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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 248-254, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932688

RESUMO

Human activities, such as research, innovation and industry, concentrate disproportionately in large cities. The ten most innovative cities in the United States account for 23% of the national population, but for 48% of its patents and 33% of its gross domestic product. But why has human activity become increasingly concentrated? Here we use data on scientific papers, patents, employment and gross domestic product, for 353 metropolitan areas in the United States, to show that the spatial concentration of productive activities increases with their complexity. Complex economic activities, such as biotechnology, neurobiology and semiconductors, concentrate disproportionately in a few large cities compared to less--complex activities, such as apparel or paper manufacturing. We use multiple proxies to measure the complexity of activities, finding that complexity explains from 40% to 80% of the variance in urban concentration of occupations, industries, scientific fields and technologies. Using historical patent data, we show that the spatial concentration of cutting-edge technologies has increased since 1850, suggesting a reinforcing cycle between the increase in the complexity of activities and urbanization. These findings suggest that the growth of spatial inequality may be connected to the increasing complexity of the economy.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 14(1): 33-40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copaiba oil-resin has been widely used and is especially found in neotropical regions, for which several pharmacological activities have been documented over the years. Prospective studies in intellectual property banks are important to increase competitiveness and thus generate new products in various research areas. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was carried out on patents of products containing copaiba oil-resin for dental use in intellectual property banks. METHODS: The research was conducted with patent searches in six intellectual property banks of the world. Relevant information about the invention in the patent document was collected, processed and described. RESULTS: The search found 9 patents using copaiba resin oil-resin in dental products. The National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI-Brazil) had the highest number of deposits (5), followed by Espacenet (2) and Free Patents (2). C. Langsdorffii was highlighted as the most widely used species in the products and deposits of vehicles in formulations (3). All the patents in the search are A61K code for medical, dental or hygienic purposes. CONCLUSION: Most of the found patents are related to the area of Microbiology, specifically with application in Cariology. Brazil is represented by the INPI and presented the highest number of patent applications when compared to other intellectual property banks.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleos Vegetais , Resinas Sintéticas , Propriedade Intelectual , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To expose the current situation of the Brazilian Nuclear Medicine in relation to innovation, taking into account the Intellectual Property protection and the particularities of this field. METHODS: The number and the origin of patents filings from Brazil, United States and European Patent Convention countries were retrospectively compared in a 20-year period. RESULTS: The number of accumulated patents filings of conventional pharmaceuticals was ten times higher compared to the radiopharmaceuticals in the three regions studied. CONCLUSION: The largest number of Brazilian patents filings corresponded to the international patent applications, which is related to the country development conditions, as well as to the difficulties in the process of patent filing.


Assuntos
Medicina Nuclear/tendências , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Brasil , Humanos , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
4.
Psicothema ; 31(4): 351-362, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634079

RESUMO

Research Ranking of Spanish Public Universities (2019). BACKGROUND: The changes produced in the Spanish university system due to the Bologna process require periodically updated evaluation reports of research activity. The objective of this study is to update the last available ranking of Spanish public universities, based on data from 2013-2018. METHOD: The production and productivity of each university were assessed based on seven specific indicators and a global score: articles in journals indexed in the JCR (Journal Citation Reports), research periods, R+D projects, doctoral theses, FPU (training of university professors) grants, FPI (training of personal researchers) grants, and patents. RESULTS: Globally, the universities Complutense of Madrid, Barcelona, and Granada hold the first positions in terms of production, while the first positions in terms of productivity are held by the universities Pompeu Fabra, Autonomous of Madrid, and Autonomous of Barcelona. CONCLUSIONS: The universities that hold the top positions in this ranking remain relatively steady over time and are also the Spanish universities that stand out in international classifications.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional/classificação , Setor Público/classificação , Pesquisa/classificação , Universidades/classificação , Indexação e Redação de Resumos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Bibliometria , Eficiência Organizacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/educação , Organização do Financiamento/classificação , Organização do Financiamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMJ ; 367: l5766, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which late stage development of new drugs relies on support from public funding. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: All new drugs containing one or more new molecular entities approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 2008 and December 2017 via the new drug application pathway. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patents or drug development histories documenting late stage research contributions by a public sector research institution or a spin-off company, as well as each drug's regulatory approval pathway and first-in-class designation. RESULTS: Over the 10 year study period, the FDA approved 248 drugs containing one or more new molecular entities. Of these drugs, 48 (19%) had origins in publicly supported research and development and 14 (6%) originated in companies spun off from a publicly supported research program. Drugs in these groups were more likely to receive expedited FDA approval (68% v 47%, P=0.005) or be designated first in class (45% v 26%, P=0.007), indicating therapeutic importance. CONCLUSIONS: A review of the patents associated with new drugs approved over the past decade indicates that publicly supported research had a major role in the late stage development of at least one in four new drugs, either through direct funding of late stage research or through spin-off companies created from public sector research institutions. These findings could have implications for policy makers in determining fair prices and revenue flows for these products.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/economia , Aprovação de Drogas/economia , Setor Público/economia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Aprovação de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência , United States Food and Drug Administration/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401192

