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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557257

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) is a key determinant of health in older adults. However, little is known about the effect of social factors on PA among older adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the association between socioeconomic status, social participation, and PA during the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 999 community-dwelling residents aged 65-90 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic status, social participation, and PA data in August 2020. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between socioeconomic status, social participation, and maintaining PA. For both sexes, PA was reduced by approximately 5%-10% after the onset of COVID-19-related distancing restrictions. Men with a low socioeconomic status were less physically active (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.30-0.82). Women who reported social participation had higher odds of maintaining PA (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.13-2.45) during the restrictions. Higher socioeconomic status and social participation levels before the COVID-19 pandemic may have helped older adults to maintain PA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is needed to clarify the potential effects of these factors on the health of older adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Classe Social , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466259

RESUMO

This qualitative investigation makes suggestions about creating age-friendly cities for older adults focusing on three domains of the World Health Organization (WHO) age-friendly city framework namely "Communication and Information", "Outdoor Spaces and Buildings" and "Social Participation". The authors present two case studies, the first one focusing on older adults using activity wearables for health self-management in the neighborhood, and the second one focusing on older adults engaged in social prescribing activities in the community. The authors then reflect on the relationships of the domains and future opportunities for age-friendly cities. These case studies apply a co-design and citizen-based approach focusing within these larger frameworks on emotions, values and motivational goals of older adults. Results suggest how the convergence of the often siloed age-friendly city components based on older adults' goals and input can lead to better social participation and longer-term health outcomes. The authors propose that the digital, physical and social aspects need to be considered in all domains of age-friendly cities to achieve benefits for older adults. Further work involving older adults in the future shaping of age-friendly neighborhoods and cities, and identifying barriers and opportunities is required.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Planejamento Ambiental , Promoção da Saúde , Idoso , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Participação Social
3.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(2): e116-e123, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dementia is associated with non-participation in cognitive and social activities, this association might merely reflect the consequences of dementia, rather than any direct effect of non-participation on the subsequent incidence of dementia. Because of the slowness with which dementia can develop, unbiased assessment of any such direct effects must relate non-participation in such activities to dementia detection rates many years later. Prospective studies with long-term follow-up can help achieve this by analysing separately the first and second decade of follow-up. We report such analyses of a large, 20-year study. METHODS: The UK Million Women Study is a population-based prospective study of 1·3 million women invited for National Health Service (NHS) breast cancer screening in median year 1998 (IQR 1997-1999). In median year 2001 (IQR 2001-2003), women were asked about participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work, and in median year 2006 (IQR 2006-2006), they were asked about reading. All participants were followed up through electronic linkage to NHS records of hospital admission with mention of dementia, the first mention of which was the main outcome. Comparing non-participation with participation in a particular activity, we used Cox regression to assess fully adjusted dementia risk ratios (RRs) during 0-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years, after information on that activity was obtained. FINDINGS: In 2001, 851 307 women with a mean age of 60 years (SD 5) provided information on participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work. After 10 years, only 9591 (1%) had been lost to follow-up and 789 339 (93%) remained alive with no recorded dementia. Follow-up was for a mean of 16 years (SD 3), during which 31 187 (4%) had at least one hospital admission with mention of dementia, including 25 636 (3%) with a hospital admission with dementia mentioned for the first time 10 years or more after follow-up began. Non-participation in cognitive or social activities was associated with higher relative risks of dementia detection only during the first decade after participation was recorded. During the second decade, there was little association. This was true for non-participation in adult education (RR 1·04, 99% CI 0·98-1·09), in groups for art, craft, or music (RR 1·04, 0·99-1·09), in voluntary work (RR 0·96, 0·92-1·00), or in any of these three (RR 0·99, 0·95-1·03). In 2006, 655 118 women provided information on reading. For non-reading versus any reading, there were similar associations with dementia, again with strong attenuation over time since reading was recorded, but longer follow-up is needed to assess this reliably. INTERPRETATION: Life has to be lived forwards, but can be understood only backwards. Long before dementia is diagnosed, there is a progressive reduction in various mental and physical activities, but this is chiefly because its gradual onset causes inactivity and not because inactivity causes dementia. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pandemics produce long-lasting secondary impacts on health, with a significant burden on people and society. Until now, the secondary impact of COVID-19 has been little estimated. Our aim was to investigate factors underlying quality of life (QOL) during COVID-19 lockdown among a healthy population, while QOL reduction expands vulnerability to the pandemic secondary impact. METHODS: During the spring lockdown in Israel, 571 healthy adults completed a survey that included standard measurements for psychological distress, participation in daily life activities, a sense of social connectedness, resilience, and QOL. RESULTS: We found a high level of psychological distress, significant reduction in participation dimensions, and in QOL (psychical, psychological, and social). These indices were even lower among women, younger adults, and the unemployed. Path analysis demonstrated that psychological distress, participation dimensions, social connectedness, and self-efficacy explained QOL, while participation dimensions were found to be the mediators. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 has had a wide impact on the general population, with the potential for negative secondary impacts. Women, young adults, and the unemployed are at high risk for secondary effects. Public health strategies should address the reported factors and populations in order to improve QOL in a healthy population and limit the impact of the pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Angústia Psicológica , Autoeficácia , Participação Social , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Infirm ; 70(267): 31-33, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455678

