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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reflect, in the light of the Health Belief Model, on the adoption of behavioral measures in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: Theoretical-reflective essay, based on the Health Belief Model, to reflect on adherence to preventive behaviors in the pandemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: Adherence to preventive behaviors is strongly influenced by socioeconomic, territorial, political and individual factors in the face of critical health situations. In addition, the spread of false news modulates the thinking and execution of behavioral actions in the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It is necessary to understand the importance of health communication processes and the use of tools aimed at responsible human behavior and engaged in the adoption of a preventive posture.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , /psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cancer Control ; 28: 1073274821989315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491475

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is having major effects on cancer research, including major reductions in participant accrual to cancer clinical trials. Existing research has indicated that these steep drops in accrual rates to cancer clinical trials may be disproportionately affecting women. We sought to determine if there were gender differences in a dataset collected to examine participants' concerns about taking part in cancer research during the pandemic. METHODS: Between 5-19 June 2020, we distributed a fully anonymized survey via social media. We contacted 85 UK cancer patient organizations/charities and asked them to share our questionnaire on their platforms, of which 26 obliged. Patients aged 18 with a cancer diagnosis were eligible to participate and asked about their clinical and demographic characteristics, concerns about research participation given the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety levels measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale, amongst other questions. Anxiety levels and concerns about participating were compared between men and women using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: 93 individuals, comprising n = 37 women and n = 56 men of various cancer types, provided survey responses. Independent t-tests showed that women reported higher anxiety scores, and concerns about participating in cancer research during COVID-19, than men. Linear regression analyses showed that anxiety scores predicted concerns about research participation in women but not men (pinteraction = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients have concerns about participating in research during the COVID-19 pandemic that range from mild to serious. Furthermore, the relationship between general anxiety and concerns about research participation may be both more relevant and more pronounced in women than in men. Future work should examine the reasons why women are less likely to enrol in cancer trials during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cancer Invest ; 39(3): 219-228, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed at clarifying correlations between lay etiologies, self-efficacy, and patient activation among cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with different kinds of cancer answered a questionnaire on self-efficacy, lay etiology, and patient activation. RESULTS: 639 patients participated. Psychological reasons/stress (43.3%) and destiny (41.6%) were the most cited causes. Lay etiology was influenced by demographics, self-efficacy, and patient activation. Men, younger people, and active patients more often described internal causes of cancer, women and religious patients more often external causes. Patients with higher scores of self-efficacy were more often convinced of external cancer causes. CONCLUSION: By identifying individual disease theories, physicians may improve patient-physician communication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24178, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' expectation to treatment response is one source of placebo effects. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that expectation benefits to acupuncture treatment, while some did not. Previous systematic reviews failed to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the methodological heterogeneity. It is necessary to conduct a new systematic review to find out whether expectation can influence acupuncture outcomes. METHODS: We systematically search English and Chinese databases from their inception to 3rd October, 2020, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP). RCTs that evaluated the relationship between expectation and treatment response following acupuncture for adults will be included. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment will be conducted independently. Risk of bias will be assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Data synthesis will be performed by Review Manager (RevMan) software if the data is suitable for synthesis. RESULTS: This systematic review will provide evidence that whether patients' expectation impacts on the therapeutic effects of acupuncture. This protocol will be performed and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items from Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. The findings of this review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. CONCLUSION: This systematic review aims to assess whether a higher level of patient's expectation contributes to a better outcome after acupuncture treatment, and in which medical condition this contribution will be more significant. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020100020 on International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/psicologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
6.
Public Health ; 190: 67-74, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. Many countries in Europe have already implemented systematic screening programmes as per the recommendations by the European Union. The impact of screening is highly dependent on participation rates. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, facilitators and modifiers to participation in systematised, stool sample-based, publicly financed CRC screening programmes. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar and PsycINFO was undertaken. We included both qualitative and quantitative studies reporting on barriers and facilitators (excluding sociodemographic variables) to participation in stool sample-based CRC screening. Barriers and facilitators to participation were summarised and analysed. RESULTS: The inclusion criteria were met in 21 studies. Reported barriers and facilitators were categorised into the following seven themes (examples): psychology (fear of cancer), religion (believing cancer is the will of God), logistics (not knowing how to conduct the test), health-related factors (mental health), knowledge and awareness (lack of knowledge about the test), role of the general practitioner (being supported in taking the test by the general practitioner), and environmental factors (knowing someone who has participated in a screening programme). Six studies reported that non-participation was not due to a negative attitude towards screening for CRC. CONCLUSION: Many barriers to screening were found. It is important to work with peoples' fear of screening. Moreover, this review suggests that it might be possible to increase participation rates, if the population-wide awareness and knowledge of potential health benefits of CRC screening are increased and proper logistical support is provided.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Medo , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Apoio Social
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370421

