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1.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 285-293, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation. METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in six countries (two sites in India and one site each in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by site) to receive aspirin or placebo tablets of identical appearance, via a sequence generated centrally by the data coordinating centre at Research Triangle Institute International (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Treatment was masked to research staff, health providers, and patients, and continued until 36 weeks and 7 days of gestation or delivery. The primary outcome of incidence of preterm birth, defined as the number of deliveries before 37 weeks' gestational age, was analysed in randomly assigned women with pregnancy outcomes at or after 20 weeks, according to a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) protocol. Analyses of our binary primary outcome involved a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified by site, and generalised linear models to obtain relative risk (RR) estimates and associated confidence intervals. Serious adverse events were assessed in all women who received at least one dose of drug or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02409680, and the Clinical Trial Registry-India, CTRI/2016/05/006970. FINDINGS: From March 23, 2016 to June 30, 2018, 14 361 women were screened for inclusion and 11 976 women aged 14-40 years were randomly assigned to receive low-dose aspirin (5990 women) or placebo (5986 women). 5780 women in the aspirin group and 5764 in the placebo group were evaluable for the primary outcome. Preterm birth before 37 weeks occurred in 668 (11·6%) of the women who took aspirin and 754 (13·1%) of those who took placebo (RR 0·89 [95% CI 0·81 to 0·98], p=0·012). In women taking aspirin, we also observed significant reductions in perinatal mortality (0·86 [0·73-1·00], p=0·048), fetal loss (infant death after 16 weeks' gestation and before 7 days post partum; 0·86 [0·74-1·00], p=0·039), early preterm delivery (<34 weeks; 0·75 [0·61-0·93], p=0·039), and the incidence of women who delivered before 34 weeks with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0·38 [0·17-0·85], p=0·015). Other adverse maternal and neonatal events were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In populations of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies from low-income and middle-income countries, low-dose aspirin initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of gestation and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation resulted in a reduced incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks, and reduced perinatal mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
2.
BJOG ; 127(3): 405-413, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine variations in cord blood gas (CBG) parameters after 3-minute delayed cord clamping (DCC) in vaginal deliveries (VDs) and caesarean deliveries (CDs) at term without fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: University hospital. SAMPLE: CBG from 97 VDs and 124 CDs without fetal distress. METHODS: Comparison of paired arterial-venous CBG parameters drawn at birth from the unclamped cord and after 3-minutes DCC for VDs and CDs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Base excess, bicarbonate, haematocrit and haemoglobin from both arterial and venous cord blood, lactate, neonatal outcomes, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 ), pH, and postpartum haemorrhage. RESULTS: Arterial cord blood pH, bicarbonate ( HCO 3 - , mmol/l), and base excess (BE, mmol/l) decreased significantly after 3-minute DCC both in VDs (pH = 7.23 versus 7.27; P < 0.001; HCO 3 -  = 23.3 versus 24.3; P = 0.004; BE = -5.1 versus -2.9; P < 0.001) and CDs (pH = 7.28 versus 7.34; P < 0.001; HCO 3 -  = 26.2 versus 27.2; P < 0.001; BE = -1.5 versus 0.7; P < 0.001). After 3-minute DCC, pCO2 increased in CDs only (57 versus 51; P < 0.001), whereas lactate increased more in CDs compared with VDs (lactate, +1.1 [0.9, 1.45] versus +0.5 [-0.65, 2.35]; P = 0.01). Postpartum maternal haemorrhage, neonatal maximum bilirubin concentration, and need for phototherapy were similar between the two groups. Newborns born by CD more frequently required postnatal clinical monitoring or admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: After 3-minute DCC, the acid-base status shifted towards mixed acidosis in CDs and prevalent metabolic acidosis in VDs. CDs were associated with a more pronounced increase in arterial lactate, compared with VDs. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: By 3-minute DCC, acid-base status shifts towards mixed and metabolic acidosis in caesarean and vaginal delivery, respectively.


