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1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(19): e2000979, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885616

RESUMO

Researchers, engineers, and medical doctors are made aware of the severity of the COVID-19 infection and act quickly against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a large variety of tools. In this review, a panoply of nanoscience and nanotechnology approaches show how these disciplines can help the medical, technical, and scientific communities to fight the pandemic, highlighting the development of nanomaterials for detection, sanitation, therapies, and vaccines. SARS-CoV-2, which can be regarded as a functional core-shell nanoparticle (NP), can interact with diverse materials in its vicinity and remains attached for variable times while preserving its bioactivity. These studies are critical for the appropriate use of controlled disinfection systems. Other nanotechnological approaches are also decisive for the development of improved novel testing and diagnosis kits of coronavirus that are urgently required. Therapeutics are based on nanotechnology strategies as well and focus on antiviral drug design and on new nanoarchitectured vaccines. A brief overview on patented work is presented that emphasizes nanotechnology applied to coronaviruses. Finally, some comments are made on patents of the initial technological responses to COVID-19 that have already been put in practice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Patentes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Propriedades de Superfície , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645050

RESUMO

This paper introduces a measure of the proximity in ideas using unsupervised machine learning. Knowledge transfers are considered a key driving force of innovation and regional economic growth. I explore knowledge relationships by deriving vector space representations of a patent's abstract text using Document Vectors (Doc2Vec), and using cosine similarity to measure their proximity in ideas space. I illustrate the potential uses of this method with an application to geographic localization in knowledge spillovers. For patents in the same technology field, their normalized text similarity is 0.02-0.05 S.D.s higher if they are located within the same city, compared to patents from other cities. This effect is much smaller than when knowledge transfers are measured using normalized patent citations: local patents receive about 0.23-0.30 S.D.s more local citations than compared to non-local control patents. These findings suggest that the effect of geography on knowledge transfers may be much smaller than the previous literature using citations suggests.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/história , Invenções/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conhecimento , Idioma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Semântica , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649675

RESUMO

How would an inventor, entrepreneur, investor, or patent examiner quantify the extent to which the inventive claims listed in a patent document align with patent specification? Since a specification that is poorly aligned with the inventive claims can render an invention unpatentable and can invalidate an already issued patent, an effective measure of alignment is necessary. We define a novel measure of drafting alignment using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The measure is defined for each patent document by first identifying the latent topics underlying the claims and the specification, and then using the Hellinger distance to find the proximity between the topical coverages. We demonstrate the use of the novel measure for data processing patent documents related to cybersecurity. The properties of the proposed measure are further investigated using exploratory data analysis, and it is shown that generally alignment is positively associated with the prior patenting efforts as well as the tendency to include figures in a document.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Invenções/tendências , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto
11.
Am J Law Med ; 46(1): 55-88, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460655

RESUMO

Patent rights are recognized as a property asset with an attendant right to exclude. However, recent policy developments highlight that the right to exclude is not inviolable. This paper explores two rapidly evolving exceptions to patent exclusivity, both of which take the form of compulsory licenses. First, under the international Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS"), national governments can compel patent owners to out-license technology in service of greater good. These egalitarian compulsory licenses improve access to technology but undermine patent value. Second, compulsory licenses are increasingly relied upon as an equitable remedy in U.S. patent litigation. Typically referred to as "ongoing royalties," these court-mandated compulsory licenses are a modern alternative to injunctions against adjudged infringers. TRIPS compulsory licenses and ongoing royalties arise under independent legal frameworks, but necessarily invoke parallel economic considerations. While the wisdom of each has been discussed at length by others, this paper explores principles of royalty determination employed in each context. Considering both frameworks, an analysis of where each succeeds and fails is provided, together with an exploration of optimized royalty frameworks.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Propriedade Intelectual , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito Internacional , Estados Unidos
12.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(8): 567-579, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429703

