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1.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 654-664, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095190

RESUMO

The presence of Staphylococcus aureus in drinking water is a concern because of its potential to cause human infection and also because of its multiple antimicrobial resistance. This study evaluated the water quality of drinking water fountains and mist makers in four municipal parks of São Paulo for 13 months. Although all samples met bacteriological water quality criteria according to Brazilian regulations, the absence of residual chlorine (<0.1 mg/L) was observed. These data were significantly correlated with the frequency of S. aureus that was found in 25.2% of the samples. The mecA gene was detected in 36.7% of the isolates demonstrating its potential for resistance to several antimicrobials. Furthermore, 27.3% isolates carrying the mecA gene had methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) phenotypic potential. The presence of S. aureus with characteristics of microbial resistance in water for human consumption is an unprecedented finding. Hence, conducting surveillance for opportunistic bacteria, such as staphylococci in drinking water, is reasonable to take control measures and to protect human health, especially in public places with high attendance.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Brasil , Humanos , Meticilina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Parques Recreativos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
2.
Zootaxa ; 4801(3): zootaxa.4801.3.10, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056651

RESUMO

Males of four new species of caddisflies, Polyplectropus hofmaierae n. sp. (Polycentropodidae), Eoneureclipsis chinachotiae n. sp. (Psychomyiidae), Hydropsyche khaonanensis n. sp. (Hydropsychidae), and Lannapsyche tairomyenensis n. sp. (Odontoceridae) are described and illustrated. Polyplectropus hofmaierae n. sp. is distinguished from other species by the shape of the apical end of its inferior appendages and its sharp intermediate appendages. The posterior edges of their inferior appendages run slanting to the ventrodistal point and are densely covered by short and stiff bristles. Eoneureclipsis chinachotiae n. sp. is differentiated by characters of its phallus, as the first two thirds of its length are slender and slightly curved. The distal part has a dorsal hump with a very slender thread on its caudal edge and is slightly bent downward and dilated. Hydropsyche khaonanensis n. sp. can be differentiated from the other species by its phallus, in which the two apicolateral lobes in ventral view have rounded outer edges. Lannapsyche tairomyenensis n. sp. can be separated from the others by characteristics of the dorsal view of segment IX and the harpago of its inferior appendages. Segment IX is triangular with distinctly convex preanal appendages along the posterior edge of this segment, and the harpago and subapical lobes are relatively similar in shape and length.


Assuntos
Insetos , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Extremidades , Holometábolos , Masculino , Tailândia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006985

RESUMO

Plant landscapes are fundamental components of the green space of urban parks and are often dynamic, changing throughout the year. Winter is a season with poor plant landscape effects in urban park green spaces. However, plant community landscapes in the winter in urban park green spaces could be further optimized. Here, we conducted scenic beauty estimation (SBE) of the landscape factors in 29 winter plant communities in four typical urban parks in Yangzhou, China using partial correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. The standard SBE values of the 29 plant communities ranged from -0.981 to 1.209. Complex plant community landscapes with abundant plant species, beautiful plant community morphology and obvious seasonal changes generally received high scenic beauty scores. Six landscape factors, including the diversity of plant species, the proportion of evergreen tree species, the morphological characteristics of plants, the ground cover rate, the overall sense of harmony and the color composition, greatly influenced the scenic beauty of the plant landscape in the winter. Generally, the results of this study provide insight into how the plant community landscape in urban parks could be improved.


Assuntos
Beleza , Biodiversidade , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Planejamento Ambiental , Parques Recreativos/normas , China , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Estações do Ano
4.
Zootaxa ; 4802(2): zootaxa.4802.2.6, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056621

RESUMO

Field surveys were carried out to determine the richness of the Cynipidae fauna of Kazdagi National Park, located on the border of Edremit county (Balikesir province, Turkey). Gall samples of cynipids were collected or photographed on Quercus and Rosa host plants. As a result, 53 cynipid species belonging to 3 different tribes were found or observed in the surveyed area. 14 and 8 species were recorded as new for the Cynipidae fauna of Balikesir and Çanakkale provinces respectively, including the first locality record of Andricus hystrix Trotter, 1897 for Turkey. In addition, color photos of reared cynipid wasps from their galls and the observed cynipid galls on their host plant species are presented.


