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3.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(2): 90-96, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448772

RESUMO

Dystocia (abnormally slow or protracted labor) accounts for 25% to 55% of primary cesarean deliveries. The latent phase of labor begins with onset of regular, painful contractions and continues until 6 cm of cervical dilation. Current recommendations are to avoid admission to labor and delivery during the latent phase, assuming maternal/fetal status is reassuring. The active phase begins at 6 cm. An arrested active phase is defined as more than four hours without cervical change despite rupture of membranes and adequate contractions and more than six hours of no cervical change without adequate contractions. Managing a protracted active phase includes oxytocin augmentation with or without amniotomy. The second stage of labor begins at complete cervical dilation and continues to delivery. This stage is considered protracted if it lasts three hours or more in nulliparous patients without an epidural or four hours or more in nulliparous patients with an epidural. Primary interventions for a protracted second stage include use of oxytocin and manual rotation if the fetus is in the occiput posterior position. When contractions or pushing is inadequate, vacuum or forceps delivery may be needed. Effective measures for preventing dystocia and subsequent cesarean delivery include avoiding admission during latent labor, providing cervical ripening agents for induction in patients with an unfavorable cervix, encouraging the use of continuous labor support (e.g., a doula), walking or upright positioning in the first stage, and not diagnosing failed induction during the latent phase until oxytocin has been given for 12 to 18 hours after membrane rupture. Elective induction at 39 weeks' gestation in low-risk nulliparous patients may reduce the risk of cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Distocia/diagnóstico , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Segunda Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Distocia/prevenção & controle , Distocia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ocitócicos , Ocitocina , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 136-147, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426655

RESUMO

This narrative review discusses recent evidence surrounding the use of regional anaesthesia in the obstetric setting, including intrapartum techniques for labour and operative vaginal delivery, and caesarean delivery. Pudendal nerve blockade, ideally administered by an obstetrician, should be considered for operative vaginal delivery if neuraxial analgesia is contraindicated. Regional techniques are increasingly utilised in clinical practice for caesarean delivery to minimise opioid consumption, reduce pain, improve postpartum recovery and facilitate earlier discharge as part of enhanced recovery protocols. The evidence surrounding transversus abdominis plane and quadratus lumborum blockade supports their use when: long-acting neuraxial opioids cannot be administered due to contraindications; if emergency delivery necessitates general anaesthesia; or as a postoperative rescue technique. Current data suggest quadratus lumborum blockade is no more effective than transversus abdominis plane blockade after caesarean delivery. Transversus abdominis plane blockade, wound catheter insertion and single shot wound infiltration are all effective techniques for reducing postoperative opioid consumption, with transversus abdominis plane blockade favoured, followed by wound catheters and then wound infiltration. Ilio-inguinal and iliohypogastric, erector spinae plane and rectus sheath blockade all require further studies to determine their efficacy for caesarean delivery in the presence or absence of long-acting neuraxial opioids. Future studies are needed to: compare approaches for individual techniques; determine which combinations of techniques and dosing regimens result in optimal analgesic and recovery outcomes following delivery; and elucidate the populations that benefit most from regional anaesthesia in the obstetric setting.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Gravidez
5.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 276-281, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1150698

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar os benefícios e os malefícios que Manobra de Kristeller apresenta na prática obstétrica para a mulher e o concepto. Método: trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. Interpretou-se os resultados sintetizando-os de forma crítica e descritiva. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por nove estudos publicados entre 2007 a 2017. Estas publicações evidenciaram que esta manobra não possui benefício, em contrapartida, pode trazer vários malefícios à mulher como disfunções no sistema urinário, dispaurenia, dor perineal, incontinência anal, além do aumento do número de episotomias. Em relação ao concepto, foram encontrados registros de cefalohematomas, aumento do ritmo cardíaco fetal, hemorragia epidural e Caput sucedaneum. Conclusão: as publicações referem que esta manobra trará uma história reprodutiva marcada por traumas, além de reforçar o não uso desta técnica