RESUMO

Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the Alphavirus genus and transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of Aedes spp. Nearly 40 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas have documented chikungunya cases. Most recent severe outbreaks have occurred in Indian Ocean islands of Réunion and Mauritius and India. There is no specific drug treatment for the disease, neither is there a standardized vaccine available for prevention of the disease. The present review gives a global perspective on patents filed pertaining to chikungunya. The United States has been the top patent filing jurisdiction followed by China, Europe, and India. The patents have been classified into categories of therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines. Maximum patent documents fall under the therapeutics category, in which patent applications are predominantly related to chemically derived drugs. They include nucleic acid analogues, various other host and virus enzyme/protein inhibitors. Patents on biological or plant derived drugs are being filed relatively recently. In the category of diagnostics, immunoassay based tests seemed to be of choice until the year 2005, whereas, patent filings for molecular diagnostics have now surpassed those with immunoassay techniques. In the vaccines category, vaccines based on viral vectors appear to be emerging as the preferred vaccine platform with the majority of patents filed in the years 2014-2017. Corporate sector has the most patent filings to its credit, followed closely by academic institutions. Pasteur Institut along with Chinese Agency for Science, Technology and Research is the top patent filing entity in chikungunya related technology space. Presently, nine vaccine products, three antiviral drugs and one mRNA based gene therapy are under development. Three vaccine products have been given fast track designation by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite review and facilitate the development of a vaccine to prevent a serious or life-threatening condition and fill an unmet medical need. Similarly, one vaccine has been given PRIME (Priority Medicines) status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais , Aedes/virologia , África/epidemiologia , América/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , China , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
7.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 13(4): 256-267, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory process is a physiological response to a vast number of harmful stimulus that takes place in order to restore homeostasis. Many drugs used in pharmacotherapy are effective to control inflammatory responses, however, there is a range of adverse effects attributed to steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In this sense, herbal medicine and derivatives have gained more attention because of their effectiveness and safety, showing the importance of medicinal plants, especially the Cannabis genus and the cannabinoid derivatives. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospection was to identify data related to patents involving Cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammation. METHODS: To do so, a search for patents was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis and cannabinoids. Four specialized databases for patent research were consulted using the terms "cannabis", "cannabidiol", "cannabinoids" and "THC" associated with "inflammation". RESULTS: A total of 370 patents were found, of which 17 patents met the inclusion criteria. Although reports show synergistic effects of the plant components, patents involving Cannabis and cannabinoids focus on isolated substances (CBD e THC). CONCLUSION: However, patents related to Cannabis and cannabinoids are promising for future use of the plant or its derivatives on the treatment of inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Canabinoides , Cannabis , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Descoberta de Drogas , Medicina Herbária , Humanos
8.
Health Serv Res ; 54(4): 752-763, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with changes in prescription drug use and expenditures in the United States from 1999 to 2016, a period of rapid growth, deceleration, and resumed above-average growth. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), containing household and pharmacy information on over five million prescription drug fills. STUDY DESIGN: We use nonparametric decomposition to analyze drug use, average payment per fill, and per capita expenditure, tracking the contributions over time of socioeconomic characteristics, health status and treated conditions, insurance coverage, and market factors surrounding the patent cycle. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data were combined with information on drug approval dates and patent status. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Per capita utilization increased by nearly half during 1999-2016, with changes in health status and treated conditions accounting for four-fifths of the increase. In contrast, per capita expenditures more than doubled, with individual characteristics only explaining one-third of the change. Other drivers of spending during this period include the changing pipeline of new drugs, drugs losing exclusivity, and changes in generic competition. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term trends in treated conditions were the fundamental drivers of medication use, whereas factors involving the patent cycle accelerated and decelerated spending growth relative to trends in use.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Artif Life ; 25(1): 33-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933632