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus has been responsible for several virus outbreaks since 2003, caused by SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and currently SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), the causative agent of coronavirus disease in 2019. COVID-19 has become a global public health emergency because of its high virulence and mortality capacity. This patent review aims to provide an overview of the patents that present possible treatments for SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. AREAS COVERED: To treat SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2, researchers have filed patents for a number of therapeutic agents. Most of the treatments found were protease inhibitors aimed at proteases such as PLpro, 3 CLpro, RNA helicase, and Spike protein, or used monoclonal antibodies and interferons. In addition, the use of Chinese folk medicine and its multitude of medicinal plants with strong antiviral properties was reinforced. Thus, these therapies used in previous epidemics can serve as an aid in the new pandemic by SARS-CoV-2 and be a starting point for new treatments. EXPERT OPINION: The various antiviral alternatives presented in this review offer therapeutic options to fight coronavirus infections. If shown to be effective, these drugs may be extremely important in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Patentes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455806

RESUMO

Investments in research and development (R&D) and innovation are expensive, and one wishes to be assured that there is positive feedback and to receive guidance on how to direct investments in the future. The social or economic benefits of investments in R&D are of particular interest to policymakers. In this regard, public expense in research, especially through universities, is sometimes being questioned. This paper establishes a measure of how research in Spain, and specifically in its universities, is involved. In this study, we have analyzed all the literature cited in the period 1998-2018 produced by Spanish institutions and which has been cited in at least one international patent, obtaining more than 40,000 publications from more than 160,000 different authors. The data have been surprisingly positive, showing that practically all public universities contribute to this subject and that there is a great deal of international collaboration, both in terms of the number of countries with which they collaborate and the prestige of the institutions involved. Regarding the specific scientific fields in which this collaboration is most relevant, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, and medicine together account for almost 40% of the total works. The topics most used by these publications were those of diseases or medical problems such as: Neoplams, Carcinoma, Alzheimer Disease, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Oncology was according to the All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) the leading and central issue. Therefore, although the result of basic research is difficult to quantify, when it is observed that there is a return in fields such as medicine or global health, it can be said that it is well employed. In terms of journals from a purely bibliometric point of view, it has been observed that some journals do not have a great impact or relative position within their categories, but they do have a great relevance in this area of patent support. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to set up a rank for scientific journals based on the citations of patents, so the percentage of articles cited in patents with Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI) >1, and as an indicator of scientific transfer from universities or research centres, the transference index in patents (TIP) is also proposed.


Assuntos
Medicina , Pesquisa , Bibliometria , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Pesquisa/tendências , Espanha
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1011-1022, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237440

RESUMO

In order to find the trends in Panax notoginseng industries of China, a combination of data analysis and empirical analysis was applied to analyze the application of global P. notoginseng patents, the innovation field, the distribution of patent assets, the patent citation network, the distribution of enterprises, the talent team, the competition and cooperation situation based on the financial big data platform of intellectual property industry. From the perspective of industrial technology hotspots, the clinical application of P. notoginseng is becoming more and more widespread, and its clinical treatment field is further expanding. From the perspective of industrial fields, the P. notoginseng industry has gradually expanded from the traditional Chinese medicine field to food, cosmetics, beverages, tea and other daily consumer goods. From the perspective of patent quality, the average maintenance life of P. notoginseng patents of China is lower than the global level, and the value and quality of patents need to be further improved. And the quality of P. notoginseng of China related patent applications has gradually improved in recent years. We analyzed the technology, capital, and talent issues of P. notoginseng industry of China, and summarized and forecasted the status and trends of P. notoginseng industry development of China. It is considered that scientific and technological innovation has become the core engine for the development of the P. notoginseng industry and intellectual property, especially patent protection, escorted the sustainable development of the P. notoginseng industry. Based on the above analysis, several suggestions were put forward to promote the high-quality development of the P. notoginseng industry. It should strengthen scientific and technological support, especially the need for a large number of high-quality scientific and technological output, expand multi-party cooperation, build a high-level technological innovation platform for the P. notoginseng industry, guide long-term capital to continuously and stably invest, and help the P. notoginseng industry to revitalize.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax notoginseng/química , Patentes como Assunto , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214371

