Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 12.292
Filtrar
2.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(7): 435-442, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117102

RESUMO

Machine learning (ML) is an area of artificial intelligence that provides computer programmes with the capacity to autodidact and learn new skills from experience, without continued human programming. ML algorithms can analyse large data sets quickly and accurately, by supervised and unsupervised learning techniques, to provide classification and prediction value outputs. The application of ML to chemical pathology can potentially enhance efficiency at all phases of the laboratory's total testing process. Our review will broadly discuss the theoretical foundation of ML in laboratory medicine. Furthermore, we will explore the current applications of ML to diverse chemical pathology laboratory processes, for example, clinical decision support, error detection in the preanalytical phase, and ML applications in gel-based image analysis and biomarker discovery. ML currently demonstrates exploratory applications in chemical pathology with promising advancements, which have the potential to improve all phases of the chemical pathology total testing pathway.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Aprendizado de Máquina , Patologia , Humanos , Patologia/métodos
3.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 28(3): 171-177, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825719

RESUMO

Dissections and autopsies are critical for understanding human anatomy, pathology, and uncovering mechanisms of disease. This review presents an historical journey from ancient times until the late Middle Ages. The major steps and developments are summarized with key figures and events presented.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Autopsia/história , Patologia/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Medieval , Humanos
5.
Cancer Med ; 10(9): 2996-3003, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811457

RESUMO

The Human Papillomavirus FOr CervicAL cancer (HPV FOCAL) trial is a large randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of primary HPV testing to cytology among women in the population-based Cervix Screening Program in British Columbia, Canada. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis based on the HPV FOCAL trial to estimate the incremental cost per detected high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse lesions (CIN2+). A total of 19,009 women aged 25 to 65 were randomized to one of two study groups. Women in the intervention group received primary HPV testing with reflex liquid-based cytology (LBC) upon a positive finding with a screening interval of 48 months. Women in the control group received primary LBC testing, and those negative returned at 24 months for LBC and again at 48 months for exit screening. Both groups received HPV and LBC co-testing at the 48-month exit. Incremental costs during the course of the trial were comparable between the intervention and control groups. The intervention group had lower overall costs and detected a larger number of CIN2+ lesions, resulting in a lower mean cost per CIN2+ detected ($7551) than the control group ($8325), a difference of -$773 [all costs in 2018 USD]. Cost per detected lesion was sensitive to the costs of sample collection, HPV testing, and LBC testing. The HPV FOCAL Trial results suggest that primary HPV testing every 4 years produces similar outcomes to LBC-based testing every 2 years for cervical cancer screening at a lower cost.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biópsia/economia , Colúmbia Britânica , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/economia , Patologia/economia , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
6.
Mycopathologia ; 186(2): 155-162, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126577

RESUMO

The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the publishing landscape. The 'pre-peer-review' publication model is likely to become common as a lag in publishing is not acceptable in a pandemic or other time! Mycopathologia is well placed to adopt such changes with its improved editorial processes, article formats, author engagements, and published articles' access and citation. Mycopathologia had an improved journal impact factor and article downloads in 2018-2019. A limited sampling suggested a slight decrease in the total submissions in 2019 (352 articles) compared to 2018 (371 articles). However, the acceptance rate improved to 30% in 2019 from 19% in 2018. Nearly half of all submissions in 2019 were rejected before peer-review or transferred to other Springer Nature journals. The published articles were contributed from 34 different countries, with authors from China, the USA, and Brazil among the top three contributors. An enhanced editorial oversight allowed peer-reviewers to focus on fewer articles that were well-matched to their expertise, which led to lower rejection rates post-peer-review. The introduction of MycopathologiaGENOME and MycopathologiaIMAGE article types received a good reception with notable downloads and citations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Micologia , Patologia , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(1)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second opinion review of pathology cases can identify diagnostic errors that impact patient care. OBJECTIVE: We sought out to determine discrepancy rates and clinical impact of review of pathology cases to reassess our policy of review on all second opinion cases. METHODS: All second opinion pathology cases over 1 year (2018) were retrospectively reviewed for discrepancy, multiple pathologist review and clinicopathologic features via chart and slide review. Cases were categorized as no significant discordance, major discordance without management change and major discordance with management change. RESULTS: Among 4239 second opinion cases, 3.7% (156/4239) had major discordance with no change in management and 1% (42/4239) had major discordance with change in management. Discordance was significantly associated with multiple pathologist review at our institution (P < 0.001). Highest rates of discordance were observed for thyroid fine needle aspiration (15.3%, 26/170), tissue biopsy of bone/soft tissue (9.6%), endocrine (8.8%), genitourinary (6.7%), gynecologic (6.2%), hematopathology (4%), gastrointestinal/liver (3.7%) and thoracic (3%) sites. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a 1% major discordance rate with resulting significant change in clinical management, spread across nearly all subspecialties. Thus, we support recommendations for review of relevant outside pathology material for all patients for which review has the potential to illicit management change such as instituting a major medical or surgical therapy.