RESUMO

The occurrence of severe limb trauma is a brutal event for all patients in any context. Many questions quickly arise, with a very broad scope - from the course of the intervention to family and social reintegration. The nurse has an essential role in listening, educating and supporting the patient before and after the operation. In addition to reassurance, she plays a central role in organising the return home and helping the patient to resume socio-professional activities.


Assuntos
Extremidades , Retorno ao Trabalho , Participação Social , Ferimentos e Lesões , Extremidades/lesões , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/enfermagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
6.
Maturitas ; 143: 145-150, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine Chinese middle-aged women's health and wellbeing and the associated biosocial correlates. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a cross-sectional design, including selected retrospectively collected information on the final menstrual period, drawn from the 2013 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Women aged 45 to 59 were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factor analysis of 16 menopausal symptom ratings yielded four different and independent measures of pre-/peri-menopausal and early postmenopausal women's health. These were: negative mood (feel frustrated, sad, lonely, worried, bored, angry, tired and stressed), positive emotions (feel enthusiastic, content and happy), musculoskeletal pain (shoulder/neck pain, knee and other joint pain, and back pain), and sleep and memory problems (trouble sleeping and poor memory). RESULTS: Menopausal status was positively associated with sleep and memory problems, whilst the number of years since the final menstrual period was positively associated with musculoskeletal pain. In contrast, lifestyle activities and social participation were linked to positive emotions. The association between selected biosocial factors and negative mood was not significant after controlling for other demographic and social background factors. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal health as well as sleep and memory problems are positively associated with menopausal biological factors amongst Chinese mid-life women. Maintaining active social engagement contributes to positive wellbeing among middle-aged women.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Menopausa/psicologia , Participação Social , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Artralgia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
7.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 93: 104316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social participation can have a positive impact on health; however, physical challenges can be hindrances. During a preventive home visit a health professional (visitor) assesses different aspects of physical, mental and social health. However, there might be a challenge for the visitor to discover the interrelationship between physical factors that hinder social participation. Therefore, the aim of this study was, in the context of preventive home visits, to identify physical factors which can hinder older persons from taking part in social contexts. METHODS: Cross-sectional register data from preventive home visits to older persons (n = 1245, ≥77 years old, without home care) was used. Data was collected during a period of 17 months, in seven Swedish municipalities. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between physical factors and the item physical problems hindering social participation. RESULTS: The mean age was 78.8 (standard deviation 1.8 years), and 55% were women. The physical factors significantly associated with physical problems hindering taking part in social contexts were: having urinary incontinence (women only), having pain, impaired endurance and using a mobility device. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into how to make the best use of the questions asked during preventive home visits, in order to enable older persons to take part in social contexts. The results recognize the importance of taking into account physical challenges to be able to support social participation. Furthermore, considering physical challenges for social participation on both an individual and a societal level might reduce inequalities among older persons.


Assuntos
Visita Domiciliar , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Suécia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326452

RESUMO

As older adults in an early stage (prefrailty) of frailty may return to a healthy state, it is necessary to examine the prevention of prefrailty. In this context, the number and types of social participation activities associated with physical prefrailty in community-dwelling older adults have remained relatively unexplored. This cross-sectional study investigates this issue by analyzing 616 participants living in Okinoshima, Shimane, a rural area of Japan, in 2019. Frailty was assessed using the 5-item frailty phenotype (unintentional weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, weakness, slow walking speed, and low physical activity). Data on social participation were obtained using a questionnaire based on participants' level of involvement with volunteer groups, sports clubs/groups, neighborhood associations, religious organizations/groups, and community elderly salons; their answers were categorized as "yes" if they answered "several times per year or more" and "no" if they answered "never." Binominal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prefrailty by the number or types of social participation activities, adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, smoking, medication-taking, educational attainment, working status, and living arrangement. Of the 616 participants, 273 (44.3%) and 28 (4.5%) had prefrailty and frailty, respectively. The analysis showed that the number of social participation activities was significantly associated with lower odds of prefrailty (OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94). Regarding the types of social participation, sports clubs/groups were associated with lower odds of prefrailty (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.73). Participation in neighborhood associations was associated with prefrailty/frailty (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86). These results suggest that increasing the number of social participation activities or involvement in sports clubs/groups and neighborhood associations may be important to prevent physical prefrailty in the older population.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Participação Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fadiga , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375099

