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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149728, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454139

RESUMO

Sampling design in soil science is critical because the lack of reliable methods and collecting samples requires tremendous work and resources. The aims were to obtain an optimal sampling design for assessing potentially toxic elements pollution using pilot Pb soil samples from the urban green space area of Shanghai, China. Two general steps have been used. The first step is to determine the optimum sample size against improving the prediction accuracy and monitoring costs using the spatial simulated annealing (SSA) algorithm. Secondly, we evaluated their likely placement of new extra sampling points by integrated SSA with k-means (SSA+ k-means) and expert-based (SSA+ expert-based) sampling methods. The improvement of sampling design by the integrated sampling approaches was evaluated using mean kriging variance (MKV), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The findings indicated that adding and placing 350 new monitoring points upon the existing sampling design by SSA increased the prediction accuracy by 64.35%. The MKV for the optimized SSA+ k-means sample was lower than by 4.12 mg/kg, 9.46 mg/kg compared with locations optimized by SSA and SSA+ expert-based method, respectively. Optimizing new sampling locations by SSA+ k-means sampling method was reduced MAPE by 9.26% and RMSE by 7.13 mg/kg compared to optimizing by SSA alone. However, there was no improvement in placing the new sampling points in SSA+ expert-based sampling method; instead, it increased the error by 8.11%. This paper shows integrating optimization approaches to evaluate the existing sampling design and optimize a new optimal sampling design.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149869, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461470

RESUMO

The ratio of the perceived extent of natural sounds to the perceived extent of traffic noise in the environment has been demonstrated to be important for soundscapes, whereas research on the influence of human sounds has been limited. To examine this influence, this study proposes a human sound-based index named the red soundscape index (RSI), which is defined as the ratio of the perceived extent of human sounds to the perceived extent of other sounds. Sound pressure levels and crowd density were collected at 41 sites in 9 urban parks, and pedestrian streets in Harbin, China, and the perceived extent of various sounds was investigated by a questionnaire survey. The results confirmed a significant positive correlation between crowd density and RSI, and the A-weighted sound pressure level increased linearly with increasing RSIn (the ratio of human sounds to natural sounds) and decreased with increasing RSIt (the ratio of human sounds to traffic noises). Interestingly, the overall soundscape assessment linearly decreases with the increase in RSIn in the range of (0.8-1.5). The relationship with RSIt first shows an increase and then a decrease in a parabolic form, in which the axis of symmetry is RSIt = 2. Correspondingly, urban open spaces can be divided into three categories based on the variation trend, and different types have significant differences in overall soundscape assessment, pleasantness, and calmness. Among these, pleasantness is the highest in the sites of natural sound predominance perception. At the same time, this factor becomes the lowest in the sites of human sound predominance perception and middle in the site of balanced perception. Consequently, RSI is expected to be useful in soundscape prediction in urban open spaces.


Assuntos
Ruído , Som , China , Aglomeração , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113930, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731949

RESUMO

Urban life is associated with a range of health risks. However, urban green spaces have been found to promote health recovery and reduce mental stress. This study sought to assess the influence of the spatial and environmental characteristics of urban green space on environmental restoration. We measured physiological and psychological changes among 60 participants to evaluate the restorative benefits of 12 green spaces in Shenyang. The Perceived Restorativeness Scale and two physiological measures (heart rate variation and skin conductance response) were used to analyze the effects of spatial characteristics on restorative benefits. In addition, eye-tracking was used to explore the influence of environmental components on restorative benefits. The results revealed that, although there were slight differences between physiological and psychological findings, both confirmed that urban green space had a restorative benefit. Partially-open green spaces with a high degree of naturalness had more positive effects than open green spaces with a high degree of hard paved spaces. Eye movement analysis results revealed that trees and shrubs, as well as water, had a positive effect on the environmental restoration benefits, whereas buildings and paving had a negative effect. Among environmental features, trees and shrubs, water, and buildings exerted the strongest effects on environment restoration. In the future, combining spatial characteristics and environmental components will aid improvement of the restorative qualities of urban green space.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Parques Recreativos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118379, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662594