RESUMO

This paper examines the service quality, satisfaction and intention to use Union Digital Center (UDC) in Bangladesh: The moderating effect of citizen participation. The study intends to measure the quality of service on the basis of satisfaction by adopting citizen participation as a moderator. Theoretically this study has used DeLone & McLean Information Systems (D&M IS) Success Model. The existing studies of Bangladesh are mostly qualitative and the correlation between the quality of service, satisfaction, and desire for using UDC has not verified. This research has adopted the D&M IS model while measuring and verifying the service quality based on satisfaction and use intention. A structured questionnaire method was used and data collected from 499 respondents from 10 UDC of 10 upazila under 8 divisions in Bangladesh. Partial Least Square (PLS), a statistical method that emerged on the basis of Structure Equation Modeling (SEM), technique has been used while analyzing the data. The result of this study has showed the quality (p<0.05) of information, system and service of UDC affects citizen satisfaction effectively where the moderator of citizen participation is also significant. This paper has constructed on the basis of a model and empirical data to verify the moderating effects of citizen participation. To ensure the improvement of service quality of UDC all of the dimensions related to the quality of service should be modified, develop the administrative system and citizen should be encouraging to participate in all aspects of services.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Bangladesh , Humanos , Intenção , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Satisfação do Paciente , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382760

RESUMO

Forty-four percent of Black transgender women are living with HIV, and many face challenges with HIV care engagement. An HIV cure has much to offer this population, however little HIV cure-related research has included them. We conducted 19 face-to-face in-depth interviews with 10 Black transgender women living with HIV. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using content analysis. Our interview guide contained three categories: 1) perceptions of HIV cure-related research and participation, 2) perceptions of HIV treatment and treatment interruptions, and 3) considerations for transgender women and HIV cure-related research. Salient themes included skepticism about HIV cure strategies and limited benefits compared with an undetectable viral load. Willingness to interrupt HIV treatment for research was low and linked to being able to go back on the same HIV treatment without consequence when the study ended. Concerns about being a test subject and perceptions of risks versus benefits of various strategies also affected willingness to take part in HIV cure-related research. Centering the dignity and autonomy of research participants as well as building upon and supporting existing social networks were identified as important facilitators for engaging Black transgender women in HIV cure-related research. Specific to Black transgender women, other concerns included the desire for gender-affirming research staff, community-building among transgender women, and safety issues associated with risk of transphobic violence when traveling to study visits. Participants stressed the importance of HIV cure-related researchers providing accessible and complete information and expressing genuine care and concern for transgender communities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/psicologia , Estigma Social , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 16 Suppl 7: 3-8, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145888

RESUMO

AIM: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are an uncommon cancer and difficult to diagnose and treat. Treatment is complicated by debilitating side effects, impacting quality of life. This Australia-wide survey aimed to increase our understanding of the impact and burden of NETs on patient quality of life (QoL) and to assess the benefit of a patient support program (eSHINE). METHOD: Consented patients from the eSHINE mailing list (n = 267) were invited to participate in an electronic self-reported survey comprising 29 questions on clinical characteristics, diagnosis, sociodemographics, impact of living with NETs and benefits of a patient support program. No formal sample size was calculated. All analyses were descriptive. RESULTS: A total of 144 participants (54%) responded. A total of 129 (48%) completed all questions. Approximately half of respondents were female, from metropolitan and rural areas, aged over 65 years and had a primary diagnosis of gastrointestinal NETs. Fifty-eight percent had been diagnosed over 5 years ago. Twenty-seven percent reported seeing four or more healthcare professionals prior to being diagnosed. Living with NETs had a large impact on patients' QoL. 83.5% reported fatigue, 76% felt their emotional health was impacted by NETs and 75% reported reduced ability to participate in leisure activities. Access to a supportive network to manage and treat NETs was extremely important to participants. Eighty-five percent of respondents reported the eSHINE program had a positive impact on their QoL. CONCLUSION: Patients value support from healthcare professionals and patient support programs such as eSHINE in managing NETs. The eSHINE Patient Support Program has a positive impact on patient QoL.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 58(11): 9-12, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119116