Assuntos
Acidose , Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Cordão Umbilical/cirurgia , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Acidose/etiologia , Gasometria/métodos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Constrição , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803342

RESUMO

Introduction: Every day, approximately 830 women globally die from pregnancy-child birth related complications and all maternal deaths are mainly due to the three phases of delay usually experienced in maternal care which originates from inadequate or lack of birth and emergency preparedness. Despite the benefit of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) in the reduction of the three phases of delay and thus reduction of maternal deaths and complications, no study has been conducted in Adjumani district to assess the knowledge and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness, thus our objective was to assess the knowledge and practice of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Openzinzi Health Centre (HC) III in Adjumani District. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design with a sample of 80 respondents was used for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents in the study area. A research administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Most of the respondents (27.5%) were in the age group of 26-35 years. The majority 43.75% ended at primary level of education, 50% were unemployed, and the majority 71.25% and 70% knew identifying skilled birth attendants and health facilities respectively as components of BPACR. 76.25% of the respondents mentioned vaginal bleeding and 62.5% over vomiting as danger signs in pregnancy while 12.5% did not know any danger sign in pregnancy. 76.25% identified place for skilled birth, 66.25% identified skilled birth attendant, and only 15% identified blood donor. Conclusion: The practice of BPACR was poor among the pregnant women attending antenatal care at Openzinzi Health Centre III in Adjumani District. The knowledge about BPACR was higher among the educated respondents involved in the study.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 968, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Pakistan remain a challenge considering continued high burden of maternal and newborn mortality. This study aimed to assess the availability of emergency obstetric and newborn care in Sindh Province of Pakistan. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in twelve districts of the Sindh province in Pakistan. The districts were selected based on the maternal neonatal and child health indicators. Data were collected from 63 public-sector health facilities including district, Taluka (subdistrict) headquarters hospitals and rural health centers. Basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric newborn care services were assessed through direct observations and interviews with the heads of the health facilities by using a World Health Organization pretested and validated data collection tool. Participants interviewed in this study included the managers and auxiliary staff and in health facilities. RESULTS: Availability of caesarean section (23, 95% C.I. 14.0-35.0) and blood transfusion services (57, 95% CI. 44.0-68.0), the two components of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care, was poor in our study. However, assessment of the seven components of basic emergency obstetric and newborn services showed that 92% of the health facilities (95% C.I. 88.0-96.0) had parenteral antibiotics, 90%, (95% C.I. 80.0-95.0) had oxytocin, 92% (95% CI 88.0-96.0) had manual removal of the placenta service, 87% (95%, C.I. 76.0-93.0) of the facilities had staff who could remove retained products of conception, 82% (95% C.I. 71.0-89.0) had facilities for normal birth and 80% (95% C.I. 69.0-88.0) reported presence of neonatal resuscitation service. CONCLUSION: Though the basic obstetric and newborn services were reasonably available, comprehensive obstetric and newborn services were not available as per the World Health Organization's standards in the surveyed public health facilities. Ensuring the availability of caesarean section and blood transfusion services within these facilities may improve population's access to these essential services around birth.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/provisão & distribução , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Paquistão , Gravidez