RESUMO

Microorganisms in urban greenspaces play key roles in ecosystem service provision and potentially influence human health. Increasing evidence suggests that anthropogenic disturbance poses constant stress on urban microbial communities, yet, as previous studies have focused on non-contaminated greenspaces, it has remained largely unknown how microorganisms respond to anthropogenic stress in roadside greenspaces with contamination. Our previous effort determined phyllosphere PAHs of camphor trees in 84 sites of roadside greenspaces along the urban-rural gradient in Shanghai. Here, we further investigated the phyllosphere microbial communities (PMCs) of the same sites across the same urban categories, including urban, suburban, and rural areas using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We aimed to explore how PMCs, especially those associated with immune-mediated diseases (IMDs), were affected by PAHs and the surrounding land-use types. We found that several microorganisms associated with increasing IMD risk were stimulated by PAHs. The composition of PMCs differed between the three urban categories which can be largely explained by the variation of phyllosphere PAH concentration and the surrounding land-use types. Similar to our previous study, suburban areas were linked with the most potential adverse health effects, where we observed the lowest bacterial diversity, the highest relative abundance of IMD-associated bacteria, and the highest relative abundance of Pathotroph. Urban green-blue infrastructure (GBI) was positively correlated with the diversity of PMCs, whereas urban grey infrastructure tended to homogenize PMCs. Notably, GBI also reduced the relative abundance of IMD-associated and pathogenic microbes, indicating the potential health benefits of GBI in land-use planning. Taken together, our study emphasizes the need to further investigate environmental communities in contaminated traffic environments, as human microbiomes are directly exposed to risky microorganisms.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Bactérias/genética , China , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118347, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637822

RESUMO

Residential green space and neighborhood walkability are important foundations of a healthy and sustainable city. Yet, their associations with atherosclerosis, the disease underlying clinical coronary heart disease (CHD), is unknown, especially in susceptible populations. We aim to explore the associations of exposure to residential green space and neighborhood walkability with coronary atherosclerosis. In this study of 2021 adults with suspected CHD, we evaluated the associations of exposure to green space (using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI] and enhanced vegetation index [EVI] surrounding each participant's home) and neighborhood walkability (using walkability index and number of parks near home) with atherosclerosis (using coronary artery calcium score, CAC) using linear regression model adjusted for individual-level characteristics. Mediation analysis was further applied to explore potential mechanisms through the pathways of physical activity, air pollution, and psychological stress. In the primary model, an interquartile increase in annual mean NDVI and EVI within the 1-km area was associated with -15.8% (95%CI: 28.7%, -0.7%), and -18.6% (95%Cl: 31.3%, -3.6%) lower CAC score, respectively. However, an interquartile increase in the walkability index near home was associated with a 7.4% (95% CI: 0.1%, 15.2%) higher CAC score. The combined exposure to a green space area in a 1-km area and the walkability index were inversely associated with atherosclerosis, albeit with a smaller magnitude than a single-exposure model. The findings from a mediation analysis suggested that increased physical exercise and ameliorated particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) may partially contribute to the relationship between green space and atherosclerosis, and for walkability index, partially explained by increased PM2.5 exposure. Our study suggested a beneficial association between green space and atherosclerosis, but an adverse association between neighborhood walkability and atherosclerosis. Therefore, urban development that aims to improve neighborhood walkability should jointly account for enhancing green space properties from a public health perspective.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado/análise , Características de Residência
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778190

