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1.
J Cell Sci ; 135(5)2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912961

RESUMO

Septins colocalize with membrane sterol-rich regions and facilitate recruitment of cell wall synthases during wall remodeling. We show that null mutants missing an Aspergillus nidulans core septin present in hexamers and octamers (ΔaspAcdc11, ΔaspBcdc3 or ΔaspCcdc12) are sensitive to multiple cell wall-disturbing agents that activate the cell wall integrity MAPK pathway. The null mutant missing the octamer-exclusive core septin (ΔaspDcdc10) showed similar sensitivity, but only to a single cell wall-disturbing agent and the null mutant missing the noncore septin (ΔaspE) showed only very mild sensitivity to a different single agent. Core septin mutants showed changes in wall polysaccharide composition and chitin synthase localization. Mutants missing any of the five septins resisted ergosterol-disrupting agents. Hexamer mutants showed increased sensitivity to sphingolipid-disrupting agents. Core septins mislocalized after treatment with sphingolipid-disrupting agents, but not after ergosterol-disrupting agents. Our data suggest that the core septins are involved in cell wall integrity signaling, that all five septins are involved in monitoring ergosterol metabolism, that the hexamer septins are required for sphingolipid metabolism and that septins require sphingolipids to coordinate the cell wall integrity response.


Assuntos
Aspergillus nidulans , Septinas , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Septinas/genética , Septinas/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo
2.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482904

RESUMO

Perennial woody plants undergo a period of dormancy from the beginning of autumn until the end of spring. Whereas the molecular and physiological events that characterize dormancy release of buds have been described in detail, those occurring in woody tissues underneath the buds are mostly unknown. To bridge this gap, the mRNA populations of cane segments located underneath the bud were analyzed at bud dormancy (E-L 1) and at bud burst (E-L 4). They revealed an important reprogramming of gene expression suggesting that cell division, cell wall metabolism and the mobilization of sugars are the main metabolic and cellular events occurring in cane woody tissues at bud burst. Also, the upregulation of several genes of sugar metabolism, encoding starch- and sucrose-degrading enzymes and sugar transporters, correlates with the decrease in starch and soluble sugars in woody tissues concomitant with increased sucrose synthase and α-amylolytic biochemical activities. The latter is likely due to the VviAMY2 gene that encodes a functional α-amylase as observed after its heterologous expression in yeast. Taken together, these results are consistent with starch and sugar mobilization in canes being primarily involved in grapevine secondary growth initiation and supporting the growth of the emerging bud.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Dormência de Plantas/genética , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Divisão Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Parede Celular/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Portugal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502129

RESUMO

Size control is a fundamental question in biology, showing incremental complexity in plants, whose cells possess a rigid cell wall. The phytohormone auxin is a vital growth regulator with central importance for differential growth control. Our results indicate that auxin-reliant growth programs affect the molecular complexity of xyloglucans, the major type of cell wall hemicellulose in eudicots. Auxin-dependent induction and repression of growth coincide with reduced and enhanced molecular complexity of xyloglucans, respectively. In agreement with a proposed function in growth control, genetic interference with xyloglucan side decorations distinctly modulates auxin-dependent differential growth rates. Our work proposes that auxin-dependent growth programs have a spatially defined effect on xyloglucan's molecular structure, which in turn affects cell wall mechanics and specifies differential, gravitropic hypocotyl growth.


Assuntos
Glucanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Xilanos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucanos/química , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Xilanos/química
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 679792, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568085

RESUMO

Binding to plasminogen (Plg) enables bacteria to associate with and invade host tissues. The cell wall protein PbsP significantly contributes to the ability of group B streptococci, a frequent cause of invasive infection, to bind Plg. Here we sought to identify the molecular regions involved in the interactions between Plg and PbsP. The K4 Kringle domain of the Plg molecule was required for binding of Plg to whole PbsP and to a PbsP fragment encompassing a region rich in methionine and lysine (MK-rich domain). These interactions were inhibited by free L-lysine, indicating the involvement of lysine binding sites in the Plg molecule. However, mutation to alanine of all lysine residues in the MK-rich domain did not decrease its ability to bind Plg. Collectively, our data identify a novel bacterial sequence that can interact with lysine binding sites in the Plg molecule. Notably, such binding did not require the presence of lysine or other positively charged amino acids in the bacterial receptor. These data may be useful for developing alternative therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking interactions between group B streptococci and Plg.