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002990, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low-resource settings where disease burdens remain high and many health facilities lack essentials such as drugs or commodities, functional equipment, and trained personnel, poor quality of care often results and the impact can be profound. In this paper, we systematically quantify the potential gain of addressing quality of care globally using country-level data about antenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we created deterministic models to project health outcomes if quality of care was addressed in a representative sample of 81 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). First, available data from health facility surveys (e.g., Service Provision Assessment [SPA] and Service Availability and Readiness Assessment [SARA]) conducted 2007-2016 were linked to household surveys (e.g., Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys [MICS]) to estimate baseline coverage for a core subset of 19 maternal and newborn health interventions. Next, models were constructed with the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) using country-specific baseline levels in countries with a linked dataset (n = 17) and sample medians applied as a proxy in countries without linked data. Lastly, these 2016 starting baseline levels were raised to reach targets in 2020 as endline based upon country-specific utilization (e.g., proportion of women who attended 4+ antenatal visits, percentage of births delivered in a health facility) from the latest DHS or MICS population-based reports. Our findings indicate that if high-quality health systems could effectively deliver this subset of evidence-based interventions to mothers and their newborns who are already seeking care, there would be an estimated 28% decrease in maternal deaths, 28% decrease in neonatal deaths, and 22% fewer stillbirths compared to a scenario without any change or improvement in quality of care. Totals of 86,000 (range, 77,800-92,400) maternal and 0.67 million (range, 0.59 million-0.75 million) neonatal lives could be saved, and 0.52 million (range, 0.48 million-0.55 million) stillbirths could be prevented across the 81 countries in the calendar year 2020 when adequate quality care is provided at current levels of utilization. Limitations include the paucity of data to individually assess quality of care for each intervention in all LMICs and the necessary assumption that quality of care being provided among the subset of countries with linked datasets is comparable or representative of LMICs overall. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that efforts to close the quality gap would still produce substantial benefits at current levels of access or utilization. With estimated mortality rate declines of 21%-32% on average, gains from this first step would be significant if quality was improved for selected antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal interventions to benefit pregnant women and newborns seeking care. Interventions provided at or around the time of childbirth are most critical and accounted for 64% of the impact overall estimated in this quality improvement analysis.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1501, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality continued to be major issues in many countries. Globally a total of 10.7 million women have died between 1990 and 2015 due to maternal causes where sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for 66% of maternal death. Since most maternal deaths are avoidable; skilled attendance during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum is among the most critical interventions for improving maternal and neonatal survival. The study aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of utilization of skilled birth attendant at birth among women who gave birth in the last 24 months preceding the study in Gura Dhamole Woreda, Bale Zone Southeast Ethiopia, 2017. METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was implemented from March 25 to April 24, 2017 in Gura Dhamole Woreda on total of 402 study subjects who were selected by Multi-stage sampling technique. The data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire and data was coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Service (SPSS) Version 20. Odds ratio with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to assess associations the dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression model was employed to identify independent predictors and variables were declared statistically significant at P value < 0.05. RESULT: In this study only 29.2% of women were assisted by Skilled Birth Attendance (SBA) during their child birth. Place of residence, mother education, travel time, joint decision on the place of delivery, ANC visit frequency, birth preparedness and complication readiness status, knowledge on obstetric danger signs after delivery and knowledge of presence of maternity waiting homes were significantly associated with SBA utilization. CONCLUSION: Skilled birth attendant utilization in the study area was low. Strategies that improve attendance of antenatal care utilization and attention to birth preparedness and complication readiness and counseling on danger signs are recommended.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692846

