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1.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(1): 93-100, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126214

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act aimed to reduce health disparities and change medicine to be more community-driven. To maintain tax-exempt status, hospitals must complete a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA) every 3 years. This assessment must ( a ) integrate input from individuals the community serves, ( b ) make the report publicly assessable, and ( c ) adopt an implementation strategy based on community health needs identified in the assessment. However, there is little information on how representative CHNAs are of the community. DESIGN: A content analysis was performed on a random sample of CHNA reports. SETTING: This investigation examined nonprofit hospitals across the United States. OBJECTIVES: This investigation analyzed the quality of CHNAs and described existing CHNA practices through 4 means: (1) identified the type of data included; (2) examined the frequency in the methods of data collection; (3) understood how representative those data are of the hospital's service region; and (4) explored to what extent the hospital addressed diversity and inclusion such as through recruitment. METHODS: A stratified random sample was drawn of CHNAs published in the past 3 years (n = 450 reports). The sample was stratified by the US Department of Agriculture's Rural-Urban Continuum codes to balance hospital representation from metro and nonmetro areas. RESULTS: A series of dependent t tests revealed that these hospitals' reports represented a significantly more female, White, college-educated, and older population than the service area. In addition, only 3.12% of hospitals collected primary youth data. Finally, results also found that survey recruitment was not inclusive of individuals who did not have Internet access, could not read, or did not speak English fluently.


Assuntos
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública/métodos , Isenção Fiscal , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos
2.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 96(1): 51-62, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656730

RESUMO

Tooth decay and gum disease are reversible, preventable, and impact approximately 68% of older adults nationwide. While the Affordable Care Act added provisions to health prevention services, it did not cover oral health prevention for adults and older adults. A rapid review process was utilized to identify literature documenting system and policy level barriers and opportunities to address oral health equity issues for older adults in the United States. Twenty-five articles met inclusion criteria for analysis. Findings revealed four barrier and three opportunity themes. Recommendations of analysis include expansion of oral health coverage under Medicare and Medicaid along with community-based and co-located medical and dental services. This will address access and utilization barriers and provide education for older adults, health providers, and the general population. Increasing oral health literacy and population awareness, and prioritizing oral health can be met by capitalizing on opportunities found in this rapid review.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Idoso , Medicare , Medicaid , Política de Saúde
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360987

RESUMO

Since FY 2013, as a part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) program, the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) program has adjusted Medicare's payments to hospitals based on the total performance score of the hospital. First, the program reduces a portion of the hospital's Medicare payments in a specific fiscal year, and then, by the end of the same fiscal year, the amount of the payment reductions will be awarded to the hospitals based on the total performance score; thus, the hospitals that do not receive the reward will lose the portion of money reduced by Medicare. In this research, we apply the theory of state dependence and use the dynamic random effect probit model to estimate this effect. The results show that the hospital payment adjustment dynamics have a very significant state dependence effect (0.341); this means that hospitals that received a reward in the previous year are 34.1% more likely to receive a reward this year than the ones that received a penalty in the previous year. Meanwhile, we also find that the state dependence effect varies significantly across hospitals with different ownership (proprietary/government owned/voluntary nonprofit), and the results show that voluntary nonprofit hospitals exhibit the largest effect of state dependence (0.370), while government-owned hospitals exhibit the lowest effect of state dependence (0.293), and proprietary hospitals are in the middle. Among the factors that influence the likelihood that a hospital receives a reward, we find that teaching hospitals with a large number of beds (>400) are less likely be rewarded; in terms of ownership, we find that voluntary nonprofit hospitals are more likely be rewarded; in terms of demographic factors, hospitals where the average household income are higher within the region are more likely be rewarded.


