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1.
Ther Umsch ; 77(9): 433-440, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146098

RESUMO

Primary hyperparathyroidism Abstract. Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disease that comes along with a disruption of the calcium homeostasis and is accompanied by a variety of downstream disorders. These are often overlooked as patients present with a multitude of unspecific symptoms or may even be asymptomatic. The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism can be made with the determination of calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, including the measurement of calcium in the 24-hours urine. The operation is the only therapy to cure primary hyperparathyroidism. To successfully conduct focused parathyroidectomy an accompanying visual imaging methodology is of great value and improves the operation success rate. Furthermore, an intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring is applied. A bilateral neck exploration technique is applicable in selected cases. The endocrine surgical expertise is pivotal in particular for re-operations, hereditary primary hyperparathyroidism and carcinomas. If surgery is not possible, a medication-based therapy is applied. This medical therapy requests a continuous therapy progress monitoring. In conclusion, to treat primary hyperparathyroidism an interdisciplinary team approach with endocrinologists and endocrine surgeons shows the best results.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/terapia , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Paratireoidectomia , Reoperação
2.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(6): 1071-1083, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040849

RESUMO

Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine abnormality, caused in most cases by a single parathyroid adenoma. Surgery remains the first-line curative therapy in PHPT. Imaging plays a vital role in presurgical localization of parathyroid adenomas. Ultrasound provides a safe and quick imaging modality free of ionizing radiation, but is operator dependent. Sestamibi scan offers comparable sensitivity to ultrasound, improved with concurrent tomographic imaging. 4DCT remains a problem-solving technique in challenging cases and after failed neck exploration. We present an overview of various parathyroid imaging modalities, including protocols and findings, in addition to relevant pearls and pitfalls.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Masculino , Glândulas Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD010787, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) is the traditional approach to sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. With the availability of the preoperative imaging techniques and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is fast becoming the favoured surgical approach. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) guided by preoperative imaging and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring versus bilateral neck exploration (BNE) for the surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov. The date of the last search of all databases was 21 October 2019. There were no language restrictions applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing MIP to BNE for the treatment of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism in persons undergoing surgery for the first time. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance. Two review authors independently screened for inclusion, extracted data and carried out risk of bias assessment. The content expert senior author resolved conflicts. We assessed studies for overall certainty of the evidence using the GRADE instrument. We conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model and performed statistical analyses according to the guidelines in the latest version of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We identified five eligible studies, all conducted in European university hospitals. They included 266 adults, 136 participants were randomised to MIP and 130 participants to BNE. Data were available for all participants post-surgery up to one year, with the exception of missing data for two participants in the MIP group and for one participant in the BNE group at one year. Nine participants in the MIP group and 11 participants in the BNE group had missing data at five years. No study had a low risk of bias in all risk of bias domains. The risk ratio (RR) for success rate (eucalcaemia) at six months in the MIP group compared to the BNE group was 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.03; P = 0.43; 5 studies, 266 participants; very low-certainty evidence). A total of 132/136 (97.1%) participants in the MIP group compared with 129/130 (99.2%) participants in the BNE group were judged as operative success. At five years, the RR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.08; P = 0.38; 1 study, 77 participants; very low-certainty evidence). A total of 34/38 (89.5%) participants in the MIP group compared with 37/39 (94.9%) participants in the BNE group were judged as operative success. The RR for the total incidence of perioperative adverse events was 0.50, in favour of MIP (95% CI 0.33 to 0.76; P = 0.001; 5 studies, 236 participants; low-certainty evidence). Perioperative adverse events occurred in 23/136 (16.9%) participants in the MIP group compared with 44/130 (33.9%) participants in the BNE group. The 95% prediction interval ranged between 0.25 and 0.99. These adverse events included symptomatic hypocalcaemia, vocal cord palsy, bleeding, fever and infection. Fifteen of 104 (14.4%) participants experienced symptomatic hypocalcaemia in the MIP group compared with 26/98 (26.5%) participants in the BNE group. The RR for this event comparing MIP with BNE at two days was 0.54 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.92; P = 0.02; 4 studies, 202 participants). Statistical significance was lost in sensitivity analyses, with a 95% prediction interval ranging between 0.17 and 1.74. Five out of 133 (3.8%) participants in the MIP group experienced vocal cord paralysis compared with 2/128 (1.6%) participants in the BNE group. The RR for this event was 1.87 (95% CI 0.47 to 7.51; P = 0.38; 5 studies, 261 participants). The 95% prediction interval ranged between 0.20 and 17.87. The effect on all-cause mortality was not explicitly reported and could not be adequately assessed (very low-certainty evidence). There was no clear difference for health-related quality of life between the treatment groups in two studies, but studies did not report numerical data (very low-certainty evidence). There was a possible treatment benefit for MIP compared to BNE in terms of cosmetic satisfaction (very low-certainty evidence). The mean difference (MD) for duration of surgery comparing BNE with MIP was in favour of the MIP group (-18 minutes, 95% CI -31 to -6; P = 0.004; 3 studies, 171 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The 95% prediction interval ranged between -162 minutes and 126 minutes. The studies did not report length of hospital stay. Four studies reported intraoperative conversion rate from MIP to open procedure information. Out of 115 included participants, there were 24 incidences of conversion, amounting to a conversion rate of 20.8%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The success rates of MIP and BNE at six months were comparable. There were similar results at five years, but these were only based on one study. The incidence of perioperative symptomatic hypocalcaemia was lower in the MIP compared to the BNE group, whereas the incidence of vocal cord paralysis tended to be higher. Our systematic review did not provide clear evidence for the superiority of MIP over BNE. However, it was limited by low-certainty to very low-certainty evidence.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Adulto , Viés , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hipocalcemia/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Pescoço/cirurgia , Esvaziamento Cervical/métodos , Duração da Cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791613