RESUMO

The present study examined the relationship between social capital, local festival participation, and subjective well-being. Moreover, this study examined whether the effect of social capital on subjective well-being can be mediated by festival participation. In addition, it examined the decomposition effect of festival participation and control of models for demographic characteristics. Data used are from the International Comparative Survey on Lifestyle and Values (ICSLV) SWB South Korea Survey. The total number of respondents for the analysis is 1694. The findings indicate that trustful relationships with family and relatives, friends, and neighbors are considerably related to subjective well-being than structural social capital. Moreover, the trust of informal social ties shows considerable potential in facilitating individuals' local festival participation, which is associated with subjective well-being. Individuals who often participate in traditional local festivals in their communities show higher subjective well-being than those who never attend any festivals. Local festivals in communities can play an important role in strengthening links with individuals in these communities and affect community residents' well-being. Lastly, the findings can suggest beneficial theoretical and practical implications, and enrich the previous literature on social capital and festival participation.


Assuntos
Férias e Feriados , Relações Interpessoais , Capital Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371404

RESUMO

Active ageing (AA) policies aim to improve quality of life of older people by enabling better social participation and inclusion. Despite many international initiatives to promote AA undertaken in recent years, Italy did not systematically address this policy challenge until very recently. This paper presents the first national Plan-of-Action (PoA) (2019-2022) adopted by this country for supporting policy design and recommendation in this field. The PoA aims to create a multilevel, co-managed coordination of AA policies, by involving a network of national and regional policy makers, experts, researchers and stakeholders in civil society. The ad-hoc consultation process established for this purpose helps the recognition of different interests and expectations on AA, fostering new solutions by involvement, consultation and joint discussion of policy options. The PoA is designed to cover the traditional policy cycle, including the stages of agenda setting, policy formulation, decision-making, implementation and monitoring. At the end of the period covered by the PoA, an Italian AA Strategy will be launched to achieve systematic impact in this field, thus ensuring a long-term, sustainable impact on national and regional policy makers, civil society and research community.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Itália , Participação Social
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348851

RESUMO

Although low neighborhood social cohesion (nSC) has been linked with poor sleep, studies of racially/ethnically diverse participants using multiple sleep dimensions remain sparse. Using National Health Interview Survey data, we examined overall, age, sex/gender, and racial/ethnic-specific associations between nSC and sleep health among 167,153 adults. Self-reported nSC was categorized into low, medium, and high. Very short sleep duration was defined as <6 hours; short as <7 h, recommended as 7-9 h, and long as ≥9 h. Sleep disturbances were assessed based on trouble falling and staying asleep, waking up feeling unrested, and using sleep medication (all ≥3 days/times in the previous week). Adjusting for sociodemographics and other confounders, we used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sleep dimensions by low and medium vs. high nSC. The mean age of the sample was 47 ± 0.1 years, 52% of those included were women, and 69% were Non-Hispanic (NH)-White. Low vs. high nSC was associated with a higher prevalence of very short sleep (PR = 1.29; (95% CI = 1.23-1.36)). After adjustment, low vs. high nSC was associated with very short sleep duration among NH-White (PR = 1.34 (95% CI = 1.26-1.43)) and NH-Black (PR = 1.14 (95% CI = 1.02-1.28)) adults. Low nSC was associated with shorter sleep duration and sleep disturbances.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Características de Residência , Sono , Participação Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339258

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the impact of social participation (SP) on physical functioning and depression among empty-nest elderly taking part in the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2018). The instrumental variable (IV) method and propensity score matching (PSM) method were used to analyse the impact of SP. The two-stage regression results of the IV method showed that SP has a significant negative impact on the physical functioning scores of empty-nest elderly (ß = -3.539, p < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (ß = -4.703, p < 0.001), and SP has a significant negative impact on the depression scores of empty-nest elderly (ß = -2.404, p < 0.001) and non-empty-nest elderly (ß = -1.957, p < 0.001). The results of the PSM method were basically consistent with the IV method. Compared with non-empty-nest elderly, SP had more positive effects on the depression of empty-nest elderly (Wald χ2 = 6.62, p = 0.010). Providing a friendly and supportive environment for the SP of empty-nest elderly was an important measure to promote healthy ageing. Targeted SP may be one of the greatest opportunities to improve the mental health of empty-nest elderly.