Objective: to analyze the benefits and harms that the Kristeller Maneuver presents in obstetric practice for women and the concept. Method: this is an integrative review carried out in LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. The results were interpreted by synthesizing them in a critical and descriptive way. Results: the sample was made by nine studies launched in 2007 to 2017. These subjects showed that this is not a benefit option, in contrast, it can bring several harm to the woman such as dysfunctions in the urinary system, dyspaurenia, perineal pain, anal incontinence, in addition to an increase in the number of episiotomies. Regarding the concept, the records of cephalhematomas, increased cardiac rhythm, epidural hemorrhage and Caput substudum were found. Conclusions: The publications referenced this maneuver to a reproductive culture marked by traumas, besides promoting the non-use of this technique


Objetivo: analizar los beneficios y los maleficios que la Manobra de Kristeller presenta en la práctica obstétrica para la mujer y el concepto. Método: se trata de una revisión integrativa realizada en las bases de datos LILACS, BDENF, IBECS e MEDLINE. Se interpretó los resultados sintetizándolos de forma crítica y descriptiva. Resultados: la muestra fue hecha por nueve estudios lanzados en 2007 a 2017. Estas materias evidenciaron que ésta no es una opción de beneficio, en contrapartida, puede traer varios maleficios a la mujer como disfunciones en el sistema urinario, dispaurenia, dolor perineal, incontinencia anal, además del aumento del número de episotomías. En relación al concepto, se encontraron los registros de cefalhematomas, aumento del ritmo cardíaco, hemorragia epidural y Caput sucedaneum. Conclusión: Las publicaciones referenciaron esta maniobra a una cultura reproductiva marcada por traumas, además de promover el no uso de esta técnica


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lacerações/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Trabalho de Parto , Episiotomia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Saúde Materna/classificação
6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(1): 109-118, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is little evidence to guide the timing of delivery of women with early-onset severe preeclampsia. We hypothesize that immediate delivery is not inferior for neonatal outcome but reduces maternal complications compared with temporizing management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Dutch multicenter open-label randomized clinical trial investigated non-inferiority for neonatal outcome of temporizing management as compared with immediate delivery (TOTEM NTR 2986) in women between 27+5 and 33+5 weeks of gestation admitted for early-onset severe preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome. In participants allocated to receive immediate delivery, either induction of labor or cesarean section was initiated at least 48 hours after admission. Primary outcomes were adverse perinatal outcome, defined as a composite of severe respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, culture proven sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or worse, periventricular leukomalacia grade 2 or worse, necrotizing enterocolitis stage 2 or worse, and perinatal death. Major maternal complications were secondary outcomes. It was estimated 1130 women needed to be enrolled. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: The trial was halted after 35 months because of slow recruitment. Between February 2011 and December 2013, a total of 56 women were randomized to immediate delivery (n = 26) or temporizing management (n = 30). Median gestational age at randomization was 30 weeks. Median prolongation of pregnancy was 2 days (interquartile range 1-3 days) in the temporizing management group. Mean birthweight was 1435 g after immediate delivery vs 1294 g after temporizing management (P = .14). The adverse perinatal outcome rate was 55% in the immediate delivery group vs 52% in the temporizing management group (relative risk 1.06; 95% confidence interval 0.67-1.70). In both groups there was one neonatal death and no maternal deaths. In the temporizing treatment group, one woman experienced pulmonary edema and one placental abruption. Analyses of only the singleton pregnancies did not result in other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early termination of the trial precluded any conclusions for the main outcomes. We observed that temporizing management resulted in a modest prolongation of pregnancy without changes in perinatal and maternal outcome. Conducting a randomized study for this important research question did not prove feasible.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Países Baixos , Gravidez
7.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(1): 83-88, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how giving birth during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected women based on birth parameters (gestational age, type of birth and body weight at birth), satisfaction with childbirth, and development of postpartum depression. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 162 Spanish women. They were divided into two groups: those who gave birth before the pandemic (n = 82; from September 1, 2019 to March 1, 2020) and during the pandemic (n = 75; from April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2020). They were assessed using psychological instruments for postpartum childbirth satisfaction and postpartum depression. RESULTS: It was found that women who gave birth during the pandemic suffered higher levels of stress during childbirth (U = 2652.50; P = 0.040) and gave a worse rating of the quality of care received (U = 2703.50; P = 0.041). In addition, the percentage of postpartum depression was much higher in women who gave birth during the pandemic (χ2  = 4.31; P  = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Giving birth during the COVID-19 pandemic could have an impact on greater dissatisfaction with childbirth, as well as increasing the risk of postpartum depression.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Depressão Pós-Parto , Parto/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
8.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(4): 168-173, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197646

