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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Paquistão , Cabras , Animais Selvagens
2.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116505, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270131

RESUMO

As the most biodiversity-rich part of the protected areas system, habitats within the pilot national parks have long been threatened by drastic human-induced land use and land cover changes. The growing concern about habitat loss has spurred China's national park project to shift from pilot to construction phase with the official establishment of China's first group of national parks (CFGNPs) in October 2021. But far too little attention has been paid to the synergistic work concerning the habitat quality (HQ) dynamics of all five national parks. Here, the InVEST model, combined with a satellite-derived land use and land cover product and a hot spot analysis (HSA) method, was used to investigate the HQ dynamics at the park- and pixel-scale within the CFGNPs. Our results demonstrate that the past ecological conservation practices within national parks have been unpromising, especially in Giant Panda National Park, Northeast China Tiger and Leopard National Park (NCTL), and Wuyi Mountain National Park (WYM), where HQ as a whole showed a significant decline. Furthermore, more than half of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park (87.2%), WYM (77.4%), and NCTL (52.9%) showed significant HQ degradation from 1980 to 2019. Besides, increasing trends in the area shares of HQ degraded pixels were observed in all five national parks from 1980-1999 to 2000-2019. The HSA implied that the hot spots of high HQ degradation rates tend to occur in areas closer to urban settlements or on the edge of national parks, where human activities are intensive. Despite these disappointing findings, we highlighted from the observed local successes and the HQ plateau that the construction of CFGNPs is expected to reverse the deteriorating HQ trends. Thus, we concluded our paper by proposing an HSA-based regulatory zoning scheme that includes five subzones to guide the future construction of China's national park system.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , China
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158608, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089028

RESUMO

Urban green space (UGS) is a complex and highly dynamic interface between people and nature. The existing methods of quantifying and evaluating UGS are mainly implemented on the surface features at a landscape scale, and most of them are insufficient to thoroughly reflect the spatial-temporal relationships, especially the internal characteristics changes at a small scale and the neighborhood spatial relationship of UGS. This paper thus proposes a method to evaluate the internal dynamics and neighborhood heterogeneity of different types of UGS in Leipzig using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) index. We choose GLCM variance, contrast, and entropy to analyze five main types of UGS through a holistic description of their vegetation growth, spatial heterogeneity, and internal orderliness. The results show that different types of UGS have distinct characteristics due to the changes of surrounding buildings and the distance to the built-up area. Within a one-year period, seasonal changes in UGS far away from built-up areas are more obvious. As for the larger and dense urban forests, they have the lowest spatial heterogeneity and internal order. On the contrary, the garden areas present the highest heterogeneity. In this study, the GLCM index depicts the seasonal alternation of UGS on the temporal scale and shows the spatial form of each UGS, being in line with local urban planning contexts. The correlation analysis of indices also proves that each type of UGS has its distinct temporal and spatial characteristics. The GLCM is valid in assessing the internal characteristics and relationships of various UGS at the neighborhood scales, and using the methodology developed in our study, more studies and field experiments could be fulfilled to investigate the assessment accuracy of our GLCM index approach and to further enhance the scientific understanding on the internal features and ecological functions of UGS.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Humanos , Planejamento de Cidades , Florestas , Cidades
4.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116631, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347186

RESUMO

Rapid urbanization changes landscape patterns and results in frequent urban waterlogging issues, which affect citizens' daily lives and cause economic loss. Understanding the spatial patterns and impact factors associated with urban waterlogging under different rainfall intensities has significant implications for mitigating this hazard. In this study, the runoff depth calculated according to the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulation results was used to investigate the spatial characteristics of urban waterlogging. Multiple scenario-based designs, a correlation analysis, and a stepwise regression model were employed to detect the relationship between surface runoff depth and landscape patterns under different rainfall intensities. The results show that when the rainfall intensity reached 12.5 mm/12 h, the conversion rate of rainfall to runoff increased significantly, indicating an increased waterlogging risk. Areas with impervious surface proportions of 25-50% and 75-100% were shown to require more attention due to the strong sensitivity of the surface runoff depth to an increase in the impervious surface. It is most cost-effective to maintain the original high-density vegetation or increase the vegetation density from 0-25% to 25-50% for urban green space. Additionally, the landscape configuration also affects the surface runoff depth. The fragmented, scattered, or regular shape of impervious surface patches can reduce surface runoff effectively; larger and less fragmented green space was also shown to have a surface runoff controlling. The adjusted R2 values were greater than 0.6 for all stepwise regression models, indicating that the landscape variables selected in the study can effectively predict the surface runoff depth. These models also showed that the landscape composition had a more profound contribution than the landscape configuration on runoff depth. These findings provide meaningful insights and perspectives for urban waterlogging hazard mitigation, quantitative landscape planning, and risk management. The method proposed by this study provides a referable framework for future studies on urban waterlogging and its response to the landscape in the context of global climate change.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Urbanização , Água , Parques Recreativos , China , Cidades
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1029551, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339177