RESUMO

Introduction: An effective referral system is considered as a key to saving mothers' and children's lives. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency and the indications of obstetric referrals in a Tunisian tertiary care maternity and to assess the conformity of referral mechanisms with the National Perinatality Programme (NPP) guidelines. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken among women referred to Farhat Hached University Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia with antenatal complications requiring urgent delivery and those referred while in labour or with immediate post partum complications. The ICD-10 was used to code recorded indications and diagnoses for referrals. Results: Referrals represents 15.23% of the obstetric activity in this facility. There were 32 reasons for referrals with the most common being premature rupture of membranes (14.1%) and fetal distress (13.5%). A fifth of the referrals were unclassifiable according to ICD-10. Most of the indications for referrals (95.8%) did not conform to the list of referral indications of the NPP. Twenty eight diagnoses were retained after referrals: the most common of which were prolonged pregnancy (29.5%) and premature rupture of membranes (19.3%). In 41% of women, reasons for referral did not match with diagnoses established at the time of the patients' admission to hospital. Conclusion: The current referral system in the region of Sousse still faces several challenges that need to be addressed in order to make it more effective.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Tunísia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673341

RESUMO

Background: Health Alliance International (HAI) with the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Timor-Leste and Catalpa International implemented a mobile phone-based mHealth program in 2013 known as Liga Inan ("Connecting Mothers"). Liga Inan was designed as a sustainable and scalable effort that would support MoH efforts to improve maternal and newborn health care-seeking and home practices. Key aims were to use mobile phone technology to improve communication between pregnant women and their MoH health providers and to increase optimal maternal health behaviors. MoH health staff registered pregnant women into Liga Inan at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit and followed them through pregnancy, delivery and six months postpartum. A web-based platform sent text messages twice weekly to promote safe pregnancy/delivery and facilitated phone communication between pregnant women and their MoH care providers. Methods: For the program's final evaluation, baseline (2012) and final (2015) surveys interviewed women in one intervention district and one adjacent control district who had given birth in the preceding two years. Primary outcomes were receiving four or more ANC visits, using skilled birth attendants, delivery in health facilities, and timely postnatal care. Results: Multivariate analysis compared endline maternal health behaviors for women in the intervention district compared to baseline and to women in the control district. Controlling for other factors, women in the intervention district had nearly twice the odds of having a skilled birth attendant and a facility delivery, nearly five times the odds of receiving a postpartum care visit within two days of delivery, and over five times the odds of having their newborn's health checked within two days of birth. There was no significant association between Liga Inan exposure and receipt of four or more ANC visits. Conclusions: Liga Inan was associated with substantial increases in MoH health provider-assisted and facility-based births and timely postnatal care in Timor-Leste. These positive results led the MoH to incorporate Liga Inan into the national maternal and child health program. To date the program has expanded to cover all 13 districts in the country, with gradual assumption of management and financial responsibility by the MoH under way.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Timor-Leste , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723374

RESUMO

Introduction: The study investigated the prevalence of stillbirth at the Buea regional hospital, by taking cases of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic(s) and those who did not attend but had their deliveries at the Buea regional hospital. The study specifically estimated the prevalence of stillbirths; identified possible risk factors associated with stillbirths, and determined whether the number of antenatal clinic visits is related to the occurrence of stillbirths-because during antenatal clinic visits, pregnant women are educated on risk factors of stillbirths such as: preterm deliveries; sex of the stillbirth; history of stillbirth; history of abortion(s); what age group of mothers are more likely to have a stillbirth. Methods: The study was a hospital based retrospective study at the maternity in which there were 3577 