RESUMO

La dispareunia se define como la presencia de dolor persistente o recurrente durante el acto sexual y se considera una de las principales disfunciones sexuales en el posparto. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer los factores que influyen en la aparición de la dispareunia en el período posparto. En enero de 2018 se llevó a cabo una revisión bibliográfica en las siguientes bases de datos: Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science y Scopus. Se obtuvieron un total de 15 artículos tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Se encontró que la dispareunia posparto tiene como principales factores de riesgo el tipo de parto (siendo mayor en las cesáreas y los partos instrumentales), el trauma perineal y/o la episiotomía y la lactancia materna. La situación psicosocial también puede repercutir en la aparición de esta dolencia


Dyspareunia is defined as the presence of persistent or recurrent pain during sexual intercourse and is considered one of the main postpartum sexual dysfunctions. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that influence the appearance of dyspareunia in the postpartum period. A literature review was conducted in the following databases in January 2018: Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Scopus. A total of 15 articles were obtained after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main risk factors in postpartum dyspareunia are the type of delivery (being higher in caesarean sections and instrumental deliveries), perineal trauma and/or episiotomy, and breastfeeding. The psychosocial situation can also affect the appearance of this disorder


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Dispareunia/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Puerperais/fisiopatologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Episiotomia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(6): 411-418, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197671

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir las percepciones y deseos sobre el parto en un grupo de gestantes a término de Zamora. MÉTODO: Estudio cualitativo de carácter fenomenológico. Participantes y ámbito de estudio: embarazadas de 37-38 semanas, centros de salud Zamora Sur y Santa Elena (Zamora). Recogida de datos: entrevistas semiestructuradas, hasta llegar a saturación de datos (16 entrevistas). Análisis de datos: análisis de contenido temático. RESULTADOS: Los sentimientos maternos variaron desde la alegría hasta el miedo o el estrés. Las entrevistadas manifestaron no sentirse capaces de soportar el dolor del parto. Las necesidades que sintieron como más importantes fueron contar con apoyo y acompañamiento en el parto (sobre todo de su pareja) y recibir buen trato de los sanitarios. CONCLUSIONES: La importancia y la repercusión del parto para la mujer no solo atiende al ámbito biológico, sino en gran medida también al mental, al emocional y al social. En él intervienen múltiples factores que lo condicionan: los sentimientos maternos, su capacidad de afrontar el dolor del parto, sus necesidades, sus cambios realizados, el apoyo con el que cuentan y los profesionales sanitarios que atienden a la mujer


OBJECTIVE: To describe perceptions and wishes regarding childbirth in a group of full-term pregnant women in Zamora. METHOD: Qualitative study of phenomenological character. Participants and scope of study: pregnant women (37-38 weeks), Zamora Sur and Santa Elena health centres (Zamora, Spain). Data collection: semi-structured interviews, until data saturation (16 interviews). Data analysis: analysis of thematic content. RESULTS: The maternal feelings varied from joy to fear or stress. The interviewees said they did not feel capable of enduring the pain of childbirth. The needs that they felt most important were having support and accompaniment during delivery (especially of their partner) and receiving good treatment from the healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: The importance and repercussion of childbirth for women are not only biological, but also largely mental, emotional and social. It is conditioned by multiple factors: maternal feelings, their ability to deal with the pain of childbirth, their needs, the changes they have made, the support they have and the health professionals who care for them