Assuntos
Sistema de Pagamento Prospectivo , Estados Unidos , Medicare , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Hospitais de Ensino
4.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 1757-1771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341661

RESUMO

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded access and assistance to many Americans, but health care remains prohibitively expensive for some, including people with insurance. The COVID-19 pandemic brought to the forefront the precarious conditions of those facing financial and health crises, including American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Theoretically, AI/ANs should have some insulation because of their health care access through Indian Health Service (IHS) and ACA Tribal health insurance options. We use 2018 National Financial Capability Study's survey data to examine household medical debt and cost avoidance behaviors. Findings show AI/ANs are more likely to have medical debt and skip filling prescriptions due to costs than non-Hispanic Whites. Implications are AI/ANs may face financial and health burdens due to insufficient health coverage, possibly exacerbated by the shortcomings of IHS or other underlying factors. Future research should use a qualitative approach to elucidate factors influencing health care finances and behaviors of AI/AN communities.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , COVID-19 , Índios Norte-Americanos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pandemias , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
6.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221133215, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354062

RESUMO

Public health insurance eligibility for low-income adults has improved adult economic well-being. But whether parental public health insurance eligibility has spillover effects on children's health insurance coverage and family health-related financial well-being is less understood. We use the 2016 to 2020 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) to estimate the effects of Medicaid expansions through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for parents on child health insurance coverage, parents' employment decisions due to child health, and family health-related financial well-being. We compare children in low-income families in states that expanded Medicaid for parents after 2015 to states that never expanded in a difference-in-differences framework. We find that these expansions were associated with increases in children's public health insurance coverage by 5.5 percentage points and reductions in private coverage by 5 percentage points. We additionally find that parents were less likely to avoid changing jobs for health insurance reasons and children's medical expenses were less likely to exceed $1000. We find no evidence that the expansions affected children's dual coverage and uninsurance. Our estimates are robust to falsification and sensitivity analyzes. Our findings also suggest that benefits on children's medical expenses are concentrated in the families with the greatest financial need.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Criança , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Saúde da Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Pais
7.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(11): e223878, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331442

RESUMO

Importance: Although Medicare provides health insurance coverage for most patients with kidney failure in the US, Medicare beneficiaries who initiate dialysis without supplemental coverage are exposed to substantial out-of-pocket costs. The availability of expanded Medicaid coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) for adults with kidney failure may improve access to care and reduce Medicare-financed hospitalizations after dialysis initiation. Objective: To examine the implications of the ACA's Medicaid expansion for Medicare-financed hospitalizations, health insurance coverage, and predialysis nephrology care among Medicare-covered adults aged 19 to 64 years with incident kidney failure in the first year after initiating dialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a difference-in-differences approach to assess Medicare-financed hospitalizations among adults aged 19 to 64 years who initiated dialysis between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018, while covered by Medicare Part A (up to 5 years postexpansion). Data on patients were obtained from the Renal Management Information System's End Stage Renal Disease Medical Evidence Report, which includes data for all patients initiating outpatient maintenance dialysis regardless of health insurance coverage, treatment modality, or citizenship status, and these data were linked with claims data from the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review. Data were analyzed from January to August 2022. Exposure: Living in a Medicaid expansion state. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were number of Medicare-financed hospitalizations and hospital days in the first 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after dialysis initiation. Secondary outcomes included dual Medicare and Medicaid coverage at 91 days after dialysis initiation and the presence of an arteriovenous fistula or graft at dialysis initiation for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Results: The study population included 188 671 adults, with 97 071 living in Medicaid expansion states (mean [SD] age, 53.4 [9.4] years; 58 329 men [60.1%]) and 91 600 living in nonexpansion states (mean [SD] age, 53.0 [9.6] years; 52 677 men [57.5%]). In the first 3 months after dialysis initiation, Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant decrease in Medicare-financed hospitalizations (-4.24 [95% CI, -6.70 to -1.78] admissions per 100 patient-years; P = .001) and hospital days (-0.73 [95% CI, -1.08 to -0.39] days per patient-year; P < .001), relative reductions of 8% for both outcomes. Medicaid expansion was associated with a 2.58-percentage point (95% CI, 0.88-4.28 percentage points; P = .004) increase in dual Medicare and Medicaid coverage at 91 days after dialysis initiation and a 1.65-percentage point (95% CI, 0.31-3.00 percentage points; P = .02) increase in arteriovenous fistula or graft at initiation. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study with a difference-in-differences analysis, the ACA's Medicaid expansion was associated with decreases in Medicare-financed hospitalizations and hospital days and increases in dual Medicare and Medicaid coverage. These findings suggest favorable spillover outcomes of Medicaid expansion to Medicare-financed care, which is the primary payer for patients with kidney failure.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa , Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicare , Estudos Transversais , Diálise Renal , Hospitalização , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278414, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449511