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed psychopharmacological prescribing and management of patients around the world. Social distancing requirements led to a transition from face-to-face patient visits to telepsychiatry. Relaxed federal reimbursement policies during the COVID-19 pandemic expanded patient awareness and access to virtual care. For many psychiatric advanced practice RNs (APRNs), the transition to telepsychiatry was intended as a temporary solution until it is possible to return to in-person patient care. Instead, virtual care has become an expectation of patients and agencies. The current article presents a case study example of an adolescent psychiatric patient, exploring the challenges of therapeutic alliance, patient engagement, psychiatric evaluation, laboratory orders, deprescribing, and psychopharmacological adherence. The case study discusses considerations for APRNs who use telemental health in child and adolescent psychiatry and resources for clinical practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 58(11), 9-12.].


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
12.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(9): 399-416, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931317

RESUMO

HIV disproportionately impacts US racial and ethnic minorities but they participate in treatment and vaccine clinical trials at a lower rate than whites. To summarize barriers and facilitators to this participation we conducted a scoping review of the literature guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published from January 2007 and September 2019 were reviewed. Thirty-one articles were identified from an initial pool of 325 records using three coders. All records were then assessed for barriers and facilitators and summarized. Results indicate that while racial and ethnic minority participation in these trials has increased over the past 10 years, rates still do not proportionately reflect their burden of HIV infection. While many of the barriers mirror those found in other disease clinical trials (e.g., cancer), HIV stigma is a unique and important barrier to participating in HIV clinical trials. Recommendations to improve recruitment and retention of racial and ethnic minorities include training health care providers on the importance of recruiting diverse participants, creating interdisciplinary research teams that better represent who is being recruited, and providing culturally competent trial designs. Despite the knowledge of how to better recruit racial and ethnic minorities, few interventions have been documented using these strategies. Based on the findings of this review, we recommend that future clinical trials engage community stakeholders in all stages of the research process through community-based participatory research approaches and promote culturally and linguistically appropriate recruitment and retention strategies for marginalized populations overly impacted by HIV.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Grupos Étnicos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos Minoritários , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 169-175, set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138551

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cantidad de pacientes asmáticos que asisten al sistema público de salud es cada vez mayor, no obstante, la tasa de adherencia al tratamiento es muy baja, siendo los adolescentes quienes presentan mayor porcentaje de abandono al tratamiento, inasistencia a sus controles y gran conflicto decisional (CD). El OBJETIVO de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de consejerías sobre el CD en relación al tratamiento del asma y el nivel de control de su enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio pre-experimental que reclutó a 32 niños asmáticos entre 10 a 14 años de edad del policlínico respiratorio infantil del hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso. Solo 15 niños estuvieron dispuestos a participar en el estudio quienes completaron la totalidad de las sesiones de consejería. Para determinar el grado de CD de su patología, se aplicó la Escala de Conflicto Decisional de Ottawa; y para el nivel del control del asma, se usó la Escala Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). RESULTADOS: La edad media del grupo de niños fue de 12,06 ± 1,16 años. Finalizada la intervención, el nivel de control de asma se mantuvo y la media del CD disminuyó de 34,05 ± 4,59 a 18,02 ± 3,01 puntos (p < 0,05; t de Student para muestras pareadas). Un 73,3% de los pacientes disminuyó su nivel de conflicto decisional. CONCLUSIÓN: Las consejerías de apoyo decisional demostraron tener efectos positivos en la población estudiada.


INTRODUCTION: The number of asthmatic patients attending the public health system is increasing. However, the rate of adherence to treatment is very low. Adolescents have the largest percentage of abandonment to treatment, lack of control and a great decisional conflict (DC). The OBJECTIVE of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of counseling on the DC in relation to asthma treatment and the level of control of their disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-experimental study that recruited 32 asthmatic children from 10 to 14 years-old, from the children's respiratory outpatients clinic of Carlos Van Buren hospital in Valparaíso, Chile. Only 15 children were willing to participate in the study and completed all of the counseling sessions. To determine the degree of DC of its pathology, the Ottawa Decision Conflict Scale was applied; and for the Asthma Control level, the Global Initiative for Asthma Scale (GINA) was used. RESULTS: Mean children age was 12.06 ± 1.16 years-old. After the intervention, the level of Asthma Control was maintained and the mean of the DC decrease from 34.05 ± 4.59 to 18.02 ± 3.01 points (p < 0.05; paired Student's t-test). 73.3% of the patients lowered their level of decisional conflict. CONCLUSION: The counseling of decision support proved to have positive effects on the population studied.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Asma/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Asma/terapia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
14.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 37(1): 10-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842083