RESUMO

We detect ongoing innovation in empirical data about human technological innovations. Ongoing technological innovation is a form of open-ended evolution, but it occurs in a nonbiological, cultural population that consists of actual technological innovations that exist in the real world. The change over time of this population of innovations seems to be quite open-ended. We take patented inventions as a proxy for technological innovations and mine public patent records for evidence of the ongoing emergence of technological innovations, and we compare two ways to detect it. One way detects the first instances of predefined patent pigeonholes, specifically the technology classes listed in the United States Patent Classification (USPC). The second way embeds patents in a high-dimensional semantic space and detects the emergence of new patent clusters. After analyzing hundreds of years of patent records, both methods detect the emergence of new kinds of technologies, but clusters are much better at detecting innovations that are unanticipated and undetected by USPC pigeonholes. Our clustering methods generalize to detect unanticipated innovations in other evolving populations that generate ongoing streams of digital data.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(1): 82-91, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932052

RESUMO

Collective memory and attention are sustained by two channels: oral communication (communicative memory) and the physical recording of information (cultural memory). Here, we use data on the citation of academic articles and patents, and on the online attention received by songs, movies and biographies, to describe the temporal decay of the attention received by cultural products. We show that, once we isolate the temporal dimension of the decay, the attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function. We explain this universality by proposing a mathematical model based on communicative and cultural memory, which fits the data better than previously proposed log-normal and exponential models. Our results reveal that biographies remain in our communicative memory the longest (20-30 years) and music the shortest (about 5.6 years). These findings show that the average attention received by cultural products decays following a universal biexponential function.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comunicação , Cultura , Memória , Modelos Teóricos , Bibliometria , Biografias como Assunto , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Música , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Física/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180246, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a global public health concern. Currently available treatments are associated with considerable side effects. The use of nanotechnology has shown promise for improving efficacy and bioavailability and minimizing side effects. METHODS: This study investigated available literature, including patents and scientific articles, to identify advances in the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis. RESULTS: Our findings revealed a stable number of patents and scientific articles published over the past five years. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to intensify research on the use of nanotechnology for the treatment of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Nanotecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliometria , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(3): 244-250, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953010

RESUMO

For many years, scientists have studied culture by comparing societies, regions or social groups within a single point in time. However, culture is always changing, and this change affects the evolution of cognitive processes and behavioural practices across and within societies. Studies have now documented historical changes in sexism1, individualism2,3, language use4 and music preferences5 within the United States and around the world6. Here we build on these efforts by examining changes in cultural tightness-looseness (the strength of cultural norms and tolerance for deviance) over time, using the United States as a case study. We first develop a new linguistic measure to measure historical changes in tightness-looseness. Analyses show that America grew progressively less tight (i.e., looser) from 1800 to 2000. We next examine how changes in tightness-looseness relate to four indicators of societal order: debt (adjusted for inflation), adolescent pregnancies and crime, and high school attendance, as well as four indicators of creative output: registered patents, trademarks, feature films produced, and baby-naming conformity. We find that cultural tightness correlates negatively with each measure of creativity, and correlates positively with three out of four measures of societal order (fewer adolescent pregnancies, less debt and higher levels of school attendance). These findings imply that the historical loosening of American culture was associated with a trade-off between higher creativity but lower order.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Cultura , Linguística , Normas Sociais/etnologia , Adolescente , Big Data , Livros , Crime/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/etnologia , Conformidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/etnologia
14.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(1): 9-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific production, generation of patents and researchers training among Brazilian Collective Health professors who were awarded a Pq/CNPq productivity scholarship from 2000 to 2012 and to verify the existence of an association between these production modalities and the characteristics of the professors, such as gender, training and origin. METHOD: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out from 2000 to 2012, and the Prevalence Ratio was calculated using Poisson regression. For the statistical analyzes, the SPSS® program was used. RESULTS: Of particular note are regional and institutional concentration, consistent scientific output, important researchers training, and a primordial but still timid generation of patents. We found an association between the "scientific production", "researchers training" outcomes, and the gender characteristics, such as the formation and origin of the Pq professor. CONCLUSION: These findings can guide the decision-making aimed at the deconcentration of scientific production and researchers training in the Brazilian Collective Health.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Docentes/normas , Bolsas de Estudo/tendências , Pesquisadores/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Saúde Pública/educação , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/tendências
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 743-758, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812008