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento a Termo , Percepção , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Serviço de Acompanhamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/enfermagem , Amostragem , Dor do Parto/enfermagem , Dor do Parto/psicologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean section (CS) is growing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pregnant women's knowledge on the mode of delivery, factors associated with lack of adequate knowledge, and preference towards CS delivery were investigated. METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional data from 1617 pregnant women who participated in the Mutaba'ah Study between September 2018 and March 2020 were analyzed. A self-administered questionnaire inquiring about demographic and maternal characteristics, ten knowledge-based statements about mode of delivery, and one question about preference towards mode of delivery was used. Knowledge on the mode of delivery was categorized into "adequate (total score 6-10)" or "lack of adequate (total score 0-5)" knowledge. Crude and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with "lack of adequate" knowledge on the mode of delivery and factors associated with CS preference. RESULTS: A total of 1303 (80.6%) pregnant women (mean age 30.6 ± 5.8 years) completed the questionnaire. The majority (57.1%) were ≥30 years old, in their third trimester (54.5%), and had at least one child (76.6%). In total, 20.8% underwent CS delivery in the previous pregnancy, and 9.4% preferred CS delivery for the current pregnancy. A total of 78.4% of pregnant women lacked adequate knowledge on the mode of delivery. The level of those who lacked adequate knowledge was similar across women in different pregnancy trimesters. Young women (18-24 years) (adjusted odds ratios (aOR), 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-8.86) and women who had CS delivery in the previous pregnancy (aOR, 1.90, 95% CI, 1.06-3.40) were more likely to be classified with a lack of adequate knowledge. Age (aOR, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.02-1.14), employment (aOR, 1.96, 95% CI, 1.13-3.40), or previous CS delivery (aOR, 31.10, 95% CI, 17.71-55.73) were associated with a preference towards CS delivery. CONCLUSION: This study showed that pregnant women may not fully appreciate the health risks associated with different modes of delivery. Therefore, antenatal care appointments should include a balanced discussion on the potential benefits and harms associated with different delivery modes.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Preferência do Paciente , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22844, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181654

RESUMO

By observing and analyzing the success rate of Tai'an City central hospital TOLAC and VBNC and various indicators after delivery, we make sure whether TOLAC is safe and feasible to be promoted in Tai'an area.Between January and December 2017, data of 144 cases undergoing TOLAC, 152 cases undergoing VBNC, 152 cases undergoing RCS and 142 case undergoing PCS in Tai'an City Central Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The success rate of vaginal delivery, labor time, 24 hours postpartum hemorrhage, hospital stay, Apgar score of newborns and puerperal morbidity were observed.Primary study outcomes: The success rates of the TOLAC and VBNC groups were 93.06% and 93.42%, respectively, where the difference was not statistically significant (P = .901). Secondary study outcomes: There were no significant differences in labor time (P = .0249), amount of 24 hours postpartum hemorrhage (P = .206), Apgar score of newborns (P = .582), hospital stay (P = .194) and puerperal morbidity (P = .942) between the VBAC group and VBNC group. There were statistically significant differences in amount of 24 hours postpartum hemorrhage (P < .001), hospital stay (P < .001) and puerperal morbidity (P = .018), but no difference in Apgar score of newborns (P = .228) between the VBAC group and RCS group. There were significant differences in operation time (P = .011), amount of 24 hours hemorrhage (P = .001), hospital stay (P = .001) and puerperal morbidity (P = .041), but no significant difference in Apgar score of newborns (P = .300) between the RCS and PCS groups.The TOLAC is as safe and feasible as VBNC, and more favorable to the safety of mother and fetus than RCS in Tai'an area.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Prova de Trabalho de Parto , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Recesariana/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vagina , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/métodos
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 580, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19, pregnant women who are susceptible to COVID-19 should be highly concerned. The issue of vertical transmission and the possibility of neonatal infection is a major concern. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 35-year-old pregnant woman with a gestational age of 37 weeks and 6 days was admitted to our hospital at the point of giving birth. Except for the abnormalities in her chest CT image, she was asymptomatic. She had an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery, and her infant was discharged home for isolation. Because of the positive result of the maternal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 obtained on the 2nd day after sampling, we transferred the mother to the designated hospital and followed up with her by telephone interviews. Luckily, it was confirmed on February 23 that the newborn did not develop any COVID-19 symptoms after observation for 14 days after birth. Case 2: Another pregnant woman, with a gestational age of 38 weeks and 2 days, was also admitted to our hospital because of spontaneous labor with cervical dilation of 5 cm. Since she had the typical manifestations of COVID-19, including cough, lymphopenia, and abnormal chest CT images, she was highly suspected of having COVID-19. Based on the experience from case 1, we helped the mother deliver a healthy baby by vaginal delivery. On the 2nd day after delivery, the maternal nasopharyngeal swab result was positive, while the infant's result was negative. CONCLUSION: There is still insufficient evidence supporting maternal-fetal vertical transmission for COVID-19-infected mothers in late pregnancy, and vaginal delivery may not increase the possibility of neonatal infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Linfopenia , Máscaras , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Testes Sorológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(6): 793-799, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002958