Assuntos
Depressão , Aposentadoria , Participação Social , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126634

RESUMO

Older adults are less familiar with communication technology, which became essential to maintain social contacts during the COVID-19 lockdown. The present study aimed at exploring how older adults, previously trained for Social Networking Sites (SNSs) use, experienced the lockdown period. In the first two weeks of May 2020, telephone surveys were conducted with individuals aged 81-85 years and resident in Abbiategrasso (Milan), who previously participated in a study aimed at evaluating the impact of SNSs use on loneliness in old age (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04242628). We collected information on SNSs use, self-perceived loneliness, and social engagement with family and friends. Interviewed participants were stratified as trained (N = 60) and untrained (N = 70) for SNSs use, based on their attendance to group courses held the previous year as part of the main experimental study. The groups were comparable for sociodemographics and clinical features. Participants trained for SNSs use reported significantly higher usage of SNSs and reduced feeling of being left out. Compared to pre-lockdown levels, individuals trained for SNSs use showed a lighter reduction in social contacts. These findings support the utility of training older adults for SNSs use in order to improve their social inclusion, even in extreme conditions of self-isolation and perceived vulnerability.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Rede Social , Participação Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1589, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has caused enormous stress among the public in China. Intellectual input from various aspects is needed to fight against COVID-19, including understanding of the public's emotion and behaviour and their antecedents from the psychological perspectives. Drawing upon the cognitive appraisal theory, this study examined three cognitive appraisals (i.e., perceived severity, perceived controllability, and knowledge of COVID-19) and their associations with a wide range of emotional and behavioural outcomes among the Chinese public. METHODS: Participants were 4607 citizens (age range: 17-90 years, Mage = 23.71 years) from 31 provinces in China and they took part in a cross-sectional survey online. RESULTS: The results showed that the public's emotional and behavioural reactions were slightly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19. Moreover, the public had limited participation in the events regarding COVID-19 but actively engaged in precautionary behaviour. In addition, results of structural equation model with latent variables revealed that the three appraisals were differentially related to the outcome variables (i.e., negative emotion, positive emotion, sleep problems, aggression, substance use, mobile phone use, social participation, and precautionary behaviour). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the utility of cognitive appraisal, as a core process of coping stress, in explaining the public's emotion and behaviour in the encounter of public health concern. Practically, the findings facilitate the government and practitioners to design and deliver targeted intervention programs to the public.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Participação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867287

RESUMO

Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation, and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to mitigate spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on psychosocial health is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from more than one thousand responders on social participation and life satisfaction. METHODS: Thirty-five research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in 7 languages (English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and Slovenian). Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses "before" and "during" confinement conditions. RESULTS: 1047 participations (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%), and others (3%) were included in the analysis. Findings revealed psychosocial strain during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement. Large decreases (p < 0.001) in the amount of social activity through family (-58%), friends/neighbors (-44.9%), or entertainment (-46.7%) were triggered by the enforced confinement. These negative effects on social participation were also associated with lower life satisfaction (-30.5%) during the confinement period. Conversely, the social contact score through digital technologies significantly increased (p < 0.001) during the confinement period with more individuals (+24.8%) being socially connected through digital technology. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings elucidate the risk of psychosocial strain during the early COVID-19 home confinement period in 2020. Therefore, in order to mitigate the negative psychosocial effects of home confinement, implementation of national strategies focused on promoting social inclusion through a technology-based solution is strongly suggested.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Participação Social , África do Norte , América , Ásia Ocidental , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008702, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Ethiopia eliminated leprosy as public health problem 20 years ago, still more than 3000 new cases are reported annually. Leprosy related disability affects patients' day to day physical activities and their participation in social activities. Assessing the degree of activity limitation and social participation is recommended to show disability and assess the efficacy of rehabilitation efforts. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted among a total of 305 leprosy patients. Data were collected by face to face interview using Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA) scale and participation scale. The analysis was done with SPSS version 25. Descriptive statistics was done and then binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with activity limitation as well as participation limitation. Most patients (219, 71.8%) had activity limitation; 41 (13.4%) with severe and 25 (8.2%) with extreme limitations. More than half of patients (168, 55.1%) were suffering from participation restriction; with 43 (14.1%) having severe restriction and 30 (9.8%) extreme restriction. Older age, low educational status, distance from treatment center, time of treatment and higher Eye, Hand, Foot disability score were associated with activity limitation. Similarly, older age, low educational status and being unmarried were significantly associated with participation restriction. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that activity limitation and participation restriction are common among leprosy patients. Earlier diagnosis and improved rehabilitative services may help to decrease activity limitation, whereas community rehabilitation may improve social participation. The old and centralized leprosy rehabilitation services need to be decentralized and backed with modern equipment and trained staffs.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Hospitais , Hanseníase/reabilitação , Participação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22154, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925774