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770001

RESUMO

Assessing the health of the ecosystem based on the landscape pattern of national parks can facilitate policy makers in formulating more targeted conservation policies to better manage national park ecosystems. To analyze the landscape patterns and characteristics of the national park, the ecosystem health evaluation index system of the national park was constructed using the vigor-organization-resilience (VOR) model to evaluate the health status. In this study, the Shennongjia National Park in China was selected as a case study area to be assessed using the index system. The results revealed that the patches of construction land and farmland are the largest in number and the most complex in shape, reflecting the obvious fragmentation of construction land and farmland patches. All patch types in this national park were evenly distributed. The results of the analysis showed that the comprehensive index of national park heath, according to the VOR model, is 0.74, indicating that the ecosystems in this study area were in a good state of health. Ecosystems in strictly protected areas of this park had the highest ecosystem health index levels, while the traditional utilization areas had the lowest. Ecosystem health levels were characterized by significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, with high-high aggregation distribution areas, mainly clustered in strictly protected areas, and low-low aggregation distribution, mainly clustered in traditional utilization areas and marginal areas. This study provided a set of ecosystem health assessment systems and their practical use in China's newly established national parks.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendas
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 416, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease globally. A multifaceted combination of risk factors is associated with hypertension. Scientific literature has shown the association among individual and environmental factors with hypertension, however, a comprehensive database including demographic, environmental, individual attributes and nutritional status has been rarely studied. Moreover, an integrated spatial-epidemiological approach has been scarcely researched. Therefore, this study aims to provide and describe a geodatabase including individual-based and socio-environmental data related to people living in the city of Mashhad, Iran in 2018. DATA DESCRIPTION: The database has been extracted from the PERSIAN Organizational Cohort study in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The data note includes three shapefiles and a help file. The shapefile format is a digital vector storage format for storing geometric location and associated attribute information. The first shapefile includes the data of population, air pollutants and amount of available green space for each census block of the city. The second shapefile consists of aggregated blood pressure data to the census blocks of the city. The third shapefile comprises the individual characteristics data (i.e., demographic, clinical, and lifestyle). Finally, the fourth file is a guide to the previous data files for users.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Parques Recreativos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769549

RESUMO

(1) Background: As cities densify, researcher and policy focus is intensifying on which green space types and qualities are important for health. We conducted a systematic review to examine whether particular green space types and qualities have been shown to provide health benefits and if so, which specific types and qualities, and which health outcomes. (2) Methods: We searched five databases from inception up to June 30, 2021. We included all studies examining a wide range of green space characteristics on various health outcomes. (3) Results: 68 articles from 59 studies were found, with a high degree of heterogeneity in study designs, definitions of quality and outcomes. Most studies were cross-sectional, ecological or cohort studies. Environment types, vegetation types, and the size and connectivity of green spaces were associated with improved health outcomes, though with contingencies by age and gender. Health benefits were more consistently observed in areas with greater tree canopy, but not grassland. The main outcomes with evidence of health benefits included allergic respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and psychological wellbeing. Both objectively and subjectively measured qualities demonstrated associations with health outcomes. (4) Conclusion: Experimental studies and longitudinal cohort studies will strengthen current evidence. Evidence was lacking for needs-specific or culturally-appropriate amenities and soundscape characteristics. Qualities that need more in-depth investigation include indices that account for forms, patterns, and networks of objectively and subjectively measured green space qualities.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 643-650, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814444

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the influence of characteristics of green space on blood pressure control. Methods: Hypertensive patients who were managed by community health centers for one year and aged 35 years old and above were selected as the study subjects in Shenzhen. Multi-stage random sampling method was applied to select a representative sample of 1 200 patients. A total of 1 116 valid questionnaires were collected, with a response rate of 93.0%. From November 2019 to January 2020, well-structured questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory biochemical test were applied for information collection among the 1 116 participants. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between characteristics of green space and blood pressure control. Results: The rate of blood pressure control was 67.8%. Results of binary logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting confounding factors, health supporting elements, such as fitness areas (OR=1.678, 95%CI:1.231-2.288), collective exercise venues(OR=1.373, 95%CI:1.020-1.848), health knowledge promotion areas (OR=1.416, 95%CI: 1.049-1.911) in green space, were significantly correlated with blood pressure control. Green space safetiness (OR=1.010, 95%CI: 1.000-1.019), comfortableness (OR=1.011, 95%CI: 1.001-1.021) and maintenance status (OR=1.011, 95%CI: 1.001-1.021) also played a role. The rate of blood control among patients with exclusive green space was higher than that of patients without exclusive green space (OR=1.333, 95%CI: 1.009-1.762). Conclusion: Health supporting elements, safety, comfort, maintenance of green space and exclusive green space play an important role in blood pressure controlling.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Zootaxa ; 5061(2): 340-352, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810624