Assuntos
Lisina , Plasminogênio , Sítios de Ligação , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Streptococcus agalactiae
5.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21778, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383971

RESUMO

As a result of the relatively few available antifungals and the increasing frequency of resistance to them, the development of novel antifungals is increasingly important. The plant natural product poacic acid (PA) inhibits ß-1,3-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has antifungal activity against a wide range of plant pathogens. However, the mode of action of PA is unclear. Here, we reveal that PA specifically binds to ß-1,3-glucan, its affinity for which is ~30-fold that for chitin. Besides its effect on ß-1,3-glucan synthase activity, PA inhibited the yeast glucan-elongating activity of Gas1 and Gas2 and the chitin-glucan transglycosylase activity of Crh1. Regarding the cellular response to PA, transcriptional co-regulation was mediated by parallel activation of the cell-wall integrity (CWI) and high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathways. Despite targeting ß-1,3-glucan remodeling, the transcriptional profiles and regulatory circuits activated by caspofungin, zymolyase, and PA differed, indicating that their effects on CWI have different mechanisms. The effects of PA on the growth of yeast strains indicated that it has a mode of action distinct from that of echinocandins, suggesting it is a unique antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/farmacologia , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Concentração Osmolar , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
6.
J Microbiol ; 59(9): 840-847, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383247

RESUMO

Endolysin, a peptidoglycan hydrolase derived from bacteriophage, has been suggested as an alternative antimicrobial agent. Many endolysins on staphylococcal phages have been identified and applied extensively against Staphylococcus spp. Among them, LysK-like endolysin, a well-studied staphylococcal endolysin, accounts for most of the identified endolysins. However, relatively little interest has been paid to LysKunlike endolysin and a few of them has been characterized. An endolysin LysSAP33 encoded on bacteriophage SAP33 shared low homology with LysK-like endolysin in sequence by 41% and domain composition (CHAP-unknown CBD). A green fluorescence assay using a fusion protein for LysSAP33_CBD indicated that the CBD domain (157-251 aa) was bound to the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The deletion of LysSAP33_CBD at the C-terminal region resulted in a significant decrease in lytic activity and efficacy. Compared to LysK-like endolysin, LysSAP33 retained its lytic activity in a broader range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentrations. In addition, it showed a higher activity against biofilms than LysK-like endolysin. This study could be a helpful tool to develop our understanding of staphylococcal endolysins not belonging to LysK-like endolysins and a potential biocontrol agent against biofilms.


Assuntos
Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fagos de Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/virologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/virologia , Endopeptidases/química , Endopeptidases/genética , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fagos de Staphylococcus/química , Fagos de Staphylococcus/genética , Fagos de Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4975, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404791