Assuntos
Patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Am J Pathol ; 191(5): 784-794, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652018

RESUMO

Correct use of statistical methods is important to ensure the reliability and value of the published experimental pathology literature. Considering increasing interest in the quality of statistical reporting in pathology, the statistical methods used in 10 recent issues of the American Journal of Pathology were reviewed. The statistical tests performed in the articles were summarized, with attention to their implications for contemporary pathology research and practice. Among the 195 articles identified, 93% reported using one or more statistical tests. Retrospective statistical review of the articles revealed several key findings. First, tests for normality were infrequently reported, and parametric hypothesis tests were overutilized. Second, studies reporting multisample hypothesis tests (eg, analysis of variance) infrequently performed post hoc tests to explore differences between study groups. Third, correlation, regression, and survival analysis techniques were underutilized. On the basis of these findings, a primer on relevant statistical concepts and tests is presented, including issues related to optimal study design, descriptive and comparative statistics, and regression, correlation, survival, and genetic data analysis.


Assuntos
Patologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(3): 155-158, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of various textbook and testing options for nursing education presents opportunities and challenges for nurse educators and students. The use of computer adaptive testing enables students to study material, quiz themselves on that material, and increase their levels of content mastery. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of one computer adaptive testing program into a course that combined pathophysiology and pharmacology in a baccalaureate prelicensure nursing program. METHOD: A retrospective correlational design was used to explore the relationships between (a) computer adaptive quizzing, (b) quiz completion, (c) mastery of content, and (d) a standardized, computer-based pathophysiology examination. RESULTS: Positive correlations were found between (a) quizzes completed and mastery level (r = .605, p < .001), (b), quizzes completed and standardized test scores (r = .349, p = .020), (c) number of questions completed and mastery level (r = .636, p < .001), (d) questions completed and standardized test scores (r = .365, p = .015), and (e) higher mastery levels and standardized test scores (r = .400, p = .007). CONCLUSION: Computer adaptive quizzing provides students with opportunities to improve content mastery and provides more experience with computer-based testing. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(3):155-158.].


Assuntos
Computadores , Educação em Enfermagem , Avaliação Educacional , Patologia , Farmacologia Clínica , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Humanos , Patologia/educação , Farmacologia Clínica/educação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes de Enfermagem
12.
Mycopathologia ; 186(2): 155-162, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704625

RESUMO

The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on the publishing landscape. The 'pre-peer-review' publication model is likely to become common as a lag in publishing is not acceptable in a pandemic or other time! Mycopathologia is well placed to adopt such changes with its improved editorial processes, article formats, author engagements, and published articles' access and citation. Mycopathologia had an improved journal impact factor and article downloads in 2018-2019. A limited sampling suggested a slight decrease in the total submissions in 2019 (352 articles) compared to 2018 (371 articles). However, the acceptance rate improved to 30% in 2019 from 19% in 2018. Nearly half of all submissions in 2019 were rejected before peer-review or transferred to other Springer Nature journals. The published articles were contributed from 34 different countries, with authors from China, the USA, and Brazil among the top three contributors. An enhanced editorial oversight allowed peer-reviewers to focus on fewer articles that were well-matched to their expertise, which led to lower rejection rates post-peer-review. The introduction of MycopathologiaGENOME and MycopathologiaIMAGE article types received a good reception with notable downloads and citations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Micologia , Patologia , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/normas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rev. esp. patol ; 54(1): 41-54, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202489