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Changes in insurance coverage after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) among non-elderly adults with self-reported chronic conditions across income categories have not been described. OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in insurance coverage after the ACA among non-elderly adults with chronic conditions across income categories, by geographic region. DESIGN: We compared self-reported access to health insurance pre-ACA (2010-2013) and post-ACA (2014-2017) for individuals 18-64 years of age with ≥ 2 chronic conditions, including hypertension, heart disease/stroke, emphysema, diabetes, asthma, cancer, and arthritis, across regions using a logistic regression approach, adjusted for covariates. We also assessed U.S. Census regional differences in insurance coverage post-ACA using modified Poisson regression models with robust variance and calculated the risk ratio (RR) of being uninsured by region, with the Northeast as the reference category. Within each region, we then examined changes in insurance coverage by income level among non-elderly individuals with any chronic condition. SETTING: 2010-2017 household component of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PARTICIPANTS: All members of surveyed households during five interviews over a two-year period. INTERVENTION: Start of insurance coverage expansion under the ACA. MAIN OUTCOMES: Health insurance status. RESULTS: On average nationwide, non-elderly adults with self-reported chronic conditions experienced increased insurance coverage associated with the ACA (diabetes: +6.41%, high-blood pressure: +6.09%, heart disease: +6.50%, asthma: +6.37%, arthritis: +6.77%, and ≥ 2 chronic conditions: +6.39%). Individuals in the West region reported the largest increases (diabetes +9.71%, high blood pressure +8.10%, and heart disease/stroke +8.83 %, asthma +9.10%, arthritis +8.39%, and ≥ 2 chronic conditions +8.58). In contrast, individuals in the South region reported smaller increases in insurance coverage post-ACA among those with diabetes, heart disease/stroke, and asthma compared to the Midwest and West. The Northeast region, which had the highest levels of insurance coverage pre-ACA, exhibited the smallest increase in reported coverage post-ACA. Reported insurance coverage improved across all regions for adults with any chronic condition across income levels, most notably for very low- and low-income individuals. A further cross-sectional comparison after the ACA demonstrated important residual differences in insurance coverage, despite the gains in all regions. When compared to the Northeast, adults with any self-reported chronic conditions living in the South were more likely to report no insurance coverage (diabetes: RR 1.99, p-value <0.001, high blood pressure: RR 2.02, p-value <0.001, heart diseases/stroke: RR 2.55, p-value <0.001, asthma RR 2.21, p-value <0.001, arthritis: RR 2.25, p-value <0.001), and ≥ 2 chronic condition (RR 2.29, p-value <0.001). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: The ACA was associated with meaningful increases in insurance coverage for adults with any self-reported chronic condition in all US regions, most notably in the West region and among those with lower incomes, suggesting a nation-wide trend to improved access to health insurance following implementation. However, intra-regional comparisons after ACA implementation showed important differences. Individuals with ≥2 chronic conditions in the South were 2.29 times less likely to have insurance coverage in comparison to their peers in the Northeast. Though the post-ACA improvements in reported access to health insurance coverage affected all US regions, the reported experience of those with multiple chronic conditions in the South point to continued barriers for those most likely to benefit from access to health insurance coverage. Medicaid expansion in the South would likely result in increased insurance coverage for individuals with chronic conditions and improve health care outcomes.