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recognition of the increasing maternal mortality rate in the United States has been accompanied by intense efforts to improve maternal safety. This article reviews recent advances in maternal safety, highlighting those of particular relevance to anesthesiologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiovascular and other chronic medical conditions contribute to an increasing number of maternal deaths. Anesthetic complications associated with general anesthesia are decreasing, but complications associated with neuraxial techniques persist. Obstetric early warning systems are evolving and hold promise in identifying women at risk for adverse intrapartum events. Postpartum hemorrhage rates are rising, and rigorous evaluation of existing protocols may reveal unrecognized deficiencies. Development of regionalized centers for high-risk maternity care is a promising strategy to match women at risk for adverse events with appropriate resources. Opioids are a growing threat to maternal safety. There is growing evidence for racial inequities and health disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality. SUMMARY: Anesthesiologists play an essential role in ensuring maternal safety. While continued intrapartum vigilance is appropriate, addressing the full spectrum of contributors to maternal mortality, including those with larger roles beyond the immediate peripartum time period, will be essential to ongoing efforts to improve maternal safety.


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/tendências , Anestesia Obstétrica/tendências , Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Analgesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Estados Unidos
14.
BMJ ; 371: m3377, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of complicated birth at term in women classified at low risk according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline for intrapartum care (no pre-existing medical conditions, important obstetric history, or complications during pregnancy) and to assess if the risk classification can be improved by considering parity and the number of risk factors. DESIGN: Cohort study using linked electronic maternity records. PARTICIPANTS: 276 766 women with a singleton birth at term after a trial of labour in 87 NHS hospital trusts in England between April 2015 and March 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A composite outcome of complicated birth, defined as a birth with use of an instrument, caesarean delivery, anal sphincter injury, postpartum haemorrhage, or Apgar score of 7 or less at five minutes. RESULTS: Multiparous women without a history of caesarean section had the lowest rates of complicated birth, varying from 8.8% (4879 of 55 426 women, 95% confidence interval 8.6% to 9.0%) in those without specific risk factors to 21.8% (613 of 2811 women, 20.2% to 23.4%) in those with three or more. The rate of complicated birth was higher in nulliparous women, with corresponding rates varying from 43.4% (25 805 of 59 413 women, 43.0% to 43.8%) to 64.3% (364 of 566 women, 60.3% to 68.3%); and highest in multiparous women with previous caesarean section, with corresponding rates varying from 42.9% (3426 of 7993 women, 41.8% to 44.0%) to 66.3% (554 of 836 women, 63.0% to 69.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women without risk factors have substantially higher rates of complicated birth than multiparous women without a previous caesarean section even if the latter have multiple risk factors. Grouping women first according to parity and previous mode of birth, and then within these groups according to presence of specific risk factors would provide greater and more informed choice to women, better targeting of interventions, and fewer transfers during labour than according to the presence of risk factors alone.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Paridade , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 67(9): 487-495, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been the world's largest socio-health crisis experienced in the last century. Each healthcare center has been compelled to adapt the treatment guidelines established by the different scientific societies. OBJECTIVES: Analyze the impact of the methodology based on simulation as a tool to improve our clinical practice: work dynamics, effectiveness and safety of all the physicians involved in the management of labor in COVID pregnant women and its usefulness to facilitate the adaptation of protocols to a specific clinical context. METHOD: Descriptive observational study that includes the C-sections and deliveries of COVID pregnant women performed in our hospital. The actions carried out in each procedure were analyzed using the simulation multidisciplinary briefing and debriefing tools, before and after each case. RESULTS: A total of 5 clinical cases were analyzed. Difficulties were found in the execution of the protocols established for the care of the COVID pregnant. Organizational, structural, material resources and human factors obstacles were the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the analysis example using simulation methodology was a tool of great value in three aspects: teamwork improvement, actions consent and improvement proposals for the adaptation and implementation of protocols.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Adulto , Cesárea , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Delegação Vertical de Responsabilidades Profissionais , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pandemias , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 912-924, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068387