deliveries registered at the Buea regional hospital dated May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2017. With the aid of a checklist data was collected, analysed and presented with the use of tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Results: The prevalence of stillbirths was 26‰; possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; sex of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths. Conclusion: The study established that stillbirths can occur in any woman of child-bearing age. possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; gender of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1472, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the magnitude of maternal mortality is the major public health problem. Nearly all (99%) of maternal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Of which 66% occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Institutional delivery under the hygienic environment with the necessary skills and equipment promotes to identify and treat complications, infections, and the death of the mother and baby. In Ethiopia, the utilization of maternal health services is very low. For instance, 62% of women had antenatal care utilization during pregnancy while only 26% of women utilize institutions for delivery in 2016. Therefore, this study examined the association between antenatal care follow up and intestinal delivery among a nationally representative woman in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to examine 7575 women from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized. Variables in the bivariate logistic regression with p-value < 0.2 were entered into the multivariable logistic regression. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. In the multivariable analysis, variables with p-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of institutional delivery service utilization for last childbirth was 11.3%. In comparison with women with no antenatal care visits, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of institutional delivery among those who attend one to three and four or more antenatal care visit were 2.49 (1.66, 3.74) and 3.90 (2.60, 5.84), respectively. Other factors significantly associated with institutional delivery include urban residence 2.25 (1.44, 3.51), complete primary education 3.22 (2.09, 4.98), complete secondary or higher education 1.59 (1.16, 2.17), poorer household wealth index 2.57 (1.57, 4.20), middle household wealth index 1.63 (1.05, 2.52), and richer household wealth index 1.56(1.03, 2.58). CONCLUSION: Antenatal care follow-up was significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. As the number of antenatal care visits increased the odds of facility delivery increased. Thus, improved access and utilization of antenatal care can be an effective strategy to increase institutional deliveries and optimal maternal and child health outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Mortalidade Materna , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 810, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though maternal mortality during the time of delivery can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities with skilled healthcare professionals, unexpectedly death is still high and is a persistent challenge for low-income countries. Therefore identifying factors affecting the preference of institutional delivery after antenatal care service attendance is a key intervention to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using face to face using interviewer-administered questionnaire from a total of 528 women who gave their last birth within 12 months prior to the study period who attended antenatal care (ANC) services. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions analysis were performed. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and odds ratio with 95% CI were calculated to examine factors associated with institutional delivery. RESULTS: Of the 528 pregnant women attending ANC services, 250 (47.3%) gave birth in health facilities (95% CI: 43.2, 51.7%). Urban residence [AOR = 7.8, 95% CI: 4.1, 15.6], four or more ANC visits [AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6, 12.3], those who got health education on ANC [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.6] and decision on place of delivery with her partner agreement [AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 8.7] were found to be contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery. CONCLUSION: Institutional delivery was not adequate. Residence, number of antenatal care visits, health education, decisions making on a place of delivery and having awareness of the difference of place of delivery were contributing factors for the preference of institutional delivery.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Etiópia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1833-1840, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656465