Assuntos
Artrite , Asma , Cardiopatias , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estudos Transversais , Doença Crônica , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Artrite/epidemiologia
9.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 74, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workforce diversity is a key strategy to improve treatment engagement among members of racial and ethnic minority groups. In this study, we seek to determine whether workforce diversity plays a role in reducing racial and ethnic differences in wait time to treatment entry and retention in different types of opioid use disorder treatment programs. METHODS: We conducted comparative and predictive analysis in a subsample of outpatient opioid treatment programs (OTPs), who completed access and retention survey questions in four waves of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (162 OTPs in 2000, 173 OTPs in 2005, 282 OTPs in 2014, and 300 OTPs in 2017). We sought to assess the associations between workforce diversity on wait time and retention, accounting for the role of Medicaid expansion and the moderating role of program ownership type (i.e., public, non-profit, for-profit) among OTPs located across the United States. RESULTS: We found significant differences in wait time to treatment entry and retention in treatment across waves. Average number of waiting days decreased in 2014 and 2017; post Medicaid expansion per the Affordable Care Act, while retention rates varied across years. Key findings show that programs with high diversity, measured by higher percent of African American staff and a higher percent of African American clients, were associated with longer wait times to enter treatment, compared to low diversity programs. Programs with higher percent of Latino staff and a higher percent of Latino clients were associated with lower retention in treatment compared with low diversity programs. However, program ownership type (public, non-profit and for-profit) played a moderating role. Public programs with higher percent of African American staff were associated with lower wait time, while non-profit programs with higher percent of Latino staff were related to higher retention. CONCLUSIONS: Findings show decreases in wait time over the years with significant variation in retention during the same period. Concordance in high workforce and client diversity was associated with higher wait time and lower retention. But these relations inverted (low wait time and high retention) in public and non-profit programs with high staff diversity. Findings have implications for building resources and service capacity among OTPs that serve a higher proportion of minority clients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Listas de Espera , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Etnicidade , Grupos Minoritários , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Recursos Humanos
11.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1155-1162, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245153

RESUMO

The expansion of Medicaid coverage as part of the Affordable Care Act has insured millions of Americans and reduced costly churn in the program. A large increase in Medicaid applications during Marketplace open enrollment would indicate two potential information gaps: 1) individuals do not know that they are eligible, and/or 2) individuals do not know that they can enroll in Medicaid year-round. We used statewide monthly Medicaid applications data for California over a three-year period (July 2016 to June 2019) to assess whether Marketplace open enrollment influences Medicaid applications. Over one-third of all Medicaid applications (35.0%) were received during months with Marketplace open enrollment, and daily average Medicaid application volume was 32.5% higher in those months than in months outside of open enrollment. These findings generate concerns about whether there is enough consumer education and outreach to potential enrollees to limit coverage gaps and associated barriers in access to care.


Assuntos
Trocas de Seguro de Saúde , Medicaid , California , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
12.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1322-1336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245166

RESUMO

The purpose was to examine the change in percent uninsured and if there is change in T-stage, N-stage and overall-stage among nonelderly patients with newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma after the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The National Cancer Database was used for this study. Patients were divided between pre-ACA and post-ACA implementation with stratification between areas of ACA expansion versus non-expansion. A quasi-experimental difference-in-difference study design was undertaken. A total of 15,037 patients met the inclusion criteria. Between the pre-ACA and post-ACA periods, there was increase in proportion of percent insured with Medicaid coverage in patients residing in expansion region. There was a decrease in the proportion of patients who had advanced Tumor stage and Nodal stage decreased after implementation of ACA. With the implementation of ACA expansion, there is increased Medicaid coverage, corresponding to a decreased proportion of patients presenting with advanced T-stage and N-stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Medicaid , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Estados Unidos
13.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1555-1568, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245180

RESUMO

Under the Affordable Care Act, the federal Health Insurance Navigator Program aims to reduce the rate of uninsured in the United States. Under this program, navigators help people obtain insurance coverage through federally facilitated Marketplaces. However, the program's financial instability and substantial budget cuts created a severe shortage of navigator assistance for the uninsured and underserved. The COVID-19 pandemic added further pressure to the already-strained program. Our study examined how unstable and unpredictable federal funding and the COVID-19 pandemic affected organizations' navigator work in the federal program in 2020. The results study show (1) that navigator organizations provide vital, year-round resources; (2) that organizations feel pushed to direct scarce resources to grant management and cut service provision; and (3) that there are policy changes that can support navigator organizations in the future. Increased and ongoing federal investment is needed to support this vital health workforce and expand enrollment assistance for underserved communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pandemias , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
14.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(3): 1650-1662, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245186