RESUMO

The reasonable distribution of urban green space (UGS) is a topic that urban researchers have been exploring for a long time. Solving the imbalance between the supply and demand of UGS plays an important role in improving the health level of a city. This study examines the central urban area of Hefei as an example. We developed a modified Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method and used the path planning model of Gaode Map to evaluate the accessibility of UGS under different transportation modes and different time thresholds while integrating mobile phone signaling data. Additionally, a fine-scale analysis of the actual supply and demand relationship of UGS was conducted by integrating the accessibility evaluation results with the recreational situation of UGS to analyze the deviation of supply and demand to further discuss the spatial distribution equilibrium of UGS. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) The spatial distribution of UGSs in the central urban area of Hefei is uneven. Different time thresholds and different transportation modes have a significant impact on the UGS accessibility evaluation results. (2) With the increase in the time threshold or travel distance, the number of grids above the moderate accessibility level generally increases. The spatial distribution of the grids with moderate, high and highest accessibility level present different patterns of contiguous, clusters, and spots distribution. (3) After combining these results with the actual recreational situation of UGS, we found that the overall demand in the central urban area exceeds the supply at the 15-min threshold, while the overall supply exceeds the demand at the 30-min threshold. The grids with balanced supply and demand or more supply than demand have comprehensive parks with a moderate population density and strong road connectivity in the neighborhood. This study strengthens the data granularity and improves the accuracy of accessibility evaluation by integrating mobile phone signaling data with the path planning model of Gaode Map. Also, we evaluate the accessibility with multi-transport modes and different time thresholds, which can bring more practical guidance for optimizing the distribution of UGS.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Parques Recreativos , Cidades , Viagem , Características de Residência
6.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 45(6): 126374, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335886

RESUMO

Two rod-shaped Gram negative strains, SSUT16T and SSUT22, were isolated from root nodules of Spartocytisus supranubius in soils of the Teide National Park (Tenerife, Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these two novel strains classified them within genus Bosea with similarity values ranging from 97.65 % to 99.54 % with respect to the other species of this genus. The MLSA analysis from a concatenation of the two housekeeping- genes, recA and gyrB, showed that Bosea thiooxidans LMG 26210T and B. robiniae LMG 26381T are the two closest relative species with which they share similarity sequences values of 94.42 % and 94.27 %, respectively. The genome sequence analysis of strain SSUT16T showed average nucleotide identity percentages (ANIb) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) below 84 % and 33 %, respectively, with the type strains of all sequenced species of genus Bosea. These values are much lower than the currently accepted cut-off values for these two parameters to delineate bacterial species, confirming that the novel strains constitute a novel Bosea species. In addition, they are also distinguished from the other closest species in their fatty acid composition and in other phenotypic characteristics. Genome sequence analysis showed the absence of the common nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes in the novel strains. Therefore, based on the results of phylogenetic, genomic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characterization, we propose a new species named Bosea spartocytisi sp. nov., with type strain SSUT16T (=LMG 32510T = CECT 30526T = HAMBI 3759T).