Assuntos
Quercus , Vespas , Animais , Parques Recreativos , Plantas , Turquia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4854(1): zootaxa.4854.1.1, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056353

RESUMO

We present descriptions of 28 new species of Amphisopidae from Arnhem Land and Kakadu National Park of Australia's Northern Territory. We identified five additional species that are not yet fully characterized and are not provided with formal species recognition. This is the first taxonomic treatment highlighting the high species richness within the Phreatoicidea that occur in Australia and likely elsewhere. We document each species fully with scanning electron and light micrographic images, diagnoses, detailed descriptions, keys to identification and justification of each species using parsimony analysis of their morphological and genetic characters. The distributional data show that all species, except for one, have microendemic distributions, with some sibling species occurring within a few kilometers of each other. Because of the age of this group of species, they appear to have spread throughout the region of the Arnhem sandstone plateau and then back-colonized the same habitats so that as many as three morphologically and genetically distinct species may co-occur syntopically. Our research has uncovered a new genus-level taxon of the family Amphisopidae, Kakadubeh gen. nov. This new genus is unlike Eophreatoicus, not only in its general appearance, but also in having an inferred reproductive strategy different from most of the other members of the family. While Eophreatoicus species have males that are much larger than the females and practice precopula, a form of pre-insemination mate guarding, males of the new species, Kakadubeh rangemyahwurd sp. nov., are much smaller than females. In addition, males of this species have a fourth walking leg that is not specialized for holding females, suggesting that they have a reproductive strategy that does not involve precopula of the form seen in Eophreatoicus and Eremisopus Wilson Keable, 2002a. Most of our research has been undertaken in Kakadu National Park, although recent collections have been made in Arnhem Land, yielding additional distinctive species. Given the size of unexplored territory around the Arnhem Plateau and the geographic frequency of discovering new species, we predict that the diversity of this group in the Northern Territory may be many more than the ~35 species described here. At this time, these microendemic isopods appear to be unthreatened by human activities, largely owing to the environmental protection afforded by Kakadu National Park and Arnhem Land, and their cryptic habits during the dry season. Because they are dependent on small springs of permanent groundwater, future changes in hydrology owing to water use and climate change, as well as invasive introduced species, may present risks to populations and species.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos
6.
Mol Ecol ; 29(22): 4254-4257, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012001

RESUMO

Predicting the emergence of novel infectious diseases requires an understanding of how pathogens infect and efficiently spread in alternative naïve hosts. A pathogen's ability to adapt to a new host (i.e. host shift) oftentimes is constrained by host phylogeny, due to limits in the molecular mechanisms available to overcome host-specific immune defences (Longdon et al., 2014). Some pathogens, such as RNA viruses, however, have a propensity to jump hosts due to rapid mutation rates. For example, canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of terrestrial carnivores, as well as noncarnivore species worldwide, with a host range that is distributed across 5 orders and 22 families (Beineke et al., 2015). In 1993-1994, a severe CDV outbreak infected multiple carnivore host species in Serengeti National Park, causing widespread mortality and the subsequent decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) population (Roelke-Parker et al., 1996). While previous studies established domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as the disease reservoir, the precise route of transmission to lions remained a mystery, and a number of wild carnivore species could have facilitated viral evolution and spread. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Weckworth et al. (2020) used whole-genome viral sequences obtained from four carnivore species during the CDV outbreak, in combination with epidemiological data, to illuminate the pathway and evolutionary mechanisms leading to disease emergence in Serengeti lions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina , Cinomose , Leões , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica , Leões/genética , Parques Recreativos
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complexity of urbanization processes across Latin American societies encourages investigating its implications in health conditions, especially during childhood. One of the possible links between them is recreation, a component of the daily life of children and, therefore, essential to produce health and life itself. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood context and active public park use among school-aged children in Cordoba, Argentina. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1466 children, aged 9 to 11, attending 19 schools and living in 110 neighborhoods. Multilevel models with Poisson distribution were used for the analyses, stratified by gender. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and physical covariates were included at the individual level, and socioeconomic neighborhood conditions at second level. RESULTS: Girls residing in neighborhoods with a worse socioeconomic context were less likely to report frequent public park use for physical activity, while those from neighborhoods with better socioeconomic conditions were more likely to, regardless of individual characteristics. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that socioeconomic conditions of neighborhoods are associated with public park use for physical activity in school-aged girls, demonstrating gender inequality in the use and appropriation of public spaces.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3675-3690, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001253

