 (8.3%), and 1-4 grade category, 64 (16.7%) were more infected than 5-8 grade category, 22 (5.7%). Age groups of 7-14, 78 (20.3%) were also more infected than > 15, 8 (2.1%); however, the variation was not significant (p > 0.05). In this study, parasitic coinfection was common; however, single gastrointestinal parasites were more dominant. The overall rate of gastrointestinal parasites shows that the environmental conditions where students pass their times are conducive to water-related diseases. Health education on personal and environmental hygiene keeping should be given to schoolchildren and safe wetland playing grounds should be prepared.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Lagos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2467-2473, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267244

RESUMO

The mite species Monunguis streblida Wharton, 1938 (Neothrombidiidae) is reported in association with dipteran ectoparasites (Streblidae) of Brazilian bats for the first time. A 1-year study of two populations of the bat Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838 in caves in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, found them to be parasitized by four species of streblids, three of which were parasitized by M. streblida. Three hundred and thirty-two individuals of M. streblida were collected in association with 135 individuals of Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, two individuals of A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, and two individuals of Trichobius sp. (dugesii complex). The predominant association of M. streblida with A. modestini suggests a preference for this host for the larvae of this mite. Fluctuations in the abundance of mites were found to accompany seasonal cycles and fluctuations in the abundance of their main host, with the mites being more abundant in months with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. The present work represents the first formal record of the occurrence of M. streblida in South America, increasing its range of occurrence southward by more than 5000 km.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ácaros , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Helminthol ; 93(6): 649-676, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232245

RESUMO

Marine mammals are long-lived top predators with vagile lifestyles, which often inhabit remote environments. This is especially relevant in the oceanic waters around New Zealand and Australia where cetaceans and pinnipeds are considered as vulnerable and often endangered due to anthropogenic impacts on their habitat. Parasitism is ubiquitous in wildlife, and prevalence of parasitic infections as well as emerging diseases can be valuable bioindicators of the ecology and health of marine mammals. Collecting information about parasite diversity in marine mammals will provide a crucial baseline for assessing their impact on host and ecosystem ecology. New studies on marine mammals in New Zealand and Australian waters have recently added to our knowledge of parasite prevalence, life cycles and taxonomic relationships in the Australasian region, and justify a first host-parasite checklist encompassing all available data. The present checklist comprises 36 species of marine mammals, and 114 species of parasites (helminths, arthropods and protozoans). Mammal species occurring in New Zealand and Australian waters but not included in the checklist represent gaps in our knowledge. The checklist thus serves both as a guide for what information is lacking, as well as a practical resource for scientists working on the ecology and conservation of marine mammals.


Assuntos
Mamíferos/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Austrália , Lista de Checagem , Ecossistema , Mamíferos/classificação , Nova Zelândia , Oceanos e Mares , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 292, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate-related changes are expected to influence the prevalence and distribution of vector-borne haemosporidian parasites at northern latitudes, although baseline information about resident birds is still lacking. In this study, we investigated prevalence and genetic diversity of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasites infecting the northwestern crow (Corvus caurinus), a non-migratory passerine with unique life-history characteristics. This species occupies both intertidal and forested habitats and is subject to high prevalence of avian keratin disorder (AKD), a disease that causes gross beak deformities. Investigation of avian blood parasites in northwestern crows at sites broadly distributed across coastal Alaska provided an opportunity to evaluate specific host factors related to parasite infection status and assess geographical patterns of prevalence. RESULTS: We used molecular methods to screen for haemosporidian parasites in northwestern crows and estimated genus-specific parasite prevalence with occupancy modeling that accounts for imperfect detection of parasite infection. We observed considerable geographical and annual variation in prevalence of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, but these patterns were not correlated with indices of local climatic conditions. Our models also did not provide support for relationships between the probability of parasite infection and body condition or the occurrence of co-infections with other parasite genera or clinical signs of AKD. In our phylogenetic analyses, we identified multiple lineages of each parasite genus, with Leucocytozoon showing greater diversity than Plasmodium or Haemoproteus. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study expand our knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites in northern resident birds as well as corvids worldwide. We detected all three genera of avian haemosporidians in northwestern crows in Alaska, although only Leucocytozoon occurred at all sites in both years. Given the strong geographical and annual variation in parasite prevalence and apparent lack of correlation with climatic variables, it appears that there are other key factors responsible for driving transmission dynamics in this region. Thus, caution is warranted when using standard climatic or geographical attributes in a predictive framework. Our phylogenetic results demonstrate lower host specificity for some lineages of Leucocytozoon than is typically reported and provide insights about genetic diversity of local haemosporidian parasites in Alaska.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Corvos/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Parasitos/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/sangue , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ecossistema , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2257-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177405