Assuntos
Cytisus , Fabaceae , Rhizobium , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobium/genética , Espanha , Filogenia , Solo , Parques Recreativos , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Composição de Bases , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Ácidos Graxos/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360791

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the main research themes and knowledge structures in the field of urban soundscape. With the continuous expansion of research work in the field of urban soundscape, it has become necessary to carry out a systematic analysis. CiteSpace was used to conduct an information visualization analysis of high-quality literature related to urban soundscape research in the WoS database from 1976 to 2021. The results revealed the following: (1) In terms of research content, research hotspots center on noise, perception, and quality, while focusing on theory and methodology. (2) In terms of research methods, the Perceptual Restorative Soundscape Scale has gradually become the main method of soundscape research. With the development of sound acquisition technology and sound simulation technology, the soundscape perception model will undergo an iterative process of updating. (3) In terms of research objects, most of the research focuses on the soundscape of outdoor environments (such as urban parks, tourist attractions, and historical blocks) together with the influences and preferences for different types of soundscapes. The research results can provide reference for research and planning as well as the design practice of urban soundscape.


Assuntos
Acústica , Som , Ruído , Parques Recreativos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361045

RESUMO

Littering by visitors has led to severe challenges for rubbish collection in urban parks. One way to solve this problem is to encourage visitors to put rubbish in the bin. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism that drives people's use of bins in urban parks. The theoretical model of stimulus-organism-response is used to test the influence of stimuli (personal and social norms) on people's psychology (facilitators and inhibitors), thereby producing responses (the use of bins). In this study, we used a purposeful sampling method. Overall, 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 356 valid questionnaires were collected from visitors to the Shanghai City Park in China. The data were analysed using structural equations. The results show that personal and social norms have a significant impact on visitors' internal psychological state (facilitators and inhibitors). More specifically, personal and social norms are positively correlated with facilitators and negatively correlated with inhibitors. They have a significant positive impact on people's use of bins. We also found that facilitators and inhibitors partially mediate the relationship between norms and behaviours. The study suggests park managers should introduce various measures to influence people's personal norms and cultivate people's awareness of their obligation, responsibility, and commitment to the environment, and managers should also show visitors the consequences of not properly disposing of their rubbish as well as place more rubbish bins in key areas.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Normas Sociais , Humanos , China , Cidades , Comportamento Social , Recreação
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361105

RESUMO

Attention to physical and mental health is becoming more intensive. In China, factors and mechanisms are now a focus of research. We used dynamic air quality monitoring data and the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) to assess the spatial differences and the coupling between subjective and objective air pollution. In addition, a logistic model was used to explore the impact mechanisms of social inequality, air pollution, food safety, and lack of green space on health. The results show that (1) the impact of subjective and objective air pollution on the health level of the population is significant; (2) income inequality, air pollution, food pollution, and travel behavior significantly affect the residents' health; and (3) environmental health has a significant differentiation mechanism between urban and rural areas. The negative health effects of air pollution and insufficient green space are more significant in cities; food pollution is more likely in rural areas. In terms of socioeconomic inequality, gender, family size, travel, and physical exercise had no significant effect on rural health. Health improvement was higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group. The adverse effect of travel behavior on environmental pollution is conducive to improving health. Therefore, social equality, strictly controlled environmental pollution, exercise, and travel can help narrow the gap between rich and poor, promote urban-rural health equity, and improve human health.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Análise de Dados , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361106

RESUMO

A growing number of articles have identified and reported the benefits and importance of urban green spaces for improving human well-being, but there is a significant knowledge gap regarding the impact of urban green spaces on the subjective well-being of older adults. The literature search (August 2015-August 2022) was derived from two major scientific databases, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. As a result, 2558 articles were found, 1527 of which were retrieved from WOS and the rest from Google Scholar. Bibliometric methods and VOSviewer software were used to screen and organize the articles in the relevant fields. Finally, 65 articles met the review criteria. The included studies aim to capture the benefits of various features of urban green spaces in meeting or enhancing the subjective well-being needs of older adults. The results of our review further support the existence of a strong link between older adults' subjective well-being and various features of urban green spaces, providing new insights for future in-depth reexamination and policy development. Furthermore, the relationship between urban green spaces and older adults' subjective well-being depends not only on the urban green spaces themselves but also on the characteristics of the older adult population that uses them.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361165