RESUMO

There are hundreds of thousands of metropolitan United States taxi and for-hire vehicle (FHV) drivers who lack health insurance and have limited access to primary care. The Affordable Care Act provided increased opportunities for insurance coverage. The current study used a 1,864 person 2015-2018 NYC taxi/FHV driver dataset, which included health insurance coverage and primary care access information. The data revealed an increase in insurance coverage and primary care uptake across the four years, from 40% to 63% and 52% to 60%, respectively. Drivers' age, region of birth, and hours driving per week predicted insurance coverage, and drivers' age, region of birth, hours driving per week, and insurance status predicted primary care coverage. Recommendations for addressing the pervasive low rates of insurance and primary care coverage among this understudied marginalized population are presented.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1630-1639, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223588

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate whether state Medicaid expansions' relationships to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening differ by race/ethnicity. Methods. Analyses conducted in 2021 used 2011-2016 and 2018-2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on adults aged 40 to 64 years with household incomes below 400% of the federal poverty guideline (FPG; n = 537 250). Triple-difference analyses compared cancer screening in Medicaid expansion versus nonexpansion states, before versus after expansion, among people with incomes above versus below the eligibility cutoff (138% FPG). Race/ethnicity and ethnicity-by-language interaction terms tested for effect modification. Results. Associations between Medicaid expansions and cancer screening were significant for past-2-year mammograms and past-5-year colorectal screening. Effect modification analyses showed elevated mammography among non-Hispanic Asian women (+9.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.2, 14.8) and Hispanic women (+6.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 2.0, 10.1), and Papanicolaou tests among Hispanic women (+4.2 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.1, 8.2). Findings were not limited to English- or Spanish-speaking respondents and were robust to insurance status controls. Conclusions. Medicaid expansions yielded statistically significant increases in income-eligible Asian and Hispanic women's mammography and Hispanic women's Pap testing relative to non-Hispanic White women. Neither language proficiency nor insurance status explained these findings. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1630-1639. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307027).


Assuntos
Medicaid , Neoplasias , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Etnicidade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
16.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(9): e223073, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218937

RESUMO

Importance: More than 70% of Medicare beneficiaries in Puerto Rico are enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (MA) plan. Evidence of MA plan payments and quality in Puerto Rico compared with the 50 US states and Washington, DC (hereafter referred to as US mainland), is lacking, notably after implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Objective: To compare MA plan payments and quality in Puerto Rico with those in the US mainland and to evaluate how differences between MA plans in Puerto Rico and the US mainland changed after ACA implementation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used publicly available data on MA plans from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2019, from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to February 2022. Exposures: Medicare Advantage plans in Puerto Rico and implementation of the ACA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were risk-standardized federal benchmark payments (the amount offered by the federal government for insuring a beneficiary of average risk), risk-standardized plan bids (a plan's asking price for a beneficiary of average risk), and rebates received by plans. Additional outcomes included risk-adjusted benchmarks, risk-adjusted bids, actual plan payment, and aggregate plan quality ratings (star ratings). A difference-in-differences analysis examined differential changes in plan payments in Puerto Rico vs the US mainland after ACA implementation. Results: Before ACA implementation, 211 MA plans in Puerto Rico and 13 899 plans in the US mainland were included. After ACA implementation, 433 MA plans in Puerto Rico and 29 515 plans in the US mainland were included. Before ACA implementation, risk-standardized benchmarks were 33% lower for MA plans in Puerto Rico than plans in the US mainland ($556.73 [95% CI, $551.82-$561.64] vs $831.15 [95% CI, $828.55-$833.75] per beneficiary per month [PBPM]). This gap increased to 38% after ACA implementation ($540.58 [95% CI, $536.86-$544.32] vs $869.31 [95% CI, $868.21-$870.42] PBPM). Risk-standardized plan bids in Puerto Rico were 46% lower before ACA implementation and 43% lower after ACA implementation compared with those in the US mainland. Rebates in Puerto Rico decreased from $168.50 (95% CI, $163.57-$173.42) PBPM before ACA implementation to $93.39 (95% CI, $89.51-$97.27) PBPM after ACA implementation, a decrease of $75.11 PMPM compared with a decrease of $2.05 PMPM in the US mainland. Plans in Puerto Rico received increased quality bonus payments, and the mean (SD) risk score for plans in Puerto Rico increased to 1.55 (0.31) after ACA implementation, which increased risk-adjusted benchmarks and actual plan payments, offsetting the widening payment disparity. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that after implementation of the ACA, federal benchmark payment amounts decreased in Puerto Rico compared with the US mainland. Responses by MA plans in Puerto Rico, including increased quality bonus payments and risk scores, offset this payment reduction, although actual plan payments in Puerto Rico were lower than those in the US mainland.