RESUMO

The New England cottontail rabbit (NEC, Sylvilagus transitionalis) population has decreased dramatically in New York, USA, and the role of parasites in limiting the population has never been examined. The closely related and sympatric eastern cottontail rabbit (EC, Sylvilagus floridanus) was introduced into the range of NEC by humans and is currently thriving. This study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites of the NEC and the EC and compare their parasite communities. Fecal pellets from 195 NEC and 125 EC were collected from the Hudson Valley, New York, in the winter of 2013-2014. Centrifugal fecal floats were performed in Sheather's sugar solution, and parasite ova and cysts were examined microscopically to identify gastrointestinal parasites present. For all pellets combined (n = 320), 91% were found to harbor at least 1 parasite species, with Eimeria species being the most common. Genetic analysis of pellets using microsatellite DNA identified 248 individual rabbits, with parasite prevalence (94%) similar to the prevalence estimate based on all pellets (91%). EC samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) parasite species richness (1.73, range 0-4) than NEC (1.20, range 0-3). EC and NEC shared 3 moderate to high (9-89%) prevalence parasites, in which EC prevalence was consistently higher. One parasite species was only found in NEC, and two were only found in EC, but the majority of these were of low abundance, precluding further statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , New York/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simpatria
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 277, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed metrics of the metazoan parasite infracommunities of the dusky flounder (Syacium papillosum) as indicators of aquatic environmental health of the Yucatan Shelf (YS) prior to oil extraction. We sampled the dusky flounder and its parasites along the YS, mostly during the 2015 north wind season (November-April). Our aims were: (i) to determine whether the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum exhibit significant differences among YS subregions; (ii) to determine whether the probability of the occurrence of its parasite species and individuals were affected by environmental variables, nutrients, heavy metals and hydrocarbons at the seascape level; and (iii) to determine whether there were statistical differences between the parasite infracommunity metrics of S. papillosum from YS and those of Syacium gunteri from the Campeche Sound. Multivariate statistical analyses and generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to examine the potential statistical associations between the contaminants, environmental variables and parasite community metrics, and the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) was used to characterise the habitat's suitability for the parasite's probability of occurrence. RESULTS: We recovered 48 metazoan parasite species from 127 S. papillosum, with larval cestodes and digeneans being the most numerically-dominant. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences in parasite infracommunity metrics among Western YS, Mid YS and Caribbean subregions, with the latter being the richest in species but not in individuals. The GAM and MaxEnt results indicated a negative effect of top predators (e.g. sharks and rays) removal on parasite metrics. The parasite infracommunities of S. papillosum were twice as rich in the number of species and individuals as those reported for S. gunteri from the Campeche Sound. CONCLUSIONS: The significant differences among subregions in parasite metrics were apparently due to the interruption of the Yucatan current during the north wind season. The fishing of top predators in combination with an influx of nutrients and hydrocarbons in low concentrations coincides with an increase in larval cestodes and digeneans in S. papillosum. The dusky flounder inhabits a region (YS) with a larger number of metazoan parasite species compared with those available for S. gunteri in the Campeche Sound, suggesting better environmental conditions for transmission in the YS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Linguado/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biota , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Análise Multivariada , Parasitos/classificação
19.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 480-483, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251704

RESUMO

Stool ova and parasite examination using concentration methods remains the gold standard for the investigation of digestive parasitosis. Recently, single-use filtration devices have been marketed for stool concentration sedimentation methods such as MIF or Bailenger, which improve the analytical quality by avoiding contact with feces. In this study, the Parasep® device was adapted to the Faust technique flotation method. In addition, the performance between conventional techniques (MIF concentration and Faust) and techniques using this device was evaluated on 25 formalin-preserved stools and 3 fresh stools. With the Parasep device, the main parasites (protozoa or helminths) were isolated, and the technical requirements such as hygiene control for the operator and realization according to good laboratory practice were improved due to the filtration device.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Animais , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007003, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067231

RESUMO

The present study investigated the presence of endo- and ecto-parasites, and vector-borne pathogens, in dogs from four islands of Greece. A total of 200 (123 owned and 77 sheltered) dogs were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Of the examined dogs, 130 (65%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or vector-borne pathogens. The most common zoonotic intestinal helminths recorded were Ancylostomatidae (12.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.5%). Ninety-three dogs (46.5%) seroreacted to Rickettsia conorii. Twenty-two (11%) of them were also PCR positive and 7 (3.5%) showed corpuscles suggestive of Rickettsia spp. on the blood smears. Nineteen dogs (9.5%) were seropositive for Ehrlichia canis, three of them being also PCR positive. Dogs positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Anaplasma platys (1%), Dirofilaria immitis (0.5%) and Babesia canis (0.5%) were also found. Fleas and ticks were recorded in 53 (26.5%) and 50 (25%) dogs, respectively, and all specimens were identified as Ctenocephalides felis felis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Binary multiple univariate Generalized Linear Models were used to investigate factors and clinical signs related to the recorded positivity, while the association of specific signs with the pathogens was evaluated using tests of independence. Knowledge of occurrence and impact of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dog populations is crucial to prevent the infection in animals and people, and to control the risk of spreading of these pathogens in endemic and non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/parasitologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/fisiologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Sifonápteros/classificação , Sifonápteros/genética , Sifonápteros/fisiologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/genética , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
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