RESUMO

Globally, dyslipidemia is now become a leading risk factor for many adverse health outcomes, especially in the middle-aged and elderly. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to greenness and the relief of a psychological burden may decrease the prevalence of dyslipidemia. The objective of our study was to examine whether a green space can moderate the association between mental health status and dyslipidemia. Our study selected the datasets of depression symptoms, dyslipidemia from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and the satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the 30 m annual maximum NDVI dataset in China in 2018. Ultimately, a total of 10,022 middle-aged and elderly Chinese were involved in our study. Multilevel logistic regressions were performed to examine the association between symptoms of depression and dyslipidemia, as well as the moderate effect of greenness exposure on the association. Our research suggested that adults diagnosed with depression symptoms were more likely to suffer from dyslipidemia. In addition, the NDVI was shown to moderate the effect of depression on dyslipidemia significantly, though the effect was attenuated as depression increased. Regarding the moderate effect of the NDVI on the above association across age, gender, and residence, the findings presented that females, the elderly, and respondents living in urban areas were at a greater risk of having dyslipidemia, although the protective effect of the NDVI was considered. Likewise, the moderate effect of the NDVI gradually decreased as the level of depression increased in different groups. The current study conducted in China provides insights into the association between mental health, green space, and dyslipidemia. Hence, improving mental health and green spaces can be potential targets for medical interventions to decrease the prevalence of dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias , Características de Residência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , China/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(59): 88461-88487, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329245

RESUMO

The association between allergic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), and green space (GS) remains controversial. Our study aimed to summarize and synthesize the association between individual GS exposure and the incidence of asthma/AR. We systematically summarized the qualitative relationship between GS exposure and asthma and AR. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to estimate the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) on asthma and AR. A total of 21 studies were included for systematic review, and 8 of them underwent meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis of current asthma, the 0 < radius ≤ 100 m group, 100 < radius ≤ 300 m group, and 500 < radius ≤ 1000 m group presented weak negative associations between the NDVI and current asthma. For ever asthma, slight positive associations existed in the 0 < radius ≤ 100 m group and 300 < radius ≤ 500 m group. In addition, the NDVI might slightly reduce the risk of AR in radius of 100 m and 500 m. Our findings suggest that the effects of GS exposure on asthma and AR were not significant. Differences in GS measurements, disease diagnoses and adjusted confounders across studies may have an impact on the results. Subsequent studies should consider potential confounding factors and use more accurate GS exposure measurements to better understand the impact of GS exposure on respiratory disease in the population.


Assuntos
Asma , Rinite Alérgica , Humanos , Incidência , Parques Recreativos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(10): 2777-2784, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384614

RESUMO

Living vegetation volume (LVV) can objectively and accurately reflect the urban greenery quality, and provide a reliable data foundation for the quantitative study aiming to reveal the mechanisms underlying urban greenery ecological functions. According to the characteristics of dispersion and small scale of unit affiliated green space, we proposed a LVV estimation scheme for such urban green space, which included data acquisition, processing, entity segmentation, classification, single tree canopy extraction, and LVV calculation. First, point cloud data was obtained with a backpack LiDAR system, and the ground point clouds were eliminated by a multi-scale algorithm. Second, the Density Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm was used to cluster the non-ground point clouds, and density feature-based competitive algorithm was used to re-segmented for the overlapping area to generate independent objects. Third, the PointNet++ network model was used to extracted plant point clouds. Then, the canopy point clouds were extracted using the similarity of principal direction between neighboring points and distribution density of branch and leaf points. Finally, the LVV of individual tree canopy was calculated by the convex hull method, and then the LVV of the accessory greenland was summed up. Taking a science and technology park as an example, its total LVV was 21034.95 m3, among which the number of mango trees was the highest, and the total LVV was the largest (4868.64 m3, accounting for 23.2%). The tree species with the largest LVV per plant was Terminalia neotaliala tree, with an average of 120.37 m3 per plant. The relative error between LVV of trees estimated by this scheme compared with traditional method and convex hull method was 10.7%-33.7% and 2.7%-16.0%, with average value of 20.9% and 8.7%, respectively. This scheme could make full use of the characteristics of the three-dimensional point cloud and use a convex polyhedron to simulate the original form of the tree crown, which was more consistent with the actual situation of trees. The measurement and estimation solution of the LVV provided new ideas for rapid and accurate estimation of urban LVV.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Árvores , Folhas de Planta , Plantas , Algoritmos
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18707, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333441