RESUMO

The question of how to engender patient trust in a pandemic is not easy to answer, and yet it is a critical question that requires a convincing response. On March 14, 2020, the surgeon general of the United States called for a stop to elective procedures. Ultimately, that led us at Scripps Health to close some clinics to protect personal protective equipment supplies and then furlough staff because of the decrease in patient visits. It soon became evident, however, that patients needed our care more than ever, and we had to pivot to provide the services they needed-but in a very different way. Our team rose to the challenge and quickly redesigned the entire organizational approach to accelerate telehealth services for the convenience of our patients. In the process, we also targeted a patient outreach program to our high-risk patients, which turned out to be an important aspect of our COVID-19 patient care initiative.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Confiança , Betacoronavirus , California , Humanos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente
15.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(3): 196-201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687119

RESUMO

Background: Waning donor funding and poor country ownership of HIV care programmes are challenges for the sustainability of care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Nigeria. Health insurance presents a viable alternative for funding of HIV care services. This study assessed the determinants of willingness to participate in health insurance amongst PLHIV in a tertiary hospital in South-East Nigeria. Methods: Across-sectional survey was conducted amongst 371 PLHIV on treatment at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria, using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test and logistic regression were conducted with SPSS version 20 at 5% level of significance. Results: Respondents were mostly males (51.8%) with a mean age and monthly income of 45.4 ± 10.3 years and $74.1 ± 42, respectively. Majority were willing to participate (82.5%) and to finance health insurance (65.2%). The major reasons cited by those unwilling to participate were poor understanding of how the system works and lack of regular source of income. The predictors of willingness to participate were female gender (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-5.7), being currently unmarried (AOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.3-7.8), being self-employed (AOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-3.9), having family size >5 (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.7-5.9) and having less than secondary school education (AOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.3-7.8). Conclusion: Majority of the respondents surveyed were willing to participate in, and finance health insurance. Willingness to participate was more amongst vulnerable subgroups (females, unmarried, self-employed, poorly educated and those with large family size). We recommend the inclusion of health insurance in the care package of PLHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(10): 659-665, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Declining participation has been observed in previous epidemiological studies, could occupational risk factor epidemiology be particularly vulnerable to this trend? The objective of this study was to assess trends of participation rates in occupational case-control studies. METHODS: Five prominent occupational and epidemiological journals were pre-selected and all articles published between 1991 and 2017 were screened for case-control studies of occupational risk factors for chronic disease outcomes. The primary independent variable was median year of data collection, while the primary outcome variable was reported participation rate. We conducted linear regression, adjusting for study characteristics that included study gender mix, location of recruitment, disease outcome, and data collection method. RESULTS: A total of 180 studies published in the five journals were included in the final analysis. The mean participation was higher for cases (78.9%) than for controls (71.5%). In linear regression, a significant trend of decreasing participation was observed for both cases with a percent change of -0.50 per year (95% CI -0.75 to -0.25) for cases and a percent change of -0.95 per year (95% CI -1.23 to -0.67) for controls. After adjustment for study gender mix, location, disease outcome, and data collection method, the trend remained statistically significant for both case and control groups. CONCLUSION: Declining participation rates in case-control studies of occupational risk factors may reflect an overall decline of participation in population-based samples. Lower participation rates introduce the potential for bias and may deter future population-based studies of occupational risk factors.


Assuntos
Estudos Epidemiológicos , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/tendências , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes
17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(3): 273-279, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the use of shared decision-making (SDM) and SDM tools and aids as the essential components in the care of asthma. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed individual randomized controlled studies conducted between 1998 and 2020 to compare SDM interventions and the use of SDM tools and aids for the care of asthma. All studies were published or translated in English. STUDY SELECTIONS: We excluded studies of interventions that involved multiple components other than the SDM intervention unless the control group also received these interventions. We evaluated the existing literature on both SDM tools and aids and the process of SDM to summarize in this review. RESULTS: Shared decision-making tools and aids most commonly clarify the diagnostics and options for a treatment. The 6 elements of SDM were clearly supported. We found no considerable association between the presence of these elements of SDM and asthma outcomes. CONCLUSION: We found that SDM for asthma and SDM tools and aids were often made to transfer information about asthma treatment options and their harms and benefits. The correlation between their support of SDM key elements and their impact on asthma outcomes is often difficult to ascertain but when present, there was positive correlation to improving risk communication, adherence, patient satisfaction, and possibly decreasing liability.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Humanos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(4): 486-502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573372