RESUMO

Plant cell wall hydrolysates contain not only sugars but also substantial amounts of acetate, a fermentation inhibitor that hinders bioconversion of lignocellulose. Despite the toxic and non-consumable nature of acetate during glucose metabolism, we demonstrate that acetate can be rapidly co-consumed with xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The co-consumption leads to a metabolic re-configuration that boosts the synthesis of acetyl-CoA derived bioproducts, including triacetic acid lactone (TAL) and vitamin A, in engineered strains. Notably, by co-feeding xylose and acetate, an enginered strain produces 23.91 g/L TAL with a productivity of 0.29 g/L/h in bioreactor fermentation. This strain also completely converts a hemicellulose hydrolysate of switchgrass into 3.55 g/L TAL. These findings establish a versatile strategy that not only transforms an inhibitor into a valuable substrate but also expands the capacity of acetyl-CoA supply in S. cerevisiae for efficient bioconversion of cellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Lignina , Pironas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 394, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the mechanism of glucosinolates (GSs) accumulation in the specific organs, combined analysis of physiological change and transcriptome sequencing were applied in the current study. Taking Chinese kale as material, seeds and silique walls were divided into different stages based on the development of the embryo in seeds and then subjected to GS analysis and transcriptome sequencing. RESULTS: The main GS in seeds of Chinese kale were glucoiberin and gluconapin and their content changed with the development of the seed. During the transition of the embryo from torpedo- to the early cotyledonary-embryo stage, the accumulation of GS in the seed was accompanied by the salient decline of GS in the corresponding silique wall. Thus, the seed and corresponding silique wall at these two stages were subjected to transcriptomic sequencing analysis. 135 genes related to GS metabolism were identified, of which 24 genes were transcription factors, 81 genes were related to biosynthetic pathway, 25 genes encoded catabolic enzymes, and 5 genes matched with transporters. The expression of GS biosynthetic genes was detected both in seeds and silique walls. The high expression of FMOGS-OX and AOP2, which is related to the production of gluconapin by side modification, was noted in seeds at both stages. Interestingly, the expression of GS biosynthetic genes was higher in the silique wall compared with that in the seed albeit lower content of GS existed in the silique wall than in the seed. Combined with the higher expression of transporter genes GTRs in silique walls than in seeds, it was proposed that the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed is an important source for seed GS accumulation. In addition, genes related to GS degradation expressed abundantly in the seed at the early cotyledonary-embryo stage indicating its potential role in balancing seed GS content. CONCLUSIONS: Two stages including the torpedo-embryo and the early cotyledonary-embryo stage were identified as crucial in GS accumulation during seed development. Moreover, we confirmed the transportation of GS from the silique wall to the seed and proposed possible sidechain modification of GS biosynthesis may exist during seed formation.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Glucosinolatos/genética , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445535

RESUMO

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh) are prone to preharvest fruit drop, which is more pronounced in 'Honeycrisp'. Hexanal is known to improve fruit retention in several economically important crops. The effects of hexanal on the fruit retention of 'Honeycrisp' apples were assessed using physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic approaches. Fruit retention and fruit firmness were significantly improved by hexanal, while sugars and fresh weight did not show a significant change in response to hexanal treatment. At commercial maturity, abscisic acid and melatonin levels were significantly lower in the treated fruit abscission zone (FAZ) compared to control. At this stage, a total of 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between treated and control FAZ. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that hexanal downregulated ethylene biosynthesis genes, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAM2) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidases (ACO3, ACO4, and ACO4-like), while it upregulated the receptor genes ETR2 and ERS1. Genes related to ABA biosynthesis (FDPS and CLE25) were also downregulated. On the contrary, key genes involved in gibberellic acid biosynthesis (GA20OX-like and KO) were upregulated. Further, hexanal downregulated the expression of genes related to cell wall degrading enzymes, such as polygalacturonase (PG1), glucanases (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase), and expansins (EXPA1-like, EXPA6, EXPA8, EXPA10-like, EXPA16-like). Our findings reveal that hexanal reduced the sensitivity of FAZ cells to ethylene and ABA. Simultaneously, hexanal maintained the cell wall integrity of FAZ cells by regulating genes involved in cell wall modifications. Thus, delayed fruit abscission by hexanal is most likely achieved by minimizing ABA through an ethylene-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372584

RESUMO

Double-stranded DNA bacteriophages end their lytic cycle by disrupting the host cell envelope, which allows the release of the virion progeny. Each phage must synthesize lysis proteins that target each cell barrier to phage release. In addition to holins, which permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane, and endolysins, which disrupt the peptidoglycan (PG), mycobacteriophages synthesize a specific lysis protein, LysB, capable of detaching the outer membrane from the complex cell wall of mycobacteria. The family of LysB proteins is highly diverse, with many members presenting an extended N-terminus. The N-terminal region of mycobacteriophage Ms6 LysB shows structural similarity to the PG-binding domain (PGBD) of the φKZ endolysin. A fusion of this region with enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ms6LysBPGBD-EGFP) was shown to bind to Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium bovis BGC and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra cells pretreated with SDS or Ms6 LysB. In pulldown assays, we demonstrate that Ms6 LysB and Ms6LysBPGBD-EGFP bind to purified peptidoglycan of M. smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, demonstrating affinity to PG of the A1γ chemotype. An infection assay with an Ms6 mutant producing a truncated version of LysB lacking the first 90 amino acids resulted in an abrupt lysis. These results clearly demonstrate that the N-terminus of Ms6 LysB binds to the PG.