RESUMO

Three new species of Anaulacomera are described, Anaulacomera (Anaulacomera) mariellae sp. n. and Anaulacomera (Anallomes) arlindoi sp. n., belonging respectively to the Inermis and Lanceolata species group, and Anaulacomera angelinae sp. n., placed as incertae sedis. The individuals were collected at the Iguau National Park and adjacent small fragments of Atlantic Forest, in southwestern Paran state, Brazil. The description was based on external morphology of males. We also present distribution maps for the species of the Inermis and the Lanceolata species groups.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Florestas , Masculino , Parques Recreativos
12.
Zootaxa ; 5061(1): 134-144, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810637

RESUMO

Description of Ophiogomphus phantoani sp. nov. (Holotype ♂: Dak Re Commune, Song Thanh National Park, Quang Nam Province, central Vietnam, 15.5080 N, 107.4720 E, altitude 1105 m) is based on both sexes. Three other species of Ophiogomphus in Vietnam are recorded with description of the female O. minimus Karube, 2014 for the first time. Keys to males and females of four species from Vietnam are also provided.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Vietnã
13.
Zootaxa ; 5032(2): 275-282, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811128

RESUMO

The Ja National Park, located in the Amazon, is the largest National Park of Brazil and still its insect fauna is barely known. Herein we describe two new species of Psychodinae, Alepia iy sp. nov. and Parasetomima timmirima sp. nov., and report 19 other species of Psychodidae, subfamilies Phlebotominae, Psychodinae and Trichomyiinae collected from this Conservation Unit. Micrommatos Quate Brown, represented by M. stephaniae Quate Brown, and Platyplastinx culmosus Quate Brown are recorded for the first time for Brazil. Among the collected phlebotomine sand fly species, three species have previously been implicated in transmission of Leishmania: Nyssomyia anduzei (Rozeboom), Psychodopygus ayrozai (Barretto Coutinho) and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira).


Assuntos
Leishmania , Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil , Insetos Vetores , Parques Recreativos
14.
Zootaxa ; 5057(4): 545-561, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811193

RESUMO

The description of a new species of oribatid mites (Oribatida) of the family ZetorchestidaeZetorchestes krisperi sp. nov.is proposed based on adult and tritonymph specimens collected from rainforest soil of Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Park (southern Vietnam). We also review the distinguishing characteristics for Zetorchestes species and present an identification key to Zetorchestes species of the world. Diagnostic features of Zetorchestes nymphs are discussed.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Ninfa , Parques Recreativos , Solo , Vietnã
15.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 551-563, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811289

RESUMO

A new genus and species, Portentus marschneri Trzna Baa gen. nov. sp. nov. (Anthribidae: Anthribinae: Phloeophilini), from Penang National Park, Malaysia is described. Male genitalia are studied and illustrated and colour photographs are provided. A key is provided to distinguish Portentus from similar Palaearctic and Oriental genera of the tribe Phloeophilini: Phloeophilus Schoenherr, 1833, Bothrus Wolfrum, 1956, and Morimotanthribus Senoh Trzna, 2006.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Malásia , Masculino , Parques Recreativos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769914

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that natural environments and leisure activities can reduce depression and increase well-being. Urban parks are important for the psychological well-being of middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether the relationship between environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being is affected by the quality of park environments. This study uses a cross-level framework to examine the effects of urban park quality on middle-aged and older adults' environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being. The Neighborhood Green Space Tool was used to assess the environmental quality of 19 parks, and 380 individuals aged 55 years and older were interviewed in each park using an on-site questionnaire. The results reveal that the associations between environmental perception and well-being were moderated by the quality of park accessibility, amenities, and incivilities; the effect of environmental perception on depression was moderated by the quality of incivilities in parks; and the effect of frequency of leisure activities on depression was moderated by the quality of park accessibility.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Características de Residência , População Urbana
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769917