RESUMO

The cognitive function of nursing home (NH) residents with cognitive impairment (CI) tends to decline over time. An effective multimodal non-pharmacological intervention (MNPI) strategy is needed to improve the cognitive function of NH residents with CI.The aim of this study was to clarify the cognitive function characteristics of NH residents with CI in whom a non-pharmacological intervention (NPI) can be implemented, consisting of MNPI using a Bayesian analysis, and to incorporate suggestions to make the MNPI strategy as effective as possible.This study had a cross-sectional design. The 61 subjects were selected from the residents of 5 NHs, of whom 90.16% were female, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 87.20 ±â€Š6.90. Analyses were performed using a hierarchical Bayesian model, and the global and specific cognitive functions as assessed by the Japanese version of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination were the response variables. Three types of NPI (cognitive enhancement NPI, physical NPI, psychological and psychosocial NPI), and activities of daily living (ADL), as assessed by the Barthel index, were the explanatory variables.Cognitive enhancement NPI was revealed to have no association with any cognitive function. Physical NPI was negatively associated with orientation [OR 0.31 (95% credible interval (95% CI) -2.33, -0.10)], comprehension [OR 0.16 (95% CI -2.78, -0.95)] and naming [OR 0.49 (95% CI -1.47, -0.02)]. Psychological and psychosocial NPI was positively associated with comprehension [OR 3.67 (95% CI 0.52, 2.13)]. Barthel index was positively associated with total Japanese version of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination [OR 1.74 (95% CI 0.08, 2.12)], comprehension [OR 3.49 (95% CI 0.45, 4.67)], repetition [OR 10.07 (95% CI 0.53, 9.01)], naming [OR 2.24 (95% CI 0.07, 3.20)], and calculations [OR 18.82 (95% CI 2.71, 9.40)].The implementation of MNPI should be preceded by cognitive enhancement NPI and physical NPI. Providing ADL enhancing NPI in response to cognitive improvement may be an effective strategy. Providing cognitive enhancement NPI, physical NPI, psychological, and psychosocial NPI, as well as ADL-enhancing NPI at the same time, is also an effective strategy for subjects with mild dementia who are considered to have relatively high cognitive functions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Terapia Combinada , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Participação Social
20.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(3): 141-143, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197348

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analizar la asociación entre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y variables sociodemográficas, enfermedades crónicas y síndromes geriátricos en una muestra de personas mayores chilenas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de 310 personas mayores de 60 años. Se aplicó el SF-36 y se evaluó el diagnóstico de enfermedades crónicas y síndromes geriátricos. Se realizan análisis descriptivos para los diversos dominios de SF-36, y a través de modelos de regresión jerárquica se determinan las variables que se asocian a componente sumario físico, componente de sumario mental y la escala general de SF-36. RESULTADOS: Las variables predictivas son: sexo, artrosis, trastorno de desplazamiento, incontinencia urinaria y depresión. Específicamente, la depresión es la variable más significativa en los diversos modelos contrastados. CONCLUSIÓN: La participación social activa influye positivamente en la CVRS. Desde el ámbito de la atención primaria se debe seguir avanzando en protocolos de intervención en salud mental


OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and sociodemographic variables, chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes in a sample of Chilean elderly people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 310 people over 60 years of age. The SF-36 was applied, the diagnosis of chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes was evaluated. Descriptive analyzes are carried out for the different domains of SF-36 and through hierarchical regression models the variables that are associated to physical summary component, mental summary component and the general scale of SF-36 are determined. RESULTS: The predictive variables are: sex, arthritis, displacement disorder, urinary incontinence and depression. Specifically, depression is the most significant variable in the different contrasted models. CONCLUSION: Active social participation positively influences HR-QoL. In the area of primary care, progress must continue in intervention protocols in mental health


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Participação Social , Modelos Logísticos , Depressão/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Incontinência Urinária/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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