RESUMO

In 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan were conducted. Rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. Of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. Twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. Pterygodermatites tani was the most prevalent (36.2%); other encountered species included Raillietina celebensis, Hydatigera taeniaformis (metacestode in liver tissue), Gongylonema neoplasticum and Hymenolepis diminuta. Different helminth assemblages infected three different host taxa, i.e. synanthropic Rattus spp., Tupaia belangeri (Northern treeshrew) and Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew). Nine species of possible zoonotic helminths were identified. The focus on synanthropic rats influenced the findings of helminth diversity by either host intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A significant positive correlation was found between host body mass and helminth species richness. Greater helminth species richness was found in rats from public parks compared with animals from citified areas (e.g. inside buildings or offices). Also, helminth species richness was negatively correlated with the proportion of post-flooding/rain-fed land. These results provide essential information for assessing the incidence of potential zoonotic health threats in Bangkok and updating research in parasite ecology.


Assuntos
Biota , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Cidades , Inundações , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095838

RESUMO

Visiting parks and gardens supports physical and mental health. We quantified access to public parks and gardens in urban areas of England and Wales, and the potential for park crowdedness during periods of high use. We combined data from the Office for National Statistics and Ordnance Survey to quantify (i) the number of parks within 500 and 1,000 metres of urban postcodes (i.e., availability), (ii) the distance of postcodes to the nearest park (i.e., accessibility), and (iii) per-capita space in each park for people living within 1,000m. We examined variability by city and share of flats. Around 25.4 million people (~87%) can access public parks or gardens within a ten-minute walk, while 3.8 million residents (~13%) live farther away; of these 21% are children and 13% are elderly. Areas with a higher share of flats on average are closer to a park but people living in these areas visit parks that are potentially overcrowded during periods of high use. Such disparity in urban areas of England and Wales becomes particularly evident during COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown when local parks, the only available out-of-home space option, hinder social distancing requirements. Cities aiming to facilitate social distancing while keeping public green spaces safe might require implementing measures such as dedicated park times for different age groups or entry allocation systems that, combined with smartphone apps or drones, can monitor and manage the total number of people using the park.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental , Jardins , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Parques Recreativos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Logradouros Públicos , População Urbana , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0227161, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052936

RESUMO

Dispersal of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), a keystone species of many high-elevation ecosystems in western North America, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana Wilson), a seed-caching bird with an affinity for whitebark seeds. To the extent that this dependence is mutual, declines in whitebark seed production could cause declines in nutcracker abundance. Whitebark pine is in decline across much of its range due to interacting stressors, including the non-native pathogen white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.). We used avian point-count data and tree surveys from four national park units to investigate whether trends in whitebark pine can explain trends in Clark's nutcracker. Spatial trends were modeled using recent data from two parks, while temporal trends were modeled using longer time-series of nutcracker and whitebark data from two additional parks. To assess the potential dependence of nutcrackers on whitebark, we linked a model of nutcracker density (accounting for detection probability) with a model of whitebark trends, using a Bayesian framework to translate uncertainty in whitebark metrics to uncertainty in nutcracker density. In Mount Rainier National Park, temporal models showed dramatic declines in nutcracker density concurrent with significant increases in whitebark crown mortality and trees infected with white pine blister rust. However, nutcrackers did not trend with whitebark metrics in North Cascades National Park Service Complex. In spatial models of data from Yosemite National Park and Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park, nutcracker density varied not only with local cover of whitebark but also with elevation and, in Sequoia-Kings Canyon, with cover of another species of white pine. Our results add support for the hypothesis that the mutualism between whitebark pine and Clark's nutcracker is vulnerable to disruption by blister rust, and our approach integrates data across monitoring programs to explore trends in species interactions.