RESUMO

P: urpose: The purpose of this article is to enhance understanding of the increasing importance of service user and carer involvement in social work research. The paper outlines actions taken to develop knowledge and skills at post-qualifying level. M ethod: In 2016 three postgraduate modules on research methods and evidence-into-practice for service users and carers were created and taught jointly with existing parallel post-qualifying modules for experienced social workers. Over a three-year period 2016-2019 modular assessments; pre and post-testing of knowledge and self-efficacy; regular participant feedback sheets; and end-of-course reflections were undertaken. R esults: Qualitative feedback indicated that the classroom experience was regarded positively. Valuable literature reviews and projects were produced which have the potential to contribute to transferring knowledge into practice. Though small in scale and using non-validated tools, increased mean scores were recorded on both Test of Knowledge (3.97; p <.001) and Self Efficacy (478.8 (p <.001) showing promise. Formal measures, exam results, and informal feedback demonstrate the success of the initiative as a means of enhancing a wider understanding of user participation in the research process. Discussion: Demonstrating how well-equipped service users and carers are to be more effective on research advisory panels and grant committees will take more time. Conclusion: Providing teaching on research methods for service users jointly with experienced social workers shows potential for developing coproduction of social care research and translating evidence into practice.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/educação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Serviço Social/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient empowerment is a key factor in improving health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the questionnaire on Patient Empowerment in Long-Term Conditions (PELC) that evaluates the degree of empowerment of patients with chronic diseases. METHODS: Three measurements were made (at baseline, 2 weeks and 12 weeks) of quality of life (QoL), self-care, self-efficacy and empowerment. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency for the entire sample. Test-retest reproducibility was evaluated for patients who were stable from baseline to week 2 (n = 70). Validity was analysed (n = 124) as baseline correlations with QoL, self-care, self-efficacy, clinical data and psychosocial variables. Sensitivity to change was analysed in terms of effect size for patients who had improved between baseline and week 12 (n = 48). RESULTS: The study was carried out with 124 patients with a diagnosis of heart failure. Cronbach's alpha was high, at >0.9, and the interclass correlation coefficient was low, at 0.47. PELC questionnaire scores showed differences depending on New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.05) and, as posited in the a priori hypotheses, were moderately correlated with emotional dimensions of QoL (0.53) and self-efficacy (0.43). Effect size for the clinically improved subsample was moderate (0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the Spanish version of the PELC questionnaire has appropriate psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency and validity and is low in terms of reproducibility and sensitivity to change.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autocuidado/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
20.
Spine Deform ; 8(5): 957-963, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495208

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective survey of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients/parents with surgical magnitude curves. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that patients and families considering fusion surgery would be willing to enroll in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effect of number of implants on curve correction. Surgical RCTs are infrequently performed, particularly in a pediatric population. Parental willingness to enroll affects both study design and trial feasibility. The Minimize Implants Maximize Outcomes (MIMO) Clinical Trial proposes to randomize patients to more versus fewer screws (high or low density) for Lenke 1A curve patterns, but it is unclear whether families and patients are willing to enroll in such a trial. METHODS: This study was undertaken at 4 of the 14 sites participating in the MIMO Clinical Trial. AIS patients with Cobb > 45° were included. Implant density is defined as screws per level fused. Patients and families reviewed the MIMO education module describing proposed advantages and disadvantages of high (> 1.8) vs. low (< 1.4) density screw constructs and completed a custom survey regarding their preferences about the trial. RESULTS: 159 individuals were surveyed (78 families), including 82 parents/guardians, and 77 patients. Of those surveyed, 95% mostly or completely understood the trial (range 47-78%), and 63% agreed to enroll. Parents and patients who completely understood the trial were significantly more likely to enroll. CONCLUSION: Randomization in the MIMO Trial was acceptable to the majority (63%) of patients and parents. Clear patient and parent education materials and access to the surgeon may facilitate enrollment in the trial. Parents afforded the child much autonomy when considering enrollment, although most families agree both child and parent should be in agreement before entering the trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escoliose/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Parafusos Ósseos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos
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