RESUMO

Despite the fact that about 94% of pregnant women attend ANC, 95% deliver at health facilities and 99% deliveries are assisted by skilled birth attendants in Botswana, the national Maternal Mortality Rate is still high. Objectives: To determine the trend of MMR at Princess Marina and Nyangabwe referral hospitals before and after EMOC training. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal quantitative study design was used to collect data on maternal deaths. Demographic characteristics, maternal death causes, gestation at ANC registration and pregnancy risks were collected for the period before EMOC training and after training, analysed and compared. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were used. Findings: Maternal deaths were 33 and 41 before and after EMOC training respectively. Majority of the maternal deaths, 78.8% and 70.7% before and after EMOC training respectively occurred among young women in the reproductive ages. Eclampsia was the commonest cause of maternal death before EMOC between training & and 58% and 66% of maternal deaths before and after EMOC training respectively occurred among women who had attended ANC services four or more times. Conclusion: Maternal deaths at the hospitals remained similar during the two periods. Qualitative studies are needed to determine why EMOC training has not resulted in significant reduction in MMR in Botswana.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etnologia , Gravidez , Gestantes , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 640, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of preterm births among mothers who gave birth in Axum and Adwa public hospitals, Tigray, North Ethiopia, 2018. RESULT: This study showed that 13.3% from the total 472 mothers gave a preterm birth. Being a rural resident (AOR = 2.13, 95% CI (1.07,4.22), short inter pregnancy interval (AOR = 5.4, 95% CI (1.32, 22.05), previous preterm birth (AOR = 3.74, 95% CI (1.03, 16.34), Premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 4.14, 95% CI (1.92, 8.89), induced onset of labor (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI (1.06, 5.85) multiple pregnancy (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI (2.27, 14.28), malaria during pregnancy (AOR = 4.71, 95% CI (1.98, 11.23), Presence of chronic illness (AOR = 4.55, 95% CI (1.83, 11.26) were significantly associated with preterm birth.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Malária/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malária/complicações , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
14.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002943, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum care has the potential to avert a substantial proportion of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. There is a crucial gap in understanding the quality of postpartum care for women giving birth in health facilities in low- and middle-income settings. This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the levels of maternal and neonatal mortality are highest globally despite rapid increases in facility-based childbirth. This study estimated the percentage of women receiving a postpartum health check following childbirth in a health facility in SSA and examined the determinants of receiving such check. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 33 SSA countries between 2000-2016. We estimated the percentage of women receiving a postpartum check by a health professional while in the childbirth facility and the associated 95% confidence interval (CI) for each country. We analyzed determinants of receiving such checks using logistic regression of the pooled data. The analysis sample included 137,218 women whose most recent live birth in the 5- year period before the survey took place in a health facility. Of this pooled sample, 65.7% of women were under 30 years of age, 85.9% were currently married, and 57% resided in rural areas. Across countries, the median percentage of women who reported receiving a check was 71.7%, ranging from 26.6% in Eswatini (Swaziland) to 94.4% in Burkina Faso. The most fully adjusted model showed that factors from all four conceptual categories (obstetric/neonatal risk factors, care environment, and women's sociodemographic and child-related characteristics) were significant determinants of receiving a check. Women with a cesarean section had a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.88 (95% CI 1.72-2.05, p < 0.001) of receiving a check. Women giving birth in lower-level public facilities had lower odds of receiving a check (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98, p = 0.002) compared to those in public hospitals, as did women attended by a nurse/midwife (compared to doctor/nonphysician clinician) (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.78, p < 0.001). This study was limited by the accuracy of the respondent's recall of the provider, timing, and receipt of postpartum checks. The outcome of interest was measured using three slightly different question sets across the 33 included countries. CONCLUSIONS: The suboptimal levels of postpartum checks in health facilities in many of the included SSA countries partially reflect the lack of importance given to postpartum care in the global discourse on essential interventions and quality improvement in maternal health. Addressing disparities in access to both facility-based childbirth and good-quality postpartum care in SSA is critical to addressing stalling declines in maternal mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstetrícia , Razão de Chances , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 651, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge about neonatal danger signs and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 4 months attending immunization services. RESULT: The study recruited 432 mothers to participate. A knowledge score of neonatal danger signs was found [32.9% (95% CI 28.9%, 37%)]. Mothers educated to secondary level were 4.9 times more likely to know about neonatal danger signs [(AOR = 4.9, 95% CI (1.15, 21). Similarly, mothers whose husband educated to college and above [AOR = 4.95, 95% CI (1.15, 21)], and being multipara mother [(AOR = 2.59, 95% CI (1.05, 6.6)], were factors significantly associated with good knowledge of mothers about neonatal danger signs.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunização/métodos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 184, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare system can be understood as the dynamic result of the interaction of hospitals, patients, providers, and government configuring a complex network of reciprocal influences. In order to better understand such a complex system, the analysis must include characteristics that are feasible to be studied in order to redesign its functioning. The analysis of the emergent patterns of pregnant women flows crossing municipal borders for birth-related hospitalizations in a region of São Paulo, Brazil, allowed to examine the functionality of the regional division in the state using a complex systems approach and to propose answers to the dilemma of concentration vs. distribution of maternal care regional services in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). METHODS: Cross-sectional research of the areas of influence of hospitals using spatial interaction methods, recording the points of origin and destination of the patients and exploring the emergent patterns of displacement. RESULTS: The resulting functional region is broader than the limits established in the legal provisions, verifying that 85% of patients move to hospitals with high technology to perform normal deliveries and cesarean sections. The region has high independence rates and behaves as a "service exporter." Patients going to centrally located hospitals travel twice as long as patients who receive care in other municipalities even when the patients' conditions do not demand technologically sophisticated services. The effects of regulation and the agents' preferences reinforce the tendency to refer patients to centrally located hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Displacement of patients during delivery may affect indicators of maternal and perinatal health. The emergent pattern of movements allowed examining the contradiction between wider deployments of services versus concentration of highly specialized resources in a few places. The study shows the potential of this type of analysis applied to other type of patients' flows, such as cancer or specialized surgery, as tools to guide the regionalization of the Brazilian Health System.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Gravidez , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sistemas , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
N Z Med J ; 132(1502): 11-15, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563923