RESUMO

Petroleum has been the world's major source of energy since the middle of the twentieth century, leading to positive changes but also social, political, and environmental problems worldwide. Oil contamination affects all ecosystems, and the remediation of polluted sites using environmentally friendly strategies is crucial. Here, we report an analysis of the patent documents of potential petroleum bioremediation techniques that use microbes to clean seawater. The patent search was performed using Orbit Intelligence®, SciFinder® and the Derwent World Patents Index®. A group of 500 patent documents were validated according to the search objective and carefully studied. Increases in patent deposits coincide with periods following widely reported oil spills, suggesting a relationship between media disclosure and stimulation of innovation activities. China leads the list of countries with patent applications in bioremediation with 152 deposits, followed by Russia with 133 and the US with 48. These three countries have completely different temporal deposit profiles, influenced by their historical, political, and economic scenarios. A total of 368 patents described degradation of the oil compounds exclusively by bacteria, 24 by fungi and yeasts, 1 by Archaea, 1 using a microalgal strain, and 32 by mixed consortia. The leading microbial genera found in the patents are Pseudomonas (114 patents), Bacillus (75), and Rhodococcus (60). In the top-10 list of microbial strains mostly cited/claimed, no genera are obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. This fact, together with the broad pattern found in the main International Patent Classification (IPC) codes, suggest that most of the documents are general bioremediation approaches and not focused on oil-polluted seawater. This work highlights the importance of stimulating the development of innovative environmentally friendly strategies focused on the degradation of oil hydrocarbons in marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Petróleo , Água do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180391, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is one of the most devastating fungal infections in humans. Despite the disease's clinical importance, current therapy is based on limited antifungals that are either toxic, inefficient, unavailable worldwide, or that quickly lead to resistance. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to provide insight into the future of cryptococcosis treatment by describing the patent scenario in this field. METHODS: We identified and analysed patent documents revealing compounds with anti-cryptococcal activity supported by experimental evidence. FINDINGS: Patenting in this field has been historically low, with an overall tendency of increase since 2012. Most applications are single filings, suggesting that they do not encompass strategic inventions requiring broad protection. Research and development essentially took place in China and the United States, which also represent the main countries of protection. Both academic and corporate institutions contributed to patenting in this field. Universities are the leading actors, with the highest patent family counts. CONCLUSION: The low number of patents in this field indicates that efforts to mitigate the unmet needs for cryptococcosis treatment remain insufficient. Without investment to drive research and innovation, patients will likely continue to face inadequate assistance. Given the current scenario characterised by poor funding and low interest for technological development, drug repurposing may be the best alternative for cryptococcosis treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência
17.
Nature ; 566(7744): 378-382, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760923

RESUMO

One of the most universal trends in science and technology today is the growth of large teams in all areas, as solitary researchers and small teams diminish in prevalence1-3. Increases in team size have been attributed to the specialization of scientific activities3, improvements in communication technology4,5, or the complexity of modern problems that require interdisciplinary solutions6-8. This shift in team size raises the question of whether and how the character of the science and technology produced by large teams differs from that of small teams. Here we analyse more than 65 million papers, patents and software products that span the period 1954-2014, and demonstrate that across this period smaller teams have tended to disrupt science and technology with new ideas and opportunities, whereas larger teams have tended to develop existing ones. Work from larger teams builds on more-recent and popular developments, and attention to their work comes immediately. By contrast, contributions by smaller teams search more deeply into the past, are viewed as disruptive to science and technology and succeed further into the future-if at all. Observed differences between small and large teams are magnified for higher-impact work, with small teams known for disruptive work and large teams for developing work. Differences in topic and research design account for a small part of the relationship between team size and disruption; most of the effect occurs at the level of the individual, as people move between smaller and larger teams. These results demonstrate that both small and large teams are essential to a flourishing ecology of science and technology, and suggest that, to achieve this, science policies should aim to support a diversity of team sizes.