RESUMO

Objectives To assess perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 infections during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical transmission. Methods An analysis was performed using Stata 15.0, and Q-test was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results The most common symptoms were found to be fever (64.78%), cough (59.81%) and shortness of breath or dyspnea (23.86%). Of this 88.73% patients demonstrated typical COVID-19 signs on chest CT or X-ray. Intubation was carried out in 35.87% of patients, and 4.95% of mothers were admitted to the intensive care unit, where the rate of maternal death was <0.01% and that of premature delivery was 25.32%. The rate of the birth weight being <2,500 g was 30.65% and that of Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission was 24.41%. Positive nasopharynx swabs or sputum from newborns was <0.01%. Conclusions Pregnant patients with COVID-19 most commonly presented with fever, cough, shortness of breath and dyspnea, most of which possessed imaging manifestations. The risk of intubation and admission to intensive care unit were high. The risk of premature delivery was higher, leading to a high risk of NICU admission and low neonatal birthweight. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to child was found to be unlikely.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
17.
Ginekol Pol ; 91(9): 564-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030740

RESUMO

The World Health Organization announced on 12 March 2020 a global pandemic of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus causing COVID-19 disease associated with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure. SARS-CoV-2 has caused so far over 6.66 million recorded cases, of which 393,000 ended in death (as of June 1, 2020). Despite the demographic statistics of incidence, there is no current recording of cases in the group of pregnant or perinatal women. Changes occurring in the female body system during pregnancy also affect and alter the immune system, and as studies based on other viral respiratory infections have shown, the population of pregnant women is at risk of having a severe course of the disease. The aim of the study is to summarize current reports on the course of COVID-19 disease in a group of pregnant women and the possible impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the foetus and vertical transmission, taking into account changes occurring in the woman's immune system during pregnancy. Available advice and recommendations for antenatal and perinatal care of pregnant women during the pandemic period are also included.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Parto Obstétrico , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Assistência Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
18.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(5): 953-961, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the induction of labor in term gravid women with cervical dilation 2 cm or less and intact membranes by using oral misoprostol preceded by transcervical Foley bulb placement results in a significantly increased vaginal delivery rate compared with the use of oral misoprostol alone. METHODS: We randomized the induction method by week of admission to labor and delivery, with each week group described as a cluster in a block randomized design. Women with gestational age of 37 weeks or greater, cervical dilation 2 cm or less, intact membranes, and indication for labor induction were included. Study arms were either 100 micrograms of oral misoprostol after transcervical Foley bulb placement or 100 micrograms of oral misoprostol alone. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery with the first induction attempt. Secondary outcomes included time to delivery, clinical chorioamnionitis (maternal temperature of 38°C or greater during labor with or without fundal tenderness, without other identified cause), cesarean delivery indication, and adverse outcomes. We estimated that a sample size of 1,077 per arm was needed to detect a 5% increase in vaginal delivery rate with a type I error of 5% and power of 80%, accounting for interim analysis and cluster size of 30 inductions per week. This was a pragmatic trial, and analysis was by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: From January 1, 2018, to May 13, 2019, 1,117 women (34 clusters) were assigned to oral misoprostol plus Foley and 1,110 women (34 clusters) to oral misoprostol alone. Demographic characteristics were similar. Vaginal delivery at the first induction occurred in 78% of the misoprostol plus Foley arm and in 77% of the misoprostol arm (relative risk [RR] 1.00; 95% CI 0.96-1.05; adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.00; 95% CI 0.95-1.05). Clinical chorioamnionitis occurred in 18% of the misoprostol plus Foley arm and in 14% of the misoprostol arm (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.07-1.58; aRR 1.30; 95% CI 1.08-1.56). There were no differences in neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Induction of labor in gravid women at term with intact membranes by using oral misoprostol plus Foley bulb did not result in a higher vaginal delivery rate, but it did result in more clinical chorioamnionitis compared with the use of oral misoprostol alone. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03407625.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento a Termo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1301-1309, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the response of labor and delivery (L&D) units in the United States to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and determine how institutional characteristics and regional disease prevalence affect viral testing and personal protective equipment (PPE). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically through the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine e-mail database (n = 584 distinct practices) and social media between April 14 and 23, 2020. Participants were recruited through "snowballing." A single representative was asked to respond on behalf of each L&D unit. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariable regression was performed to explore characteristics associated with universal testing and PPE usage. RESULTS: A total of 301 surveys (estimated 51.5% response rate) was analyzed representing 48 states and two territories. Obstetrical units included academic (31%), community teaching (45%) and nonteaching hospitals (24%). Sixteen percent of respondents were from states with high prevalence, defined as higher "deaths per million" rates compared with the national average. Universal laboratory testing for admissions was reported for 40% (119/297) of units. After adjusting for covariates, universal testing was more common in academic institutions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.42) and high prevalence states (aOR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.37-5.28). When delivering asymptomatic patients, full PPE (including N95 mask) was recommended for vaginal deliveries in 33% and for cesarean delivery in 38% of responding institutions. N95 mask use during asymptomatic vaginal deliveries remained more likely in high prevalence states (aOR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.29-5.09) and less likely in hospitals with universal testing (aOR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.24-0.73). CONCLUSION: Universal laboratory testing for COVID-19 is more common at academic institutions and in states with high disease prevalence. Centers with universal testing were less likely to recommend N95 masks for asymptomatic vaginal deliveries, suggesting that viral testing can play a role in guiding efficient PPE use. KEY POINTS: · Heterogeneity is seen in institutional recommendations for viral testing and PPE.. · Universal laboratory testing for COVID-19 is more common at academic centers.. · N95 mask use during vaginal deliveries is less likely in places with universal testing..


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Parto Obstétrico , Controle de Infecções , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/organização & administração , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/normas , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 716-724, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To create and externally validate a predictive model to calculate the likelihood of vaginal delivery after preterm induction with unfavorable cervix. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women with a singleton gestation from a single academic institution who underwent an induction of labor at less than 37 weeks of gestation from January 2009 to June 2018. Women with contraindications for vaginal delivery were excluded. Analyses were limited to women with unfavorable cervix (both simplified Bishop score [dilation, station, and effacement: range 0-9] less than 6 and cervical dilation less than 3 cm). A stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with vaginal delivery by considering maternal characteristics and comorbidities as well as fetal conditions. The final model was validated using an external data set of the Consortium on Safe Labor after applying the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. We compared the area under the curve (AUC) of our predictive model and the simplified Bishop score. RESULTS: Of the 835 women, 563 (67%) had vaginal delivery. Factors associated with vaginal delivery included later gestational age at delivery, higher parity, more favorable simplified Bishop score, and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Factors including older maternal age, non-Hispanic Black race, higher body mass index, and abruption were associated with decreased likelihood of vaginal delivery. In the external validation cohort, 1,899 women were analyzed, of whom 1,417 (75%) had vaginal delivery. The AUCs of simplified Bishop score and the final model were 0.65 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.73 (95% CI 0.72-0.79), respectively, for the external validation cohort. The online calculator was created and is available at www.medstarapps.org/obstetricriskcalculator/ and in the Obstetric Risk Calculator mobile application in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. CONCLUSION: Our externally validated model was efficient in predicting vaginal delivery after preterm induction with unfavorable cervix.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Adulto , Comorbidade , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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