RESUMO

The innovation value chain is an effective tool for analysing innovation activities and reflects the process of value creation and increase in innovation activities. From the perspective of innovation value chains, we divided patent innovation activities into three stages: knowledge innovation stage, applied research stage and patent commercialization stage. The panel data from 64 universities directly managed by the Ministry of Education from 2009 to 2017 were used and several conclusions were drawn: 1) In the initial stage of knowledge innovation, the fundamental research fund plays a crucial promoting role, and knowledge innovation achievements are mainly published academic papers. 2) In the applied research stage, the knowledge innovation in the early stage and the fund investment in R&D activities have a significant positive effect on the patent output of universities, but the personnel investment has a negative effect. 3) In the final stage of patent commercialization, preliminary research results have a positive impact on patent commercialization, whose marginal effect depends on the industry-university-research relationship, external competition and reputation of the university. The evidence showed that there is a feedback channel between university patent commercialization and knowledge innovation, and new knowledge generated by the interaction with the outside world in the process of patent commercialization was transmitted to the subject of knowledge innovation through this channel, forming a virtuous dynamic cycle. By analysing the driving factors of the value chain of patent innovation in colleges and universities, we provided empirical evidence for the operation mechanism and policy formulation of college patents in China.


Assuntos
Invenções/economia , Patentes como Assunto , Universidades/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , China
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 42, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130551

RESUMO

Photobioreactors (PBRs) are equipment of central importance for the massive cultivation of microalgae, providing controlled conditions for high cell productivity. There are a few popular PBR designs, with contrasting advantages and limitations, such as poor light distribution, mass transfer, or hydrodynamic behavior. Due to the environmental concerns in recent decades and the discovery of new, useful microalgal metabolites, the interest in finding alternatives to solve technological bottlenecks of PBRs has intensified. In this process, new geometries, materials, and modes of light supply were developed, generating a significant scientific and technological output, reported in papers and patents. We present a technological landscape analysis of photobioreactor design, focusing on improvements of the classical geometries and trends in industrial photobioreactors. The analysis of 412 patent documents showed a surge in innovation filing since 2005 and a reduction in the number of new documents along the last decade. The recent efforts in design improvement, the leading countries, institutes and companies that innovate, and the trends in PBR technology are presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotobiorreatores/microbiologia , Biomassa , Hidrodinâmica , Patentes como Assunto
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023289

RESUMO

In natural-language processing, the subject-action-object (SAO) structure is used to convert unstructured textual data into structured textual data comprising subjects, actions, and objects. This structure is suitable for analyzing the key elements of technology, as well as the relationships between these elements. However, analysis using the existing SAO structure requires a substantial number of manual processes because this structure does not represent the context of the sentences. Thus, we introduce the concept of SAO2Vec, in which SAO is used to embed the vectors of sentences and documents, for use in text mining in the analysis of technical documents. First, the technical documents of interest are collected, and SAO structures are extracted from them. Then, sentence vectors are extracted through the Doc2Vec algorithm and are updated using word vectors in the SAO structure. Finally, SAO vectors are drawn using an updated sentence vector with the same SAO structure. In addition, document vectors are derived from the document's SAO vectors. The results of an experiment in the Internet of things field indicate that the SAO2Vec method produces 3.1% better accuracy than the Doc2Vec method and 115.0% better accuracy than SAO frequency alone. This proves that the proposed SAO2Vec algorithm can be used to improve grouping and similarity analysis by including both the meanings and the contexts of technical elements.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Documentação , Modelos Teóricos , Patentes como Assunto , Semântica
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228616, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017795

RESUMO

Collaborative innovation is widely recognized as an instrument to promote technological convergence. However, its effects on technological convergence remain debatable. Using firm-level panel data of patenting in the Korean ICT industry from 1980 to 2015, I examine the effects of four collaborative innovation types (i.e., Inter-firm, Inter-ICT firm, Firm-University, and Firm-Government Research Institution (GRI) on ICT-based technological convergence. The results reveal the magnitude of Inter-ICT firm collaborative innovation was found to be significant and largest. The effects of the remaining three collaborative innovation types were significant but inconsiderable. Governments may consider the differential effects of collaboration types when designing incentive systems to promote technological convergence.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Práticas Interdisciplinares/métodos , Tecnologia , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , República da Coreia
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