Assuntos
Bacteriólise/fisiologia , Micobacteriófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Endopeptidases , Hidrólise , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/virologia , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4639, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330922

RESUMO

The silica cell wall of diatoms, a widespread group of unicellular microalgae, is an exquisite example for the ability of organisms to finely sculpt minerals under strict biological control. The prevailing paradigm for diatom silicification is that this is invariably an intracellular process, occurring inside specialized silica deposition vesicles that are responsible for silica precipitation and morphogenesis. Here, we study the formation of long silicified extensions that characterize many diatom species. We use cryo-electron tomography to image silica formation in situ, in 3D, and at a nanometer-scale resolution. Remarkably, our data suggest that, contradictory to the ruling paradigm, these intricate structures form outside the cytoplasm. In addition, the formation of these silica extensions is halted at low silicon concentrations that still support the formation of other cell wall elements, further alluding to a different silicification mechanism. The identification of this unconventional strategy expands the suite of mechanisms that diatoms use for silicification.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4049, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193873

RESUMO

Xyloglucans are highly substituted and recalcitrant polysaccharides found in the primary cell walls of vascular plants, acting as a barrier against pathogens. Here, we reveal that the diverse and economically relevant Xanthomonas bacteria are endowed with a xyloglucan depolymerization machinery that is linked to pathogenesis. Using the citrus canker pathogen as a model organism, we show that this system encompasses distinctive glycoside hydrolases, a modular xyloglucan acetylesterase and specific membrane transporters, demonstrating that plant-associated bacteria employ distinct molecular strategies from commensal gut bacteria to cope with xyloglucans. Notably, the sugars released by this system elicit the expression of several key virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, a membrane-embedded apparatus to deliver effector proteins into the host cells. Together, these findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning the intricate enzymatic machinery of Xanthomonas to depolymerize xyloglucans and uncover a role for this system in signaling pathways driving pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Citrus/microbiologia , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ativação Transcricional , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/genética , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204559

RESUMO

Recent data indicate that modifications to carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants alter the expression of genes affecting chemical composition of the cell wall. Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a rate limiting factor of carotenoid biosynthesis and it may exhibit species-specific and organ-specific roles determined by the presence of psy paralogous genes, the importance of which often remains unrevealed. Thus, the aim of this work was to elaborate the roles of two psy paralogs in a model system and to reveal biochemical changes in the cell wall of psy knockout mutants. For this purpose, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas9) proteins (CRISPR/Cas9) vectors were introduced to carotenoid-rich carrot (Daucus carota) callus cells in order to induce mutations in the psy1 and psy2 genes. Gene sequencing, expression analysis, and carotenoid content analysis revealed that the psy2 gene is critical for carotenoid biosynthesis in this model and its knockout blocks carotenogenesis. The psy2 knockout also decreased the expression of the psy1 paralog. Immunohistochemical staining of the psy2 mutant cells showed altered composition of arabinogalactan proteins, pectins, and extensins in the mutant cell walls. In particular, low-methylesterified pectins were abundantly present in the cell walls of carotenoid-rich callus in contrast to the carotenoid-free psy2 mutant. Transmission electron microscopy revealed altered plastid transition to amyloplasts instead of chromoplasts. The results demonstrate for the first time that the inhibited biosynthesis of carotenoids triggers the cell wall remodelling.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Daucus carota/fisiologia , Edição de Genes , Sequência de Bases , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Daucus carota/ultraestrutura , Marcação de Genes , Genes de Plantas , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Plastídeos/genética , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura
14.
Planta ; 254(2): 22, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218358