RESUMO

En esta actualización del consenso de la Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica (SEOM) y la Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica (SEAP) se revisan los avances producidos en el análisis de biomarcadores en cáncer colorrectal (CCR) avanzado, así como en los marcadores de susceptibilidad del CCR hereditario y los biomarcadores moleculares del CCR localizado. También se evalúan la información publicada recientemente sobre la determinación imprescindible de las mutaciones de KRAS, NRAS y BRAF y la conveniencia de determinar la amplificación del receptor del factor de crecimiento epidérmico 2 (HER2), la expresión de las proteínas de la vía reparadora de ADN y el estudio de las fusiones de NTRK. Desde el punto de vista anatomopatológico, se revisa la importancia de analizar la presencia de células tumorales aisladas o en pequeños grupos de menos de 5 en el frente invasivo tumoral del CCR y su valor pronóstico en el CCR. También se revisa la incorporación de tecnologías pangenómicas, como la secuenciación de nueva generación (next-generation sequencing [NGS]) y la biopsia líquida, en el manejo clínico del paciente con CCR. Todos estos aspectos se desarrollan en la presente guía que, como la anterior, permanecerá abierta a cualquier revisión necesaria en el futuro


This update of the consensus of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica - SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica - SEAP), reviews the advances in the analysis of biomarkers in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as susceptibility markers of hereditary CRC and molecular biomarkers of localized CRC. Recently published information on the essential determination of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations and the possible benefits of determining the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the expression of proteins in the DNA repair pathway and the study of NTRK fusions are also evaluated. From a pathological point of view, the importance of analysing the tumour budding and poorly differentiated clusters and its prognostic value in CRC is reviewed, as well as the impact of molecular lymph node analysis on lymph node staging in CRC. The incorporation of pan-genomic technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and liquid biopsy in the clinical management of patients with CRC is also outlined. All these aspects are developed in this guide which, like the previous one, will be revised when necessary in the future


Assuntos
Humanos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Patologia/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/normas , Patologia Clínica/normas , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Patologia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23436, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies within digital pathology show the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to diagnose cancer using histological whole slide images, which requires large and diverse data sets. While diversification may result in more generalizable AI-based systems, it can also introduce hidden variables. If neural networks are able to distinguish/learn hidden variables, these variables can introduce batch effects that compromise the accuracy of classification systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to analyze the learnability of an exemplary selection of hidden variables (patient age, slide preparation date, slide origin, and scanner type) that are commonly found in whole slide image data sets in digital pathology and could create batch effects. METHODS: We trained four separate convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to learn four variables using a data set of digitized whole slide melanoma images from five different institutes. For robustness, each CNN training and evaluation run was repeated multiple times, and a variable was only considered learnable if the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of its mean balanced accuracy was above 50.0%. RESULTS: A mean balanced accuracy above 50.0% was achieved for all four tasks, even when considering the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval. Performance between tasks showed wide variation, ranging from 56.1% (slide preparation date) to 100% (slide origin). CONCLUSIONS: Because all of the analyzed hidden variables are learnable, they have the potential to create batch effects in dermatopathology data sets, which negatively affect AI-based classification systems. Practitioners should be aware of these and similar pitfalls when developing and evaluating such systems and address these and potentially other batch effect variables in their data sets through sufficient data set stratification.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/normas , Aprendizado Profundo/normas , Redes Neurais de Computação , Patologia/métodos , Humanos
19.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 41(1): 15-16, ene.-feb. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199568

RESUMO

1. La ERC tiene una elevada incidencia y prevalencia con un alto impacto sobre la calidad de vida y mortalidad de los pacientes, lo que supone un importante consumo de recursos sanitarios. 2. En un porcentaje relevante de pacientes no se dispone de un diagnóstico etiológico de la ERC, lo que limita sus posibilidades de tratamiento y curación. 3. Las acciones dirigidas a mejorar el diagnóstico permitirán favorecer un mejor conocimiento de las causas de la ERC y optimizar el tratamiento. 4. La biopsia renal, constituye el procedimiento necesario para el estudio histopatológico del tejido renal que permitirá establecer el diagnóstico, las posibilidades de tratamiento y el pronóstico del daño renal. 5. El trasplante renal constituye la mejor opción de TRS. La causa más frecuente de pérdida del injerto renal es el rechazo. La biopsia renal es el único método para establecer el tipo de rechazo e iniciar el tratamiento más adecuado. 6. La planificación del tratamiento de la enfermedad renal se establece con base en un diagnóstico preciso y este se basa en el diagnóstico histológico. La falta de una adecuada interpretación diagnóstica, bien por inexperiencia del patólogo, bien por falta de medios diagnósticos (microscopia electrónica), condiciona y limita las opciones de tratamiento en perjuicio del enfermo


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Nefrologia/organização & administração , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas , Patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Biópsia/normas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...