Assuntos
Medicare Part C , Ácido 4-Acetamido-4'-isotiocianatostilbeno-2,2'-dissulfônico/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , District of Columbia , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30809, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197163

RESUMO

Despite its focus on adults, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion led to increased health insurance enrollment for children in the United States. Previous studies looked at parent and child insurance changes separately, or used a single survey response item to understand changes in health insurance for parents and children. It is, however, important to understand the connection between parent and child insurance changes together (not individually) using data sources that account for insurance over time. Therefore, to understand the association of parental health insurance on their children's coverage, leveraging a cohort of linked families seen in community health centers (CHCs), we used electronic health records to link a cohort of parents and children with ≥1 visit to a CHC in a Medicaid expansion state pre- (1/1/2012-12/31/2013) and ≥1 visit post-ACA (1/1/2014-12/31/2018) and determined primary payer type for all visits. This observational, cohort study assessed the rate of insured visits for children pre- to post-ACA across four parental insurance groups (always insured, gained Medicaid, discontinuously insured, never insured) using Poisson mixed effects models. We included 335 CHCs across 7 United States. Insurance rates were highest (~95 insured visits/100 visits) for children of parents who were always insured; rates were lowest for children of parents who were never insured (~83 insured visits/100 visits). Children with a parent who gained Medicaid had 4.4% more insured visits post- compared to pre-ACA (adjusted relative rates  = 1.044, 95% confidence interval: 1.014, 1.074). When comparing changes from pre- to post-ACA between parent insurance groups, children's insured visit rates were significantly higher for children of parents who gained Medicaid (reference) compared to children of parents who were always insured (adjusted ratio of rate ratio: 0.963, confidence interval: 0.935-0.992). Despite differences in Medicaid eligibility for children and adults, health insurance patterns were similar for linked families seen in CHCs. Findings suggest consideration should be paid to parent health insurance options when trying to increase children's coverage.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Seguro Saúde , Pais , Estados Unidos
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(10): 1371-1378, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190880

RESUMO

For almost fifty years, federal civil rights laws such as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, and Section 1557 and other provisions of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act have prohibited discrimination against Americans with disabilities, including in health care. Despite these laws, disabled Americans continue to experience disparities in health and health care, from preventive care to home and community-based services. In its 2022 Health Equity Framework for People with Disabilities, the National Council on Disability highlighted some of these disparities and recommended remedies. To explore these concerns, this article examines disability inequities and potential solutions within six areas. It concludes by recommending the ratification of the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to reinvigorate US efforts to maximize the health and dignity of disabled Americans and support their full participation in the community.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Direitos Civis , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(10): 1413-1422, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190883

RESUMO

Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) American Sign Language users experience significant mental health-related disparities compared with non-DHH English speakers. Yet there is little empirical evidence documenting this priority population's communication access in mental health and substance use treatment facilities. This study measured mental health and substance use treatment facilities' noncompliance to Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which requires health care facilities receiving government funds to provide effective communication access, such as a sign language interpreter, to DHH patients. Using nationally representative data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, we found that 41 percent of mental health facilities and 59 percent of substance use treatment facilities receiving public funds reported not providing services in sign language in 2019 and were thus noncompliant with the ACA's mandate to provide accessible communication to DHH patients. We mapped these data to display state-level noncompliance, and we make detailed recommendations at the policy, facility, and provider levels. These include monitoring noncompliance among government-funded facilities, expanding state-by-state mental health licensure reciprocity and telehealth policies to improve access to American Sign Language-fluent mental health professionals and addiction counselors, establishing systematic processes to collect information on disability-related accommodation needs, and increasing the workforce of DHH American Sign Language-fluent providers.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comunicação , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Línguas de Sinais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos
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