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The downregulation of PpPG21 and PpPG22 expression in melting-flesh peach delays fruit softening and hinders texture changes by influencing pectin solubilization and depolymerization. The polygalacturonase (PG)-catalyzed solubilization and depolymerization of pectin plays a central role in the softening and texture formation processes in peach fruit. In this study, the expression characteristics of 15 PpPG members in peach fruits belonging to the melting flesh (MF) and non-melting flesh (NMF) types were analyzed, and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to identify the roles of PpPG21 (ppa006839m) and PpPG22 (ppa006857m) in peach fruit softening and texture changes. In both MF and NMF peaches, the expression of PpPG1, 10, 12, 23, and 25 was upregulated, whereas that of PpPG14, 24, 35, 38, and 39 was relatively stable or downregulated during shelf life. PpPG1 was highly expressed in NMF fruit, whereas PpPG21 and 22 were highly expressed in MF peaches. Suppressing the expression of PpPG21 and 22 by VIGS in MF peaches significantly reduced PG enzyme activity, maintained the firmness of the fruit during the late shelf life stage, and suppressed the occurrence of the "melting" stage compared with the control fruits. Moreover, the downregulation of PpPG21 and 22 expression also reduced the water-soluble pectin (WSP) content, increased the contents of ionic-soluble pectin (ISP) and covalent-soluble pectin (CSP) and affected the expression levels of ethylene synthesis- and pectin depolymerization-related genes in the late shelf life stage. These results indicate that PpPG21 and 22 play a major role in the development of the melting texture trait of peaches by depolymerizing cell wall pectin. Our results provide direct evidence showing that PG regulates peach fruit softening and texture changes.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298903

RESUMO

Sucrose content is a crucial indicator of quality and flavor in peanut seed, and there is a lack of clarity on the molecular basis of sucrose metabolism in peanut seed. In this context, we performed a comprehensive comparative transcriptome study on the samples collected at seven seed development stages between a high-sucrose content variety (ICG 12625) and a low-sucrose content variety (Zhonghua 10). The transcriptome analysis identified a total of 8334 genes exhibiting significantly different abundances between the high- and low-sucrose varieties. We identified 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in sucrose metabolism in peanut and 12 of these encoded sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs). The remaining 16 genes encoded enzymes, such as cell wall invertase (CWIN), vacuolar invertase (VIN), cytoplasmic invertase (CIN), cytosolic fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase (FBP), sucrose synthase (SUS), cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), hexokinase (HK), and sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (SPP). The weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified seven genes encoding key enzymes (CIN, FBA, FBP, HK, and SPP), three SWEET genes, and 90 transcription factors (TFs) showing a high correlation with sucrose content. Furthermore, upon validation, six of these genes were successfully verified as exhibiting higher expression in high-sucrose recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Our study suggested the key roles of the high expression of SWEETs and enzymes in sucrose synthesis making the genotype ICG 12625 sucrose-rich. This study also provided insights into the molecular basis of sucrose metabolism during seed development and facilitated exploring key candidate genes and molecular breeding for sucrose content in peanuts.


Assuntos
Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
16.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110979, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315595

RESUMO

Plant cell walls have complex architectures made of polysaccharides among which cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and cell wall proteins (CWPs). Some CWPs are anchored in the plasma membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. The secretion pathway is the classical route to reach the extracellular space. Based on experimental data, a canonical signal peptide (SP) has been defined, and bioinformatics tools allowing the prediction of the sub-cellular localization of proteins have been designed. In the same way, the presence of GPI-anchor attachment sites can be predicted using bioinformatics programs. This article aims at comparing the bioinformatics predictions of the sub-cellular localization of proteins assumed to be CWPs to mass spectrometry (MS) data. The sub-cellular localization of a few CWPs exhibiting particular features has been checked by cell biology approaches. Although the prediction of SP length is confirmed in most cases, it is less conclusive for GPI-anchors. Three main observations were done: (i) the variability observed at the N-terminus of a few mature CWPs could play a role in the regulation of their biological activity; (ii) one protein was shown to have a double sub-cellular localization in the cell wall and the chloroplasts; and (iii) peptides were found to be located at the C-terminus of several CWPs previously identified in GPI-anchored proteomes, thus raising the issue of their actual anchoring to the plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
17.
Plant Sci ; 310: 110990, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315604