Assuntos
Difusão de Inovações , Processos Grupais , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/organização & administração , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/organização & administração , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar/tendências , Prêmio Nobel , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Ciência/tendências , Software/provisão & distribução , Tecnologia/tendências
18.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(2): 218-224, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After new prescription drugs reach the market, manufacturers sometimes create modified versions of them. These new formulations can expand patient treatment options, but they may also be protected by later-expiring patents or data exclusivities, which can lead to later generic entry for the new formulations compared with the original product. OBJECTIVE: To quantify how frequently manufacturers introduce new formulations of existing drugs and how often these new formulations earn additional years of market exclusivity beyond that of the original product. METHODS: Using a cohort design and FDA databases, we assessed how frequently manufacturers introduced new formulations of 17 new small-molecule drugs approved in 2002 and when generic entry for the new formulations and original product occurred. RESULTS: Through 2017, nine (53%) drugs approved in 2002 had been connected to 21 new formulations, most (11/21, 53%) introduced before 2007. Generic entry was observed in 6 of 9 (67%) cases and occurred more than 2 years later for the new formulations in 3 of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the introduction of new formulations of brand-name drugs occurs in about half of cases and sometimes provides manufacturers with a lengthy period of additional market exclusivity beyond that of the original product. DISCLOSURES: This work was funded by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. Kesselheim and Sarpatwari also receive support from the Harvard-MIT Center for Regulatory Science and the Engelberg Foundation. Beall has nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desenho de Fármacos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov ; 14(2): 100-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last few decades, cancer immunotherapy has been extensively researched, and novel checkpoint signaling mechanisms involving Programmed Death (PD)-1 and PDLigand 1 (PD-L1) receptors have been targeted. The PD-1/PD-L1 binding and interaction play a critical role in the development of malignancies. OBJECTIVE: The present review focuses on recent patents on the pharmacological and biological cancerregulating properties of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors involved in immunotherapeutic cancer drug development. METHODS: Thorough patent literature search published during the last seven years, including the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO®), United States Patent Trademark Office (USPTO®), Espacenet®, and Google Patents, to identify PD-1/PD-L1-targeting small molecule immunomodulators. RESULTS: Several small molecule PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were patented for regulation of tumor progression by academic and industry-associated investigators. Most of the claimed patents have been validated and confined to in vitro and in vivo mouse models limiting their entry into clinical settings. Majority of the patents are claimed by the researchers at Aurigene Ltd. (India) on novel peptidomimetic compounds. It is worth to be noted that macrocyclic compounds such as the peptides QP20, HD20, WQ20, SQ20, and CQ-22 from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) Company, biaryl, and heterocyclic derivatives including 1,3-dihydroxy-phenyl compounds were efficient in regulating the PD-1/PD-L1 protein-protein binding and interaction compared to those of the approved monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors show significant anti-cancer responses as stand-alone agents and in combination with other cancer therapies. More efficient experimental studies and clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the host-tumor cells' interactions. Understanding the cancer microenvironment, and identifying specific biomarkers and X-ray crystalline structures of PD-1/PD-L1 complexes, including molecular and genomic signature studies are essential to determine the feasibility of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for development into drug-like cancer immunotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Patentes como Assunto , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/economia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/normas , Ligantes , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/análise
20.
Int J Health Serv ; 49(1): 68-84, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309289

RESUMO

Compulsory licensing (CL), provided by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, enables countries, including high-income countries, to ensure the protection of public health in the context of stringent intellectual property regimes. This study investigated associations between the time to attempted CL and a series of factors at the drug and country level. We used a dataset of all attempted CL that occurred from 1995 to 2014, calculated the duration as the difference in years between the year of global marketing of a certain drug and the year of attempted CL in a certain country, and applied a nonparametric event history model. We found that the Doha Declaration was quite effective in shortening the time to attempted CL. Additionally, even though global justice movements have encouraged some countries to attempt CL for various medicines since 2012, the time to CL attempts in this period became significantly longer compared to those that occurred immediately after the Doha Declaration. Our findings show that the subject of CL has not successfully expanded to oncology medicines from HIV/AIDS medicines and that recently approved medicines are not yet subjects of CL. Furthermore, our duration model suggests a learning-by-doing effect in attempting CL: previous experience of CL not only triggers CL for the same drugs in other countries but also accelerates CL for other drugs within the country.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Patentes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Licenciamento , Fatores de Tempo
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