RESUMO

Research focused on microbial populations of thermoalkaline springs has been driven in a large part by the lure of discovering functional enzymes with industrial applications in high-pH and high temperature environments. While several studies have focused on understanding the fundamental ecology of these springs, the small molecule profiles of thermoalkaline springs have largely been overlooked. To better understand how geochemistry, small molecule composition, and microbial communities are connected, we conducted a three-year study of the Five Sisters (FS) springs that included high-resolution geochemical measurements, 16S rRNA sequencing of the bacterial and archaeal community, and mass spectrometry-based metabolite and extracellular small molecule characterization. Integration of the four datasets facilitated a comprehensive analysis of the interwoven thermoalkaline spring system. Over the course of the study, the microbial population responded to changing environmental conditions, with archaeal populations decreasing in both relative abundance and diversity compared to bacterial populations. Decreases in the relative abundance of Archaea were associated with environmental changes that included decreased availability of specific nitrogen- and sulfur-containing extracellular small molecules and fluctuations in metabolic pathways associated with nitrogen cycling. This multi-factorial analysis demonstrates that the microbial community composition is more closely correlated with pools of extracellular small molecules than with the geochemistry of the thermal springs. This is a novel finding and suggests that a previously overlooked component of thermal springs may have a significant impact on microbial community composition.


Assuntos
Fontes Termais , Feminino , Humanos , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , Archaea , Bactérias/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18890, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344560

RESUMO

Protected areas that restrict human activities can enhance wildlife habitat quality. Efficacy of protected areas can be improved with increased protection from illegal activities and presence of buffer protected areas that surround a core protected area. Habitat value of protected areas also can be affected by seasonal variation in anthropogenic pressures. We examined seasonal space use by African lions (Panthera leo) within a core protected area, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and surrounding buffer protected areas with varying protection strengths. We used lion locations in logistic regression models during wet and dry seasons to estimate probability of use in relation to protection strength, distance to protected area edge, human and livestock density, distance to roads and rivers, and land cover. Lions used strongly protected buffer areas over the core protected area and unprotected areas, and moved away from protected area boundaries toward the core protected area when buffer protected areas had less protection. Lions avoided high livestock density in the wet season and high human density in the dry season. Increased strength of protection can decrease edge effects on buffer areas and help maintain habitat quality of core protected areas for lions and other wildlife species.


Assuntos
Leões , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Tanzânia , Atividades Humanas , Parques Recreativos , Animais Selvagens
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276517, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417344

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While having different etiologies, CVD and cancer are linked by multiple shared risk factors, the presence of which exacerbate adverse outcomes for individuals with either disease. For both pathologies, factors such as poverty, lack of physical activity (PA), poor dietary intake, and climate change increase risk of adverse outcomes. Prior research has shown that greenspaces and other nature-based interventions (NBIs) contribute to improved health outcomes and climate change resilience. OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence on the impact of greenspaces or NBIs on cardiovascular health and/or cancer-related outcomes and identify knowledge gaps to inform future research. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies (PRESS) guidelines, we searched five databases: Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, PsycINFO and GreenFile. Two blinded reviewers used Rayyan AI and a predefined criteria for article inclusion and exclusion. The risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). This review is registered with PROSPERO, ID # CRD42021231619. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: Of 2565 articles retrieved, 31 articles met the inclusion criteria, and overall had a low risk of bias. 26 articles studied cardiovascular related outcomes and 5 studied cancer-related outcomes. Interventions were coded into 4 categories: forest bathing, green exercise, gardening, and nature viewing. Outcomes included blood pressure (BP), cancer-related quality of life (QoL) and (more infrequently) biomarkers of CVD risk. Descriptions of findings are presented as well as visual presentations of trends across the findings using RAW graphs. Overall studies included have a low risk of bias; and alluvial chart trends indicated that NBIs may have beneficial effects on CVD and cancer-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: (1) Clinical implication: Healthcare providers should consider the promotion of nature-based programs to improve health outcomes. (2) Policy implication: There is a need for investment in equitable greenspaces to improve health outcomes and build climate resilient neighborhoods. (3) Research or academic implication: Research partnerships with community-based organizations for a comprehensive study of benefits associated with NBIs should be encouraged to reduce health disparities and ensure intergenerational health equity. There is a need for investigation of the mechanisms by which NBIs impact CVD and exploration of the role of CVD biological markers of inflammation among cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Parques Recreativos , Exercício Físico , Pressão Sanguínea , Neoplasias/terapia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278024, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417459