Assuntos
Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , América do Norte , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Simbiose
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 310-320, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901336

RESUMO

The concentrations of trace elements in feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. were used to indicate the relative levels of air pollution by trace elements in Polish national parks. Pleurozium schreberi was collected from nine national parks. The highest concentrations were recorded in the moss samples from the southern and most industrialised part of the country; the lowest from northern and north-eastern Poland. A comparison of data obtained from Polish national parks in the 1970s and 1990s showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of heavy metals. In the linear covariability estimation, the t quantile approach was used for multi-element comparison. A number of positive covariabilities were observed. This is a result of anthropogenic activity and the geochemical characteristics of the local environment, including crust composition to which soil composition is related. The statistical approach of t quantile to study common relationships between element concentrations can be used in the interpretation of biomonitoring research results in similar studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Bryopsida/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Oligoelementos/análise , Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Ativação de Nêutrons , Polônia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140446, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887013

RESUMO

Soil enzymes play a key role in the circulation of nutrients and the functioning of the ecosystem. The aim of the study was to assess how the tree species of urban agglomerations affect soil quality and enzymatic activity (dehydrogenases DEH, catalase CAT, alkaline AlP and acid AcP phosphatase, protease PR, ß-glucosidase GLU, and urease UR). To this end, soil samples were taken from beneath nine park trees. The risk of soil contamination by selected heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd) was also investigated against the background of the selected physicochemical properties. Enzyme activity results were used to calculate multi-parametric indices of soil quality: availability factor (AF), enzymatic pH indicator (AlP/AcP), biological index of fertility (BIF), geometric mean (GMea), alternation index (Al3), biochemical soil activity (BA16 and BA17). The results showed statistically significant differences in physicochemical and enzymatic properties of soil depending on tree species. Correlation analysis showed that the content of total organic carbon (TOC), total nirogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and humus (OM) in soil significantly influenced the activity of the studied enzymes and glomalin content. AF coefficient values (1.84%-18.19%) suggest that the bioavailability of available phosphorus (AP) was sufficient. The Pb, Ni, Cd content results were found to be low and did not exceed the permissible concentrations. DEH, CAT and AlP activity were highest under common hawthorn, and AcP, GLU and PR under northern white cedar. The calculated enzymatic indicators proved to be a sensitive and accurate indicator of the dynamics of changes taking place in the city park soil. Based on the results, an attempt can be made to assess the planning of sustainable development of studied areas of urban parks.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cidades , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Solo , Árvores
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986741

RESUMO

The harvest of bushmeat is widespread in the tropics and sub-tropics. Often in these communities, there is a dependence on bushmeat for both food security and basic income. Despite the importance of bushmeat for households worldwide, the practice raises concern for transmission of zoonotic pathogens through hunting, food preparation, and consumption. In Uganda, harvest of wildlife is illegal, but bushmeat hunting, is commonplace. We interviewed 292 women who cook for their households and 180 self-identified hunters from 21 villages bordering Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda to gain insights into bushmeat preferences, opportunity for zoonotic pathogen transmission, and awareness of common wildlife-associated zoonoses. Both hunters and women who cook considered primates to be the most likely wildlife species to carry diseases humans can catch. Among common zoonotic pathogens, the greatest proportions of women who cook and hunters believed that pathogens causing stomach ache or diarrhea and monkeypox can be transmitted by wildlife. Neither women who cook nor hunters report being frequently injury during cooking, butchering, or hunting, and few report taking precautions while handling bushmeat. The majority of women who cook believe that hunters and dealers never or rarely disguise primate meat as another kind of meat in market, while the majority of hunters report that they usually disguise primate meat as another kind of meat. These data play a crucial role in our understanding of potential for exposure to and infection with zoonotic pathogens in the bushmeat trade. Expanding our knowledge of awareness, perceptions and risks enables us to identify opportunities to mitigate infections and injury risk and promote safe handling practices.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Culinária , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970707