RESUMO

The spatial morphology of waterfront green spaces helps generate cooling effects to mitigate the urban heat island effect (UHI) in metropolis cities. To explore the contribution and influence of multi-dimensional spatial indices on the mitigation of UHIs, the green space of the riparian buffer along 18 river channels in Shanghai was considered as a case study. The spatial distribution data of the land surface temperature (LST) in the study area were obtained by using remote sensing images. By selecting the related spatial structure morphological factors of the waterfront green space as the quantitative description index, the growth regression tree model (BRT) was adapted to analyze the contribution of various indexes of the waterfront green space on the distribution of the LST and the marginal effect of blue-green synergistic cooling. In addition, mathematical statistical analysis and spatial analysis methods were used to study the influence of the morphological group (MG) types of riparian green spaces with different morphological characteristics on the LST. The results showed that in terms of the spatial structure variables between blue and green spaces, the contribution of river widths larger than 30 m was more notable in decreasing the LST. In the case of a larger river width, the marginal effect of synergistic cooling could be observed in farther regions. The green space that had the highest connectivity degree and was located in the leeward direction of the river exhibited the lowest LST. In terms of the spatial morphology, the fractional cover values of the vegetation (Fv) and area (A) of the green space were the main factors affecting the cooling effect of the green space. For all MG types, a large green patch that had a high green coverage and connectivity degree, as well as was distributed in the leeward direction of the river, corresponded to the lowest LST. The research presented herein can provide methods and development suggestions for optimizing spatial thermal comfort in climate adaptive cities.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Rios , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta
18.
Public Health ; 200: 91-98, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The addition of green spaces (GS) in cities is perceived as an efficient solution to combat climate change and biodiversity loss while also improving human health. Quantitative health impact assessment (QHIA) is a powerful tool to assess the health benefits of GS and support policy-making decisions. In France, a preliminary analysis of the literature led to the decision of developing guidance for QHIA applied to GS and mortality. This paper focuses on the choice of exposure-response functions (ERF) for those QHIA. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review and analysis of the key steps of QHIA. METHODS: Articles providing ERF for all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in relation to GS were identified through a literature review and ranked based on a quality score. ERF from the articles with the highest scores was pooled in meta-analyses. RESULTS: In total, 13 ERF were selected for all-cause mortality, 10 for cardiovascular mortality and 5 for respiratory mortality. Meta-risk for a 0.1 increase in the normalised differential vegetation index were, 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94; 0.97), 0.98 (95% CI 0.96; 0.99) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.92; 1.02) for all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While current knowledge makes it possible to use QHIA on GS and mortality, interdisciplinary research is still needed to clarify the shape of the relationship and its temporality and to assess exposure in a meaningful way for decision-making.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Parques Recreativos , Cidades , França , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682688

RESUMO

Recent research has demonstrated that landscape design intensity impacts individuals' landscape preferences, which may influence their eye movement. Due to the close relationship between restorativeness and landscape preference, we further explore the relationships between design intensity, preference, restorativeness and eye movements. Specifically, using manipulated images as stimuli for 200 students as participants, the effect of urban green space (UGS) design intensity on landscapes' preference, restorativeness, and eye movement was examined. The results demonstrate that landscape design intensity could contribute to preference and restorativeness and that there is a significant positive relationship between design intensity and eye-tracking metrics, including dwell time percent, fixation percent, fixation count, and visited ranking. Additionally, preference was positively related to restorativeness, dwell time percent, fixation percent, and fixation count, and there is a significant positive relationship between restorativeness and fixation percent. We obtained the most feasible regression equations between design intensity and preference, restorativeness, and eye movement. These results provide a set of guidelines for improving UGS design to achieve its greatest restorative potential and shed new light on the use of eye-tracking technology in landscape perception studies.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Parques Recreativos , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682747

RESUMO

Objective measurement of the supply-demand of ecosystem services (ESs) has received increasing attention from recent studies. It reflects the relationship between green spaces and human society. However, these studies rarely assess the mountainous cities. To fill this gap, this study takes a typical mountainous city as a research case to reveal the supply-demand relationship of ecosystem services, then development and management strategies are proposed for different districts according to their spatial differentiation characteristics. Results shows that: (1) there are differences of ESs supply between each district, and supply from Banan District is significantly higher than others. (2) The demands for ES also vary widely, which are higher in the core urban areas. (3) There are different degrees of imbalance between supply and demand in each district. We classified green spaces into four types based on their supply-demand characteristics, and optimization strategies are proposed. We found that most of the districts are lack of ES supply while there is a relatively high demand for ES in Chongqing, and the balance of supply and demand between different districts varies greatly. Our study indicates that targeted urban green spaces strategies for different districts must be considered to adequately optimize ES in mountainous cities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos
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