RESUMO

In the United States, the discovery and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS) has drastically changed how bats and caves are managed. The U.S. National Park Service has been instrumental in the national response to WNS, as it manages extensive cave resources and has a close relationship with the public. However, managers lack information on visitor support for disease prevention measures designed to slow the spread of WNS and minimize human disturbance of vulnerable bat populations. This study utilized the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine how visitor attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls influenced their behavior regarding WNS preventive actions, including participation in educational programming on bats, wearing clothes or shoes in caves that have not been contaminated with the fungus that causes WNS, walking over decontamination mats, and complying with cave closures. During summer of 2019, data were collected using an on-site survey of 1365 visitors to eight U.S. national park units: Oregon Caves, Lava Beds, Carlsbad Caverns, El Malpais, Wind Cave, Jewel Cave, Mammoth Cave, and Cumberland Gap. Visitors were willing to participate in all preventative actions addressed in the survey (77.7%-96.7%). Visitors expressed that engaging in these actions was very desirable (36.0%-65.6%), and their decision to engage in these actions was most strongly influenced by park staff (39.2%-68.8%) or signage (35.5%-61.9%). Attitudes and subjective norms were positive predictors of behavioral intentions for all measures. Perceived behavioral control was not a direct predictor for behavioral intent, but its interaction with attitudes and subjective norms had a moderating influence on intention to comply with multiple WNS preventive actions. With the continued spread of WNS and emergence of other threats to bats, understanding visitor behavioral intent and underlying factors will facilitate successful implementation of preventive actions that are publicly supported and promote conservation of bat populations in U.S. national parks.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Quirópteros , Animais , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Intenção , Parques Recreativos , Nariz , Síndrome
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0273125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322520

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the physical and mental health of the public. Nevertheless, the presence of green and blue spaces has been shown to be able to encourage physical activities and alleviate the mental distress caused by COVID-19. However, just as the impact of COVID-19 varies by geographical region and area, the distribution of green and blue spaces is also different across different neighborhoods and areas. By using Hong Kong as the study area, we determine the local neighborhoods that suffer from both high COVID-19 infection risk as well as low green and blue space accessibility. The results show that some of the poorest neighborhoods in the territory such as Sham Shui Po, Kwun Tong and Wong Tai Sin are also among the most doubly disadvantaged in terms of COVID-19 infection risk as well as green and blue space accessibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Características de Residência , Exercício Físico
19.
Am J Primatol ; 84(12): e23448, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314407

RESUMO

Examining the relationship between food and primate social organization helps us understand how the environment shaped hominin social evolution. However, there is debate as to whether the social differences between our two closest relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), are due to differences in food availability between their respective habitats or to nonenvironmental factors. The most prominent theory is that bonobo communities have more socially cohesive, stable parties, centered on gregarious females because they evolved in food-rich habitat where individuals, especially females, are less burdened by competition with groupmates. However, more research on bonobos in habitats with seasonal variation in food is needed. This study measured food availability and bonobo social organization at Luzaka, a new site in a seasonal forest fragment. Fruit abundance and dispersion were recorded for a year at Luzaka with the same methods used at Wamba, a bonobo site in more seasonally stable habitat and terrestrial herbaceous vegetation density was measured. At Luzaka, bonobo parties were also recorded for a year using camera traps. Fruit was more seasonal and dispersed at Luzaka than at Wamba. However, the social organization of Luzaka bonobos resembled social organization of bonobos at less seasonal sites. There were minor effects of fruit clumping on party size without effects on the proportion of females in parties suggesting that at Luzaka, the clumping of fruit slightly affected social cohesiveness but does not disproportionately affect females. Bonobo social cohesiveness and female gregariousness appears consistent and compatible with seasonal habitat.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Pan paniscus , Feminino , Animais , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social , Pan troglodytes , Florestas
20.
Environ Manage ; 70(6): 1004-1022, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224381

RESUMO

Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which can be complementary while also competing with one another. The COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens' perception, needs and expectations relating to urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users' perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n = 1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. There were significant differences in opinions on green areas during the pandemic in various age and gender groups. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results highlight the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Cidades , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Percepção
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