RESUMO

Improvements to smallholder farming are essential to improvements in rural prosperity. Small farmers in the Kaziranga region of Assam operate mixed farming enterprises in a resource limited environment, which is subject to seasonal flooding. Participatory techniques, were used to elucidate the animal health challenges experienced in this landscape in order to inform and guide future animal health education and interventions. The flooding is essential for agricultural activities, but is a source of major losses and disruption. Farmers experience significant losses to their crops due to raiding by wild species such as elephants; predation of livestock by wild carnivores is also of concern. Access to veterinary services and medicines is limited by both financial and geographic constraints. Interviewees discussed nutritional and management issues such as poor availability of fodder and grazing land, while meeting attendees preferred to concentrate discussions on animal health issues. Livestock keepers were adept and consistent at describing disease syndromes. The key challenges identified by farmers were: foot-and-mouth disease; Newcastle disease; haemorrhagic septicaemia; chronic fasciolosis; diarrhoea; bloating diseases; goat pox; and sarcoptic mange. Improvements in the efficiency of farming in this region is a prerequisite for the local achievement of United Nations Sustainable development goals. There exist clear opportunities to increase productivity and prosperity among farmers in this region through a combination of vaccination programmes and planned animal management schemes, driven by a programme of participatory farmer education.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Fazendeiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Inundações , Geografia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925949

RESUMO

Bushmeat harvesting and consumption represents a potential risk for the spillover of endemic zoonotic pathogens, yet remains a common practice in many parts of the world. Given that the harvesting and selling of bushmeat is illegal in Tanzania and other parts of Africa, the supply chain is informal and may include hunters, whole-sellers, retailers, and individual resellers who typically sell bushmeat in small pieces. These pieces are often further processed, obscuring species-identifying morphological characteristics, contributing to incomplete or mistaken knowledge of species of origin and potentially confounding assessments of pathogen spillover risk and bushmeat offtake. The current investigation sought to identify the species of origin and assess the concordance between seller-reported and laboratory-confirmed species of origin of bushmeat harvested from in and around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. After obtaining necessary permits, the species of origin of a total of 151 bushmeat samples purchased from known intermediaries from 2016 to 2018 were characterized by PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome B (CytB) gene. Based on these sequence analyses, 30%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24.4-38.6) of bushmeat samples were misidentified by sellers. Misreporting amongst the top five source species (wildebeest, buffalo, impala, zebra, and giraffe) ranged from 20% (CI: 11.4-33.2) for samples reported as wildebeest to 47% (CI: 22.2-72.7) for samples reported as zebra although there was no systematic bias in reporting. Our findings suggest that while misreporting errors are unlikely to confound wildlife offtake estimates for bushmeat consumption within the Serengeti ecosystem, the role of misreporting bias on the risk of spillover events of endemic zoonotic infections from bushmeat requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Carne/provisão & distribução , Zoonoses/etiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Búfalos/genética , Comércio , Citocromos b/genética , Ecossistema , Equidae/genética , Girafas/genética , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
17.
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110418, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883482

RESUMO

Social media data are increasingly utilised as a low-cost alternative to visitor surveys in characterising nature-based recreation. However, the information available on individual users is limited and typically does not include provenance, restricting the potential applications and impact of the data. Here we investigate a methodology to estimate social media visitors' home locations at various spatial scales and apply it to the entire network of national parks in Germany. We compare predicted visitor provenance to representative onsite survey data and explore group-specific spatial and temporal patterns of recreation as characterised by users' geotagged photographs. Results show that photograph metadata can be used to assign home locations with accuracies between 62 and 89% depending on spatial scale implemented. Said social media-based predictions are reasonably well representative of the surveyed visitor structure in German national parks with Flickr visitor-days composed of 19% local, 62% non-local German and 19% international visits.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Mídias Sociais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Alemanha , Recreação , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881899