RESUMO

Transfer cells (TCs) develop extensive wall ingrowths to facilitate enhanced rates of membrane transport. In Arabidopsis, TCs trans-differentiate from phloem parenchyma (PP) cells abutting the sieve element/companion cell complex in minor veins of foliar tissues and, based on anatomy and expression of SWEET sucrose uniporters, are assumed to play pivotal roles in phloem loading. While wall ingrowth deposition in PP TCs is a dynamic process responding to abiotic stresses such as high light and cold, the transcriptional control of PP TC development, including deposition of the wall ingrowths themselves, is not understood. PP TC development is a trait of vegetative phase change, potentially linking wall ingrowth deposition with floral induction. Transcript profiling by RNA-seq identified NAC056 and NAC018 (NARS1 and NARS2) as putative regulators of wall ingrowth deposition, while recent single cell RNA-seq analysis of leaf vasculature identified PP-specific expression of NAC056. Numerous membrane transporters, particularly of the UmamiT family of amino acid efflux carriers, were also identified. Collectively, these findings, and the recent discovery that wall ingrowth deposition is regulated by sucrose-dependent loading activity of these cells, provide new insights into the biology of PP TCs and their importance to phloem loading in Arabidopsis, establishing these cells as a key transport hub for phloem loading.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105672, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330083

RESUMO

It is well-known that ultrasound has been studied for its cavitation, mechanical and thermal effects. As a pretreatment technology, ultrasonic alkali treatment has attracted much attention in the field of biomass biochemical transformation. In this study, the structural and dynamic changes of wood cell walls during ultrasound-water, alkali, and ultrasound-alkali treatments were investigated by stereoscopic microscopy, confocal Raman microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that the ultrasound-water, alkali, and ultrasound-alkali treatments had the effect of removing extractives from conduits. The uniform self-shrinking samples with shrinkage conduits were obtained by the alkali and ultrasound-alkali treatments. All of the treatments affected the relative content, structure and distribution of the chemical components in the wood cell walls. Compared with water-immersion samples, the relative content of hemicellulose of the treated samples reduced from 32.31% to 7.02% for ultrasound-8% NaOH treated samples. For the signal intensity of lignin, ultrasound-water treated and ultrasound-alkali treated samples displayed a more significant reductions than the alkali treated samples in the cell wall region. The crystal zone and amorphous zone of cellulose coexisted before and after the treatment, for all of the treated samples, and particularly for the ultrasound-assisted treated samples, the crystallinity increased from 38.15% for water-immersion samples to 57.42% for ultrasound-8% NaOH treated samples.


Assuntos
Álcalis/química , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Água/química , Linhagem Celular , Polissacarídeos/análise
19.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(8): 1055-1065, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326523

RESUMO

In Gram-positive bacteria, a thick cross-linked cell wall separates the membrane from the extracellular space. Some surface-exposed proteins, such as the Listeria monocytogenes actin nucleation-promoting factor ActA, remain associated with the bacterial membrane but somehow thread through tens of nanometres of cell wall to expose their amino terminus to the exterior. Here, we report that entropy enables the translocation of disordered transmembrane proteins through the Gram-positive cell wall. We build a physical model, which predicts that the entropic constraint imposed by a thin periplasm is sufficient to drive the translocation of an intrinsically disordered protein such as ActA across a porous barrier similar to a peptidoglycan cell wall. We experimentally validate our model and show that ActA translocation depends on the cell-envelope dimensions and disordered-protein length, and that translocation is reversible. We also show that disordered regions of eukaryotic proteins can translocate Gram-positive cell walls via entropy. We propose that entropic forces are sufficient to drive the translocation of specific proteins to the outer surface.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Entropia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/química , Transporte Proteico
20.
Development ; 148(14)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251020

RESUMO

Cell wall remodeling is essential for the control of growth and development as well as the regulation of stress responses. However, the underlying cell wall monitoring mechanisms remain poorly understood. Regulation of root hair fate and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana requires signaling mediated by the atypical receptor kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB). Furthermore, SUB is involved in cell wall integrity signaling and regulates the cellular response to reduced levels of cellulose, a central component of the cell wall. Here, we show that continuous exposure to sub-lethal doses of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor isoxaben results in altered root hair patterning and floral morphogenesis. Genetically impairing cellulose biosynthesis also results in root hair patterning defects. We further show that isoxaben exerts its developmental effects through the attenuation of SUB signaling. Our evidence indicates that downregulation of SUB is a multi-step process and involves changes in SUB complex architecture at the plasma membrane, enhanced removal of SUB from the cell surface, and downregulation of SUB transcript levels. The results provide molecular insight into how the cell wall regulates cell fate and tissue morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Morfogênese/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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