RESUMO

AIM: To define the range and severity of cardiac disease in pregnant women in New Zealand, as well as the maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with the background obstetric population. METHODS: We retrospectively audited pregnant women with cardiac comorbidity seen by a multidisciplinary team at a tertiary referral centre consisting of midwives, cardiologists, obstetricians and anaesthetists in 2016-2017. RESULTS: Seventy-two women were referred to the multidisciplinary team. The most common referral reasons were arrhythmia (n=20, 27.8%), congenital anomalies (n=19, 26.4%) and palpitations (n=10, 13.9%). Fifty-two of these women were found to be at increased risk of morbidity or mortality. A specific delivery plan was devised for 37 of these women (69.8%). There was no serious maternal morbidity or mortality. Instrumental delivery rates were higher for women with cardiac comorbidity than the background obstetric population (19.2% vs 10.8%, p=0.049), however, neonatal admissions were not increased (11.5% compared with 16.5%). CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary review of obstetric patients with cardiac disease provides an important service to ensure risk modification prior to conception and throughout pregnancy and the puerperium.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Parto Obstétrico , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/classificação , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/organização & administração
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 339, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is broad agreement that antenatal care (ANC) interventions, skilled attendance at birth and management of complications arising after delivery are key strategies that can tackle the high burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, utilisation rate of these services has remained low despite a government policy on free maternal care. The present study sought to understand what factors are leading to the low healthcare seeking during pregnancy, child birth and postnatal period in Siaya County in Kenya. METHODS: Six Focus Group Discussions were conducted with 50 women attending ANC in 6 public primary healthcare facilities. Participants were drawn from a sample of 200 women who were eligible participants in a Conditional Cash Transfer project aimed at increasing utilization of healthcare services during pregnancy and postnatal period. Interviews were conducted at the health facilities, recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Multiple factors beyond the commonly reported distance to health facility and lack of transportation and finances explained the low utilization of services. Emergent themes included a lack of understanding of the role of ANC beyond the treatment of regular ailments. Women with no complicated pregnancies therefore missed or went in late for the visits. A missed health visit contributed to future missed visits, not just for ANC but also for facility delivery and postnatal care. The underlying cause of this relationship was a fear of reprimand from the health staff and denial of care. The negative attitude of the health workers explained the pervasive fear expressed by the participants, as well as being on its own a reason for not making the visits. The effect was not just on the woman with the negative experience, but spiraled and affected the decision of other women and their social networks. CONCLUSIONS: The complexity of the barriers to healthcare visits implies that narrow focused solutions are unlikely to succeed. Instead, there should broad-based solutions that focus on the entire continuum of maternal care with a special focus on ANC. There is an urgent need to shift the negative attitude of healthcare workers towards their clients.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Parto Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Materna , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/normas , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 600, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstetric violence is an often overlooked obstacle to quality maternal health care service utilization. In the study setting, there was limited evidence on obstetric violence. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of obstetric violence among women who gave birth in Gondar University Specialized Comprehensive Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: A total of 409 women had been participated in the study with a response rate of 100%. Three in four (75.1%) women reported that they had been subjected to at least one form of obstetric violence during labor and delivery with 95% CI (70.9-79.0). The reported forms of obstetric violence include non-consented care-260 (63.6%), non-dignified care-226 (55.3%), physical abuse-192 (46.9%), non-confidential care-132 (32.3%, neglected care-52 (12.7%) and discriminated care-38 (9.3%). On the contrary, none of the respondent had reported detention for failure to pay in the hospital. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that urban residents (AOR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.11, 3.22) and primary school attendants (AOR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.27, 0.91) were significantly associated with experiencing obstetric violence. This study indicated the high prevalence of obstetric violence. Thus, interventions need to be undertaken by taking the reported forms of obstetric violence and participants' sociodemographic status in to account.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Especializados , Trabalho de Parto , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 389-396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the consistency of maternal near-miss incidence and mortality index between two definitions across 104 facilities in Tanzania and Uganda. METHODS: Based on WHO guidance, cross-sectional near-miss data were collected in Tanzania (July 2015 to October 2016) and Uganda (June 2016 to September 2017). Prepartum hemorrhage and abortion were included as additional screening events and the number of blood units transfused was recorded. Near-miss incidence and mortality index were determined by using two near-miss definitions: the WHO standard definition, and a modified definition including women receiving at least 1 unit of blood. A sensitivity analysis excluded the additional screening events. RESULTS: Near-miss incidence differed between Tanzania and Uganda (1.79 and 4.00, respectively, per 100 deliveries) when estimated by the standard definition, but was similar (5.24 and 4.94, respectively) by the modified definition. The mortality index was higher in Tanzania than in Uganda when estimated by the standard definition (8.56% vs 3.54%), but was similar by the modified definition (3.10% vs 2.89%). CONCLUSION: The modified definition provided a more consistent estimate of near-miss incidence and mortality index. Lowering the threshold for units of blood transfusion might improve comparability between settings, but more research is needed.


Assuntos
Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mortalidade Materna , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
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