RESUMO

Objective:To compare the different therapeutic effects of modified syringe forearm quantitative injection and forearm brachioradialis intramuscular transplantation after receiving total parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method:One hundred and fifty-two patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent total parathyroidectomy were divided into the forearm brachioradialis intramuscular transplantation group and the modified syringe forearm quantitative injection group according to the different forearm transplantation methods. The study counted and compared the duration of surgery, preoperative and postoperative parathyroid hormone levels, blood calcium and other indicators. Result:The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in laboratory test data between the two groups, but the modified syringe forearm quantitative injection method was more convenient, and the recovery time of the parathyroid function was shortened from an average of 6 months to an average of 3 months(P=0.03). There was no statistical difference in the recurrence of the two groups of patients after transplantation. Conclusion:The modified syringe forearm quantitative injection method for transplantation of parathyroid gland is relatively simple to operate, saves time, and enables the transplanted parathyroid gland to function faster. It is worthy of being widely used.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia , Antebraço , Humanos , Glândulas Paratireoides , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Recidiva , Transplante Autólogo
6.
Ann Surg ; 272(5): 801-806, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of hyperfunctional parathyroid gland is the definitive treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Postoperative follow-up shows variability in persistent/recurrent disease rate throughout different centers. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of redo surgery after targeted parathyroidectomy for pHPT. METHODS: We performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study on the "Programme de Medicalisation des Systemes d'Information," the French administrative database that collects information on all healthcare facilities' discharges. We extracted data from 2009 to 2018 for all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for pHPT between January 2011 to December 2016. The primary outcome was the reoperation rate within 2 years since first surgery. Patients who had a first attempt of surgery within the previous 24 months, familial hyperparathyroidism, multiglandular disease, and renal failure were excluded. Results were adjusted according to sex and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Operative volume thresholds to define high-volume centers were achieved by the Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector method. RESULTS: In the study period, 13,247 patients (median age 63, F/M=3.6) had a focused parathyroidectomy by open (88.7%) or endoscopic approach. Need of remedial surgery was 2.8% at 2 years. In multivariate analysis, factors predicting redo surgery were: cardiac history (P=0.008), obesity (P=0.048), endoscopic approach (P=0.005), and low-volume center (P<0.001). We evaluated that an annual caseload of 31 parathyroidectomies was the best threshold to discriminate high-volume centers and carries the lowest morbidity/failure rate. CONCLUSION: Although focused parathyroidectomy represents a standardized operation, cure rate is strongly associated with annual hospital caseload, type of procedure (endoscopic), and patients' features (obesity, cardiac history). Patients with risk factors for redo surgery should be considered for an open surgery in a high-volume center.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Surgery ; 168(4): 594-600, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercalciuria is an important manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism and may contribute to the risk of nephrolithiasis. This study examined the impact of parathyroidectomy on 24-hour urinary calcium (24-hour UCa) levels and rates of resolution of hypercalciuria after surgery. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients who underwent curative parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism from 2007 to 2017. Baseline and postoperative urine and serum biochemistry levels were analyzed. The relationship between preoperative 24-hour UCa levels and the absolute decrease in postoperative UCa excretion was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Of 110 patients, 84 (76.4%) experienced a ≥20% decrease in 24-hour UCa level postoperatively. These patients had a higher baseline median 24-hour UCa level (293.5 vs 220.5 mg/24-hour; P = .001), higher baseline mean serum parathyroid hormone (106.5 vs 83; P = .05) and were more likely to have single gland disease (85.7% vs 65.4%, P = .04) compared with patients in whom 24-hour UCa excretion did not improve. Of the 28 patients (25%) who were hypercalciuric (24-hour UCa >400 mg/day) at baseline, 22 (79%) became normocalciuric postoperatively. A linear correlation was observed between preoperative 24-hour UCa levels and the decline in 24-hour UCa excretion after surgery (R2 = 0.59, P < .0001) such that the degree of improvement could be predicted using the following equation: absolute decrease in postoperative 24-hour UCa = 0.68 × preoperative 24-hour UCa-68. CONCLUSION: Parathyroidectomy reduces 24-hour UCa excretion in the majority of patients with PHPT and restores normocalciuria in 79% of patients with hypercalciuria at baseline.


Assuntos
Hipercalciúria/terapia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Cálcio/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalciúria/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(6): 357-363, jun.-jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193360

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El HPTP frecuentemente permanece sin diagnosticar en pacientes con hipercalcemia, lo que podría ocasionar un aumento de la morbilidad en estos sujetos. OBJETIVO: Identificar la presencia de hipercalcemia y de criterios de tratamiento quirúrgico (CTQ) no identificados desde al menos un año antes de su remisión a endocrinología en pacientes operados de HPTP. Valorar si este retraso terapéutico se asocia a mayor morbilidad. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional en 116 pacientes consecutivos. Mediante la revisión de los registros anteriores a 12 meses previos a su derivación a endocrinología se dividieron en 4 grupos: hipercalcemia con CTQ (grupo 1, n = 43), hipercalcemia sin CTQ (grupo 2, n = 23), calcemias normales (grupo 3, n = 18) o ausencia de calcemias en dichos registros (grupo 4, n = 32). RESULTADOS: En 84 pacientes (72,4%) había calcemias previas, 66 (56,9%) con hipercalcemia, de ellos 43 (37%) con CTQ no valorados. La demora media hasta su remisión fue de 57 meses. Casi la mitad de las calcemias del grupo 1 procedían de urgencias. Respecto al grupo 4 los pacientes del grupo 1 tenían menor edad, mayor incidencia de nefrolitiasis e insuficiencia renal al remitírseles. Las calcemias en el momento de su derivación eran similares, superiores a las de los grupos 2 y 3. DISCUSIÓN: Los pacientes con HPTP y CTQ se remiten a endocrinología con un retraso medio de 5 años. La inadvertencia de la hipercalcemia y/o el desconocimiento de los CTQ retrasan esta derivación, determinada por hipercalcemias superiores, y se asocian a una afectación renal más severa. Son precisas medidas correctoras para evitar este retraso en el diagnóstico y curación del HPTP


INTRODUCTION: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains underdiagnosed among patients with hypercalcemia, potentially causing increased morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To identify in surgically operated patients the presence of overlooked hypercalcemia and patients with criteria for surgery (CFS) for PHPT at least one year prior to referral to Endocrinology, and to determine whether this diagnostic delay leads to increased morbidity. METHODS: An observational study was carried out in 116 consecutive patients. We evaluated electronic medical records registered at least 12 months prior to referral and divided them in four groups: hypercalcemia with CFS (group 1), hypercalcemia without CFS (group 2), normocalcemia (group 3), and cases without previous biochemical evaluation (group 4). RESULTS: A total of 84 patients (72.4%) had a previous measurement of serum calcium at a time interval of ≥ 12 months. Sixty-six (56.9%) had hypercalcemia and 43 of them (37%) had ≥ 1 CFS, with an average delay of 57 months in receiving proper evaluation. Almost half of the calcemia measurements in group 1 had been made in the emergency room. Patients from group 1 were younger, and had a greater frequency of nephrolithiasis and renal impairment than patients in group 4. The serum calcium values at referral were similar in both groups and higher than the values found in patients from the other two groups. DISCUSSION: In patients with PHPT and CFS, referral to an endocrinologist is made with an average delay of almost 5 years. The identified causes of this delay, which conditions more kidney disease, are unrecognized hypercalcemia and/or unawareness of the surgical criteria, while calcium elevations promote referral. Interventions are needed to avoid this delay in the diagnosis and resolution of PHPT


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Diagnóstico Tardio , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Insuficiência Renal , Paratireoidectomia/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas
9.
Surgery ; 168(5): 838-844, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism is underdiagnosed and undertreated nationally despite the benefits of parathyroidectomy. However, the degree of hospital-level variation in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism is unknown. METHODS: We performed a national, retrospective study of Veterans with primary hyperparathyroidism using the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse from January 2000 to September 2015. The objective was to characterize the extent of hospital-level variation in the use of parathyroidectomy for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism within a national, integrated healthcare system. Rate of parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was stratified by (1) geographic region, (2) facility complexity level, (3) volume of parathyroidectomies per facility, and (4) frequency of parathyroid hormone testing in hypercalcemic patients. RESULTS: Among 47,158 Veterans with primary hyperparathyroidism, 6,048 (12.8%) underwent parathyroidectomy. Rates of parathyroidectomy were significantly higher in the Continental (17.0%) and Pacific (16.0%) regions than in other areas (11.4%, P < .01). The highest complexity referral centers had the highest rate of parathyroidectomy (13.6%) compared with all other facilities (12.1%, P < .01). Centers that performed the highest volume of parathyroidectomies were more likely to offer surgery (13.3%) than low volume centers (8.9%, P < .01). Facilities with higher frequency of parathyroid hormone testing among hypercalcemic patients were more likely to offer parathyroidectomy (15.2%) than those with the lowest parathyroid hormone testing frequency (12.6%, P < .01). CONCLUSION: Although there is notable variation in parathyroidectomy use for definitive treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism between Veterans Affairs facilities, parathyroidectomy rates are low across the entire system. Further research is needed to understand additional local contextual and other patient and clinician-level factors for the undertreatment of primary hyperparathyroidism to subsequently guide corrective interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
10.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(2): 246-251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369729

RESUMO

Intraoperative monitoring of parathyroid hormone can confirm the complete excision of hyperfunctional parathyroid tissue, as the plasma half-life of PTH is approximately 5 minutes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the values of parathormon (PTH) and the intraoperative impact in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism of renal cause (sHPT). A series of 86 patients who were hospitalised in our clinic between February 2015 to December 2018, were included in the study rom. All patients underwent surgery with PTH monitoring. PTH was determined preoperatively, intraoperatively 15 minutes after parathyroidectomy and postoperatively. Out of a total of 86 patients, 6 patients had non-functional renal transplant. 81 patients were operated on per primam and 5 patients were operated for disease recurrence. There were 77 total parathyroidectomies and 4 subtotal parathyroidectomies. One patient had 5 parathyroid glands. There were 4 patients with recurrent hyper-plastic tissue excision. Blood samples were collected intraoperatively through the puncture of the jugular vein. The PTH value was determined by the Elecsys PTH STATÃÂî test. The mean value of preoperative PTH was 1658 pg / mL and decreased to 46.5 pg / mL at the end of the operation. Subsequently, the level of PTH harvested at 3-6 months increased slightly to 59.8 pg / mL. 80 (93%) of patients had elevated preoperative calcium values. Recurrent hyperparathyroidism was found in 1 of the 4 patients who underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy. IPTH value is influenced by the intraoperative manipulation of the parathyroid glands, the individual variability of PTH half-life and the physiological state of the patient. The decrease of PTH measured intraoperatively at 15 minutes after harvest with at least 90% of the preoperative value indicates the success of a total parathyroidectomy, with normalisation of calcium and PTH.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/cirurgia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Paratireoidectomia , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/etiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Paratireoidectomia/métodos , Insuficiência Renal/complicações
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20313, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443382

RESUMO

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in clinical practice. Some patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often associate with tertiary hyperparathyroidism, and ultimately need parathyroidectomy (PTX). However, no studies have definitively demonstrated an effect of PTX on ESRD patients' quality of life. We selected 1686 patients who underwent PTX and 1686 patients who did not receive PTX between 2000 and 2010. These patients were propensity-matched with others by age, sex, and comorbidities at a ratio of 1:1. We used single and multivariable cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In this study, 116 ESRD patients developed CTS, and the CTS incidences were 7.33 and 12.5 per 1000 person-years for the non-PTX and PTX group. The results reveal that the incidence curve for the PTX group was significantly higher than that for the non-PTX group (log-rank test, P = .004). After adjustments were made for sex, age, and baseline comorbidities, the PTX group had a 1.70-fold higher risk of CTS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.17-2.47) than the non-PTX group. The results also demonstrated that female patients (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.42) and patients with one or more comorbidities (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.23-2.60) might have an increased risk of CTS. The subhazard ratio for CTS risk was 1.62 (95% CI = 1.12-2.36) for the PTX group compared with the non-PTX group in the competing risk of death. In conclusion, we revealed that ESRD patients who had undergone PTX may have an increased risk of CTS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/epidemiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(10): 949-963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform an evidence-based systematic review evaluating perioperative analgesia, including opioid alternatives, used for patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search from 1997 to January 2018 of Pubmed, Cochrane, and EmBase libraries was performed for studies reporting analgesic administration following thyroid or parathyroid surgery. This systematic review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and given a Jadad score to assess for risk of bias. Outcomes gathered included postoperative pain scores, time to rescue analgesia, rescue analgesic consumption, and adverse events. RESULTS: Thirty-eight randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. The GRADE criteria determined the overall evidence to be moderate-high. Studies utilizing NSAIDs reported reduced requirements for rescue analgesics. Acetaminophen studies presented with conflicting data on effectiveness. Gabapentinoid studies demonstrated lower pain scores and an increased time to rescue analgesic. Local anesthetics were effective at decreasing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores while also reducing rescue analgesic consumption. Ketamine was shown to increased postoperative nausea and vomiting. NSAIDs and local anesthetic studies had an aggregate grade of evidence A, while all others had grade B evidence. CONCLUSION: There is significant evidence supporting the use of NSAIDs and local anesthetics in the perioperative period for pain management for thyroid and parathyroid surgeries. Acetaminophen, gabapentinoid and ketamine have some supporting evidence and may serve as adequate alternatives. Further multi-institutional RCTs are warranted to delineate optimal analgesic regimens. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Paratireoidectomia , Tireoidectomia , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Assistência Perioperatória , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico
13.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(5): 310-316, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191306

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome del hueso hambriento (SHH) es una complicación tras la cirugía paratiroidea que puede causar una hipocalcemia grave y prolongada. El objetivo fue conocer los factores de riesgo de SHH después de la cirugía por hiperparatiroidismo primario y su relación con los niveles de calcio sérico y de hormona paratiroidea (PTH). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio analítico observacional de casos y controles en pacientes operados por hiperparatiroidismo primario en los últimos 10 años (2008-2017). Se estudió la evolución analítica del calcio, la PTH y las características generales de los pacientes. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de SHH en nuestra serie fue del 12,2%. Se encontró una asociación significativa de SHH con la cirugía tiroidea en el mismo acto quirúrgico (odds ratio ajustada [ORa] = 17,241), con la edad mayor de 68 años (Ora = 6,666) y con el tamaño de la lesión mayor a 1,7cm (Ora = 7.165). Observamos una relación estadísticamente significativa entre presentar SHH con un valor mayor a la media de calcio sérico corregido el día después de la cirugía, a la semana y a los 3 meses, así como con un valor mayor de la media de PTH preoperatoria, en la cirugía y un día después de la cirugía. CONCLUSIÓN: Los factores de riesgo independientes para el desarrollo de SHH en nuestra serie fueron la edad del paciente, el tamaño de la lesión y si la intervención se acompaña de cirugía tiroidea, lo que obliga a una monitorización más estrecha del metabolismo mineral durante el perioperatorio


INTRODUCTION: Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is a complication occurring after parathyroid surgery that can cause severe and prolonged hypocalcemia. The study objective was to know the risk factors for HBS after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism and its relationship with serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control, observational, analytical study was conducted in patients who had undergone surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism in the past 10 years (2007-2016). Changes over time in serum calcium and PTH levels and the general characteristics of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence rate of HBS in our series was 12.2%. HBS was found to be significantly associated to thyroid surgery during the surgical procedure itself (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 17.241), to age older than 68 years (aOR = 6.666), and to lesions greater than 1.7cm (aOR = 7.165). A statistically significant relationship was seen between presence of HBS and corrected serum calcium levels higher than the mean the day after surgery and one week and 3 months later, and also with PTH levels higher than the mean before, during, and one day after surgery. CONCLUSIÓN: In our series, independent risk factors for development of HBS included patient age, lesion size, and whether or not the procedure was accompanied by thyroid surgery, which requires closer monitoring of mineral metabolism during the perioperative period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Paratireoidectomia , Hiperparatireoidismo/cirurgia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Cálcio/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos
14.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(8): e192-e195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436720

RESUMO

We describe the case of an 89-year old Caucasian woman admitted with confusion and severe clinical manifestations of acute hypercalcaemia. There was no history suggestive of any malignancy and initial management included correction of the hypercalcaemia with intravenous fluid therapy. Sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography demonstrated a 4cm left-sided thyroid lesion and a nearly 2cm right-sided thyroid lesion. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. Histology confirmed a concomitant parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular , Neoplasias das Paratireoides , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia , Cintilografia , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia
15.
Maturitas ; 135: 47-52, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the current aging of the world's population, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is increasingly detected in the elderly. Yet data on the presentation and outcome of PHPT in this group are scarce. The objective was to describe a cohort of patients aged 75 years or more with PHPT observed in our endocrine clinic. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of medical records in an endocrine clinic at a tertiary hospital. We evaluated 182 patients with PHPT, aged 75 years or more at their last follow-up, all diagnosed at age 65 or more. Laboratory data were compared at diagnosis and last follow-up. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 73 ± 4 years, last follow-up was at 83 ± 4 years, and mean follow-up was 11.3 ± 5.5 years. Osteoporosis, fractures, and nephrolithiasis were diagnosed in 114(63 %), 84(46 %), and 43(24 %) patients, respectively. Overall, 150 patients had an indication for surgery; of them, the 29 who underwent parathyroidectomy were younger than the non-operated patients and had higher rates of hypercalciuria. During the follow-up of the 141 patients who did not undergo operation, serum and urinary calcium levels significantly had decreased, and vitamin D level had increased at last visit (10.4 ± 0.5 mg/dl, 161 ± 70 mg/24 h, 69 ± 17 nmol/l, p < 0.01 respectively) compared with levels at diagnosis (10.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl, 223 ± 95 mg/24 h, 53 ± 15 nmol/l, respectively, p = 0.001). Overall, 38 of the 182 patients (20 %) died during follow-up; these patients were significantly older at diagnosis (76 ± 5 vs. 72 ± 4 years) but there were no differences in laboratory variables. CONCLUSIONS: While most patients had a formal indication for surgery, few underwent parathyroidectomy. Serum and urinary calcium significantly decreased during follow-up in patients who did not undergo surgery. Our data are reassuring and support at least the consideration of conservative treatment for these patients.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cálcio/sangue , Cálcio/urina , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/sangue , Fraturas Ósseas/urina , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/urina , Masculino , Nefrolitíase/sangue , Nefrolitíase/terapia , Nefrolitíase/urina , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/terapia , Osteoporose/urina , Paratireoidectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(5): 363-368, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypercalcaemic crisis is a rare manifestation of hyperparathyroidism and occurs in 1.6-6% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Although such high serum calcium levels (>14mg/dl) are attributed to malignancy, it is also associated with benign disease of the parathyroid glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and treatment modalities of patients with severe hypercalcaemia who underwent surgery for pHPT. METHODS: The medical records of 537 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our department for pHPT between 2005 and 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty-four (4.4%) of the patients were described as having severe hypercalcaemia. RESULTS: Among 24 patients, 71% were female and the mean age was 55.7 years (range: 40-71 years). The mean serum calcium level at time of diagnosis was 15.9mg/dl (range: 14-22.7mg/dl). According to postoperative pathology reports, solitary adenoma, parathyroid cancer and parathyromatosis were diagnosed with the rates of 87.5%, 8.3% and 4.1% respectively. The mean weight of the solitary parathyroid lesions was 14.9g (standard deviation: 8.9g, range: 4-38g). The mean longest diameter was 2.87cm (standard deviation: 1.4cm, range: 1-5.5cm). Serum calcium levels were within the normal range on the first postoperative day in 75% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Severe hypercalcaemia is a rare but urgent condition of pHPT and requires prompt management. Accelerated surgery after adequate medical treatment should be performed. It is important to emphasise that giant adenoma, which is a benign disease, may be a more common cause of severe hypercalcaemia than carcinoma, unlike previously thought.


Assuntos
Adenoma/complicações , Carcinoma/complicações , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Adenoma/sangue , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio/sangue , Carcinoma/sangue , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipercalcemia/terapia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/sangue , Paratireoidectomia , Período Pós-Operatório , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): 21-30, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348956

RESUMO

Objective: The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and the brain regions affected are not clear. We assessed neural activation during cognitive testing (matrix reasoning, paired associates, and logical memory) using functional MRI (fMRI) in 23 patients with PHPT and 23 healthy controls. A subset with PHPT was re-assessed 6 months post-parathyroidectomy (PTX). Design: This is an observational study comparing neural activation by fMRI in patients with PHPT to normative controls. Postmenopausal women were studied at a tertiary referral center. Results: There were no between-group differences in cognitive task performance. Patients with PHPT had lower neural activation vs controls (max Z = 4.02, all P < 0.01) during matrix reasoning in brain regions involved in executive function (left frontal lobe (k = 57) and right medial frontal gyrus (k = 72)) and motor function (right precentral gyrus (k = 51)). During paired associates (verbal memory), those with PHPT had greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (language/mathematical operations; k = 65, P < 0.01). Greater activation in this region bilaterally correlated with higher PTH (k = 96, P < 0.01). Post-PTX, activation decreased during matrix reasoning, but in different regions than those affected pre-PTX. Conclusions: PHPT is associated with differences in task-related neural activation patterns, but no difference in cognitive performance. While this may indicate compensation to maintain the same cognitive function, there was no clear improvement in neural activation after PTX. Larger, longitudinal studies that include PHPT patients followed without surgery are needed to determine if PTX could prevent worsening of altered neural activation patterns in PHPT.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/complicações , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Paratireoidectomia
18.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(6): e111-e114, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bilateral giant parathyroid adenoma in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 is extremely rare and literature on this subject is limited. CASE HISTORY: A 79-year-old man presented with acute kidney injury secondary to hypercalcaemia. Blood test results indicated primary hyperparathyroidism. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral parathyroid adenomas measuring 19.4mm x 19.5mm x 18.8mm (left) and 15.2mm x 18.3mm x 19.6mm (left) whereas on computed tomography, the measurements were 31mm x 20mm (left) and 30mm x 14mm (right). Intraoperatively, giant adenomas measuring 50mm x 25mm x 12mm (left, weighing 8.101g) and 48mm x 22mm x 10mm (right, weighing 7.339g) were identified and excised. Parathyroid hormone level dropped from 44.6pmol/l preoperatively to 8.9pmol/l postoperatively (normal range 1.3-7.6pmol/l). The patient was discharged with no complications. CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare phenomenon where bilateral giant parathyroid adenoma occurred in the absence of MEN type 1. It highlights the importance of cross-sectional imaging in delineating the anatomy of adenomas as their size can be grossly underestimated by ultrasonography alone.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico , Paratireoidectomia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Cálcio/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Masculino , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Glândulas Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Ultrassonografia
20.
J Surg Res ; 252: 169-173, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial opioid exposure for most individuals with substance use disorder comes from the healthcare system, and overprescription of opioids in ambulatory operations is common. This report describes an academic medical center's experience implementing opioid-free thyroid and parathyroid operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing a thyroid or parathyroid operation before and after implementation of an opioid-free analgesia protocol. The primary endpoint was new postoperative opioid prescription. Secondary endpoints included prescription characteristics and predictors of new opioid prescription. RESULTS: A total of 515 patients were enrolled in the study: 240 in the control or "pre-intervention" cohort (May through October 2017) and 275 in the intervention or "post" cohort (May through October 2018). Patients in the intervention cohort were significantly less likely to receive an opioid prescription (12.0% versus 59.6%, P < 0.001). When opioids were prescribed, they were used for shorter durations and at lower doses in the intervention cohort. Among the patients prescribed opioids in the intervention cohort (N = 33), the only significant predictor of postoperative opioid use was preoperative opioid use (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Opioids may not be required after thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy, especially for opioid-naïve patients. Future research should examine patient satisfaction with opioid-sparing analgesia.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Paratireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocodona/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemia de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/normas , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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