RESUMO

There are currently many tools available for capturing and defining the context of one's environment. Digital phenotyping, the use of technology and sensors to capture moment-to-moment behavior, has shown potential in quantifying the lived experience of mental illness and in the identification of individualized targets related to recovery. Environmental data suggests that greenspace may have a restorative capacity on mental health. In this paper, we explore the relationship of greenspace derived from geolocation with self-reported symptomatology from individuals with schizophrenia as well as healthy controls. Individuals with schizophrenia had less exposure to greenspace than controls, but their exposure demonstrated a dosage effect: high greenspace environments were associated with lower symptoms for anxiety (Cohen's d = -0.70), depression (d = -0.97), and psychosis (d = -0.94), whereas effect sizes for healthy controls were all negligible or small (d < 0.38). The notion that greenspace may have a more pronounced effect on individuals with mental illness presents both potential areas for recovery as well as implications for health care policy, especially in cities with a broad range of greenspace environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos/tendências , Plantas , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Autorrelato , Instalações Esportivas e Recreacionais
19.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 51, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928171

RESUMO

Human-wildlife conflict occurs when the needs and behavior of wildlife impact negatively on humans or when humans negatively affect the needs of wildlife. To explore the nature, causes and mitigations of human wildlife conflict, the coexistence between human and wildlife assessment was conducted around Bale Mountains National Park. Data were collected by means of household questionnaires, focus group discussion, interview, field observation and secondary sources. The nature and extent of human wildlife conflict in the study area were profoundly impacted humans, wild animal and the environment through crop damage, habitat disturbance and destruction, livestock predation, and killing of wildlife and human. The major causes of conflict manifested that agricultural expansion (30%), human settlement (24%), overgrazing by livestock (14%), deforestation (18%), illegal grass collection (10%) and poaching (4%). To defend crop raider, farmers have been practiced crop guarding (34%), live fencing (26%), scarecrow (22%), chasing (14%), and smoking (5%). However, fencing (38%), chasing (30%), scarecrow (24%) and guarding (8%) were controlling techniques to defend livestock predator animals. As emphasized in this study, human-wildlife conflicts are negative impacts on both human and wildlife. Accordingly, possible mitigate possibilities for peaceful co-existence between human and wildlife should be create awareness and training to the local communities, identifying clear border between the closure area and the land owned by the residents, formulate rules and regulation for performed local communities, equal benefit sharing of the local communities and reduction of human settlement encroachment into the national park range. Generally, researcher recommended that stakeholders and concerned bodies should be creating awareness to local community for the use of wildlife and human-wildlife conflict mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Parques Recreativos , Agricultura , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etiópia , Humanos
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3401-3413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780185

RESUMO

In wildlife, endoparasite burden can be affected by host life history stage, environmental conditions, host abundance, and parasite co-infections. We tested the effects of these factors on gastrointestinal parasite infection in plains zebras (Equus quagga) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, using fecal egg counts of two nematode families (Strongylidae and Ascarididae) and the presence/absence of cestode (Anoplocephalidae) eggs. We predicted higher egg counts of Strongylidae and Ascarididae, and increased likelihood of Anoplocephalidae infection in individuals (1) during energetically costly life history stages when resource allocation to immune processes may decrease and in young zebras after weaning because of increased uptake of infective stages with forage, (2) when climatic conditions facilitate survival of infective stages, (3) when large zebra aggregations increase forage contamination with infective stages, and (4) in individuals co-infected with more than one parasite group as this may indicate reduced immune competence. Strongylidae egg counts were higher, and the occurrence of Anoplocephalidae eggs was more likely in bachelors than in band stallions, whereas Ascarididae egg counts were higher in band stallions. Strongylidae and Ascarididae egg counts were not increased in lactating females. Strongylidae egg counts were higher in subadults than in foals. Regardless of sex and age, Ascarididae infections were more likely under wet conditions. Co-infections did not affect Strongylidae egg counts. Ascarididae egg counts in adult females were higher when individuals were co-infected with Anoplocephalidae. We present evidence that parasite burdens in plains zebras are affected by life history stage, environmental conditions, and co-infection.


Assuntos
Equidